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IN undertaking his part in this work, the Editor was 
prompted chiefly by his desire to see prepared and pub- 
lished a "History of Knoxville," a city that has a history 
full of interest. It may be that inaccuracies will be seen, 
though in the preparation of the matter much painstaking, 
conscientious labor has been given ; but if there are such they 
can be corrected only by publicity. In any event it may be 
confidently claimed with this work before him the task of the 
future historian of Knoxville will be rendered much easier. It 
may be explained that the matter for most of the chapters was 
written early in 1898, since which time some changes have 
occurred that are not noted ; but none of sufficient importance 
to mar the value of the book. 

The only chapter written by the Editor is that on the Knox- 
ville Press, embracing a period of more than a hundred years. 
Much of the information concerning the history of the press 
of Knoxville for the first half century was derived from an 
address delivered by Colonel Moses White before the Ten- 
nessee Press Association. For some valuable information 
concerning the first newspaper published in Knoxville in the 
state, not heretofore printed, indebtedness is acknowledged to 
Dr. George F. Mellen, of the University of Tennessee. The 
facts concerning the Presbyterian Witness were furnished by 
Mrs. Andrew Blackburn, widow of the editor of the Witness, 
through Hon. Will A. McTeer. of Maryville, Tennessee. 

In the chapter on the Bench and Bar. much of the matter 
was prepared by Mr. Joshua W. Caldwell, as his work on the 
Bench and Bar of Tennessee was very largely drawn upon for 
a history 01 the courts, and for the personal mention of most 
of the prominent lawyers and judges of the past. This was 


especially the case with regard to the sketches of Archibald 
Roane. Thomas L. Williams. J,,],,! Williams, Hugh Lawson 
White. Robert J. McKinney. Connolly F. Trigg. Thomas C 
Lyon. James W. Deaderick. Williain-Henry Sneed, Horace 
Maynard, Thomas A. R. Nelson. Willie Blount. Alfred Cald- 
well. Richard G. Dunlap, John Baxter. Joseph Anderson 
Thomas Emmerson, L. C. Honk. Ebenezer Alexander. 
Spencer Jarnagin, George Andrews. Edward Scott. Pleasant 
M. Miller, William B. Reese, and Jacob Montgomery Thorn- 
burgh. The chapter, however, was not written by Mr Cald- 
well, but by Mr. J. Wooldridge. who was also the writer of all 
the other chapters, except that on the press, and those hereafter 
mentioned. The value of the work has been enhanced by the 
kindly assistance of a great many Knoxville citizens. 'who 
have furnished information, their number being too large to 
render giving individual names practicable. Chapters II.. III.. 
IV- V., VI.. VII. and VIII. were written by George F. Mellen. 
Ph. D.. Professor of American History. University of Ten- 
nessee. T„„ TT 

1 he Editor. 



Chapter I. 

Resources of the Surrounding Country — All Tributary to Knoxville — 
Boundary of the County — Topography— Geology and the Geological 
Character of the Surface in Relation to Agriculture and Horticul- 
ture — Great Improvement:-, in Methods of Cultivation — Coal. Iron, 
Brick Clay and Other Mineral Products — Mountain Gaps and Their 
Utility — VVater Supply — Mineral Springs — Climate — Temperature 
Throughout the Various Seasons — Railroads 9 

Chapter II. 


Domain of Cherokees — Approach of Hunters. Trappers and Explorers 
— Immigration — Gradual Withdrawal of Indians — Treaties— Fort 
Stanwix— Hard Labor — Lochaber — Purchases of Watauga Associa- 
tion — Jacob Brown and Richard Henderson — Treaties of Long 
Island; of Holston, Dumplin. Coytoy. and Hopewell — Westward 
Movement 2 9 

Chapter III. 

Conditions in the West — Germ of Knoxville — White's Fort — North 
Carolina Grants — Explorations of James White— Fixed Settlement- 
Topography — Growth — New Stations or Forts — Roads — Cession of 
Territory to United States — Blount Appointed Governor — His 
Character — Appointments — Relations of Whites and Indians — Treaty 
of Holston — Provisions and Results 37 

Chatter IV. 

Date of Founding — Confusing Statements of Historians— Articles of 
Agreement Between Proprietot and Commissioners — Original Draw- 
ers of Lots — Act Establishing Knoxville — Blount's Arrival — Named 
in Honor of General Henry Knox — Reasons 46 

Chapter V. 

Establishment of Knox County — Officials Appointed — First Lawyers — 
County Roads and Buildings — Commercial Growth — Pioneer Mer- 
chants — Hostelries — Occupations — Postal Facilities — Army Post — 

Relations of Citizens and Soldiers 54 


Chapter VI. 

Indian War Imminent — Conditions in the West — Indian Atrocities — 
Policy of Blount and the National Government — Threatened Attack 
on Knoxville — Preparation of Whites — Pioneer Character — Stephen 
Foster's Account of the Massacre at Cavet's Station — Sevier's Suc- 
cessful Raid 61 

Chapter VII. 

Hamilton District— Sufferings from Indians — Appeals for Succor — Elec- 
tions to Territorial Legislature— Preliminary Session — Spirit of 
Legislators — Active Measures for Resistance to Indian Depreda- 
tions — First Regular Session — Acts Touching Education and Tax- 
ation — Act Preparatory to Organization of the State— Constitutional 
Convention 72 

Chapter VIII. 

Population — Interest in Education — Early Teachers — Samuel Cornik — 
His School — Blount College — Presbyterian Church Organized — 
Printing Press — Literary Effort — Books — Physicians — Amusements 
— Darker Phases — Strong Elements of Character 70 

Chapter IX. 

First White Settlement — Original Capital of Tennessee — Incorporated 
in 1815 — Looking for Railroads — Gas Lights Introduced — Extension 
of Corporate Limits — First Steam Fire Engine — Market Established 
— Fire Department Created — Water Works — System of Sewers — 
Names of Mayors — Paving Streets and Building Bridges — List of 
Postmasters — Three Municipalities Consolidated 87 

Chapter X. 

Early Indian Wars — Col. John Williams' Regiment — The Mexican War — 
Volunteers for Both the Union and the Confederate Service — 
Sanders' Raid — Knoxville Receives Gen. Burnside — Is Besieged by 
Gen. Longstreet — A Sanguinary Battle — Fort Sanders — Knoxville 
Pension Agency — In the Spanish War — Warm Welcome to Return- 
ing Volunteer Soldiers 148 


Chapter XI. 

Some of the Earlier Industries — Cotton Once a Staple Crop — S. T. Atkin, 
One of the Pioneers in Manufacturing — Growth and Multiplication 
of Industries — Extensive Marble Industries — Iron Mills — Brook- 
side Cotton Mills — Knoxville Woolen Mills — Furniture — Telephone 
System 194 

Chapter XII. 


First Stores Established — Growth as a Commercial Center— Unusually 
Large Jobbing Business — Some of the Largest Establishments in 
the South — The Territory Covered — Wholesale Trade Amounting to 
More Than $50,000,000 Annually — The Coal Trade, its Growth — 
Chamber of Commerce — Great Fire 226 

Chapter XIII. l^ 

First Bank Established 181 1 — State Bank Organized — Some of the Pri- 
vate Banks — The First National Bank in 1864 — Other National 
Banks — Clearing House Association — Building and Loan Associa- 
tions in the Hands of Receivers — Insurance Companies 250 

Chapter XIV. ^ 


Charles McClung. the Pioneer Road Builder — Stage-Coach Lines — 
Progress in Turnpike Roads — The Tennessee River and Tributaries — 
First Steamboat at Knoxville — Railroad Building — The East Tennes- 
see and Georgia and the East Tennessee and Virginia Roads — The 
Great Southern System — Roads to Atlanta and Cumberland Gap — 
Bridges — Street Railways 271 

Chapter XV. 

The Gazette, Knoxville'? First Newspaper — The Register and Its Long 
Life — The Plebeian, Knoxville's First Daily — Brownlow's Whig and 
Its Remarkable Career — Recent Ventures in Knoxville Journalism — 
The Chronicle — The Press and Herald — The Tribune — The Journal 
and Tribune — The Afternoon Sentinel — The Church Newspapers. .311 

Chapter XVI. 

The Schools of a Century Ago — Rev. Samuel Doak, the Pioneer— -Inter- 
est Manifested by Governor Blount — Blount College, Now the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee — Knoxville Female Academy — -Hampden Sidney 
Academy — Organization and Success of City Schools — University 
School — Knoxville College for Colored Students — Tennessee Medical 
College 344 


Chapter XVII. 

The Pioneer Presbyterians — Rev. Samuel Doak — Knoxville's First 
Church — Early Methodists — Bishop Asbury's First Visit — First Bap 
tist Organization — Good Works of Rev. Samuel Carrick — Rev. Isaac 
Anderson — Knoxville Churches Grow and Multiply — Many Large 
and Flourishing Churches Now in the City 414 

Chatter XVIII. 



First Court in Tennessee — First Court in Knoxville, 1792 — The Courts of 
Knox County and Judges who Held Them — Courts of Chancery — 
Clerks of the Courts — Sketches of Members of the Knoxville Bar 
in the Past Hundred Years 466 

Chapter XIX. 


Knoxville's Medical Men Have Honored Their Profession — Dr. J. C. 
Strong — Fathers Followed by Sons in the Profession — Ramsey the 
Historian — Sketches of Knoxville Physicians. Past and Present — 
Some Disastrous Epidemics — Cholera in 1854 — Organization of 
Medical Societies 501 

Chapter XX. 

Provisions Made for the Treatment of Insane Persons — Lyon's View 
Hospital — School for Deaf Mutes — Lawson McGhee Library — Mar- 
garet McClung Industrial Home — St. John's Orphanage — New City 
Hospital — Home for the Friendless — Other Charitable Institutions — 
Woman's Building 535 

Chapter XXI. y 


Tennessee's First Masonic Lodge — Grand Lodge Organized — First 
Lodge at Knoxville in 1800 — Chapter and Templar Masonry — Three 
Score Years of Odd Fellowship — Various Other Society Organiza- 
tions 556 

Chapter XXII. 


The Oldest. That of the Presbyterians — Gray Cemetery — The Confed- 
erate or Bethel Cemetery — The National Cemetery — Soldiers' Monu- 
ment—Catholic Cemetery — Woodlawn Cemetery — The Hebrew 
Cemetery 582 




Resources of the Surrounding Country — All Tributary to Knoxville — 
Boundary of the County — Topography — Geology and the Geological 
Character of the Surface in Relation to Agriculture and Horticul- 
ture — Great Improvements in Methods of Cultivation — Coal. Iron, 
Brick Clay and Other Mineral Products — Mountain Gaps and Their 
Utility — Water Supply — Mineral Springs — Climate — Temperature 
Throughout the Various Seasons — Railroads. 

IN enumerating the natural advantages of a city like Knox- 
ville, it is necessary to allude with greater or less fullness 
to the resources of the surrounding country, for under the 
conditions of modern civilization these resources are very 
largely tributary to the city's requirements. And it will be 
found also necessary to extend inquiry even beyond the limits 
of Knox county, for at the present time the resources of the 
country, because of the facilities for transportation offered by 
the numerous and increasing railways, are carried from im- 
mense distances. 

Knox county was taken in 1792 from territory then 
comprised in Greene and Hawkins counties, and named in 
honor of Henry Knox, Secretary of War in the cabinet of 
President Washington. The building up of a town where 
Knoxville now stands was immediately begun. As thus estab- 
lished and named, Knox county extended far beyond its pres- 
ent boundaries, which embrace about five hundred and seventy- 
three square miles. The county is unusually irregular in shape, 
no two of its boundary lines being of equal length and only 
two of them being parallel, the latter being along Bays 
Mountain and Flint Ridge. The boundaries of the county 



were shaped in the first place by the long straight ridges 
traversing it in parallels from northeast to southwest, these 
ridges giving direction to all its natural water courses ; and 
they have to a considerable extent determined the natural 
products of the soil and the character of the inhabitants ; for 
it has always been held by philosophical writers upon historical 
and ethnological subjects that the topography, soil and climate 
of a country have a wide and far-reaching effect, if not a con- 
trolling one, upon the people themselves, and their institutions, 
second, only even if second, to that of their government itself. 
And some say that the people will be free that live in a moun- 
tainous country. 

The long, straight ridges mentioned, although so nearly 
parallel in direction and uniform in outline, differ greatly in 
their geological structure ; and as the soil in the valleys comes 
originally from the rocks and depends mainly upon the wearing 
and washings from the mountain sides, that soil naturally 
varies as greatly as does the geological structure of the moun- 
tains themselves. From an elevated point of view Knox 
county appears to be divided naturally into what is called by 
Prof. Safford, in his Geological Survey of the State, the Ridge 
or Valley region, and the Knobby region, the latter lying 
southeast of the Tennessee river and the French Broad, and 
the former embracing the remainder of the county, about four- 
fifths of its entire area. The topography of the county lying 
to the southeast of the French Broad, mentioned above, while 
somewhat of the same nature as that of the entire valley region, 
is yet broken up by short spurs of hills running nearly at right 
angles to the longer ridges, which gives the country the ap- 
pearance of large and irregular groups of hills, which rise to a 
height of from two to four hundred feet above the average 
elevation of the surrounding country. The tops of these hills 
are somewhat rounded, and are separated from each other by 
ravines, long, narrow, deep and winding, which taken alto- 
gether give the country in the vicinity of Knoxville an appear- 
ance peculiarly its own. The sides of these hills in many 


cases are too steep for successful cultivation, but the soil of 
the valleys is especially rich, and yields excellent returns even 
to fair cultivation, while in former years the hillsides as well 
as the valleys were covered with heavy forests of white oak, 
maple, hickory, poplar and other varieties of trees, and are still 
partially so covered. 

In former years, while primitive methods in agriculture, as 
in other departments of industry, prevailed from the necessities 
of the situation, the productiveness of the soil was utilized only 
to a limited extent ; but in more recent times the practices of 
farming have largely improved, and perhaps in few portions 
of the country do these modern methods prove more beneficial 
to the entire community, including the agricultural classes 
themselves, than to those in the immediate vicinity of Knox- 

A cursory glance at the geological formation of this portion 
of Tennessee shows that the prevailing outcropping rock is 
limestone. It has been described as a "red, ferruginous, sandy 
limestone," and Prof. Safford says that it is interstratified with 
calcareous shale and flaggy limestone. There are large quan- 
tities of iron imbedded in this rock, and as a natural result there 
are also large quantities of this same mineral in the soil ; but 
up to the present time no process has been discovered by which 
this mineral can be extracted either from soil or rock with 
profit. The chief value of the rock, therefore, lies in its utiliza- 
tion as building material and as flagging stones. But it is and 
has long been well known that the soil of limestone countries is 
especially adapted to the growing of wheat and other cereal 
crops, and, though in the vicinity of Knoxville the soil is in- 
clined to toughness in its structure, is of a dark red or brownish 
color, bears deep plowing and requires to be thoroughly 
worked ; yet all this is immensely to the benefit of the agri- 
culturist, and when well underdrained it yields excellent crops 
of wheat, oats and corn, and is also capable of being well set 
with grass and clover. While in earlier years the market 
crops consisted mainly in fowls, eggs, feathers, beeswax, gin- 


seng. a few pelts and now and then a young beef, at the present 
time all the great variety of a prosperous agricultural com- 
munity finds its way to the excellent markets of the city of 
Knoxville. the demands of such a city, which is much wealthier 
than in former years, having had their effect upon what the 
farmers raise. 

In a general way it may be stated that the varied resources 
of the great East Tennessee valley are all tributary to Knox- 
ville. this valley being one of the most beautiful and prosperous 
in the state, and within its limits are embraced nearly all of 
the agricultural resources of East Tennessee. It is one of 
the eight natural divisions of the state, and is bounded on the 
southeast by the Unaka chain of mountains and on the north- 
west by the Cumberland mountains or table "land. To the 
northeast it is continuous with the Valley of Virginia and to 
the southwest it extends into Georgia and Alabama. This 
Valley of Tennessee is therefore but a portion of that great 
natural highway which extends from the Susquehanna river 
in Pennsylvania to the Coosa and Black Warrior rivers in 
Alabama, which highway furnishes easy communication be- 
tween New England and the Middle States and the great 
Southwest. This highway is now traversed by several lines 
of solid railway track throughout its entire length, which con- 
nect the resources of the Southwest with the capital and 
industry of the Middle and New England States, the benefits 
of which connection are largely felt by the city of Knoxville, 
situated as it is almost midway along the railways in the Valley 
of East Tennessee and near the head of navigation of the 
Tennessee river. This valley in its southwest course enters 
Tennessee obliquely from the northeast, but soon turns with a 
graceful curve toward the south and crosses the southern 
boundary of the state in almost a southerly direction. And 
toward this southern boundary line the mountain ridges that 
inclose the valley approach each other to within a distance 
of less than thirty-five miles. The area of the valley is about 
9,200 square miles, considerably more than one-fifth of the 


entire area of the state, and it includes all of the following 
counties: Hancock. Hawkins, Grainger, Union. Jefferson, 
Knox, Roane, Meigs, and Bradley, besides most of Sullivan, 
McMinn, and portions of Blount, Bledsoe, Anderson, Carter, 
Cocke. Johnson, Greene, Washington, Monroe, Sevier, Polk, 
Claiborne, Rhea, Hamilton, Sequatchee and Marion. This 
valley, taken all in all, constitutes the most interesting portion 
of East Tennessee, and also of the Appalachian range that 
lies within the state. 

The Tennessee river, originally named the Holston, to the 
mouth of Little Tennessee, enters Knox county near its north- ■ 
eastern corner and in a remarkably tortuous and serpentine 
course flows through it a little to the west of south until it 
approaches the south corner of the county, when it turns to 
the westward and then, having made a wide curve, again 
tluws to the south and passes out of the county, at about the 
width of the county westward from its point of entrance. By 
these many windings a large part of the county is made up of 
rich valley lands, which are well watered and drained, much 
to the benefit of the owners of the lands, and the great value 
of the valley lands is only equaled by that of the many tribu- 
taries that enter it in its tortuous course. These tributaries are 
swift and clear streams, rising either within or without the 
county, and flowing through long, narrow valleys, and are 
in their turn fed on either side by numerous branches which 
largely increase their volume before they reach the main river. 
Upon many of these several creeks there were in former days, 
to a greater extent than at the present time, numerous saw- 
mills, which reduced the forests to lumber of various kinds 
and shapes, that found ready sale in the markets of the towns 
ami cities of the state, and also on the farms, as the farmers 
gradually supplanted log houses and barns with those of timl>er 
and lumber. 

Flint Ridge, sometimes called Chestnut Ridge, constitutes 
the northwest boundarv line of the county. The former is the 
older name and describes the principal characteristic of the 


crest of the ridge, this crest being composed of chert, or flint- 
like quartz or hornstone, much resembling true flint. The 
main ridge extends from Virginia into Georgia. On the 
eastern and southern side of this ridge lies Bull Run Valley, 
one of the long valleys of the state, which also extends from 
Virginia into Georgia, taking different names in different parts 
of its extent. In Knox county it takes the name of Bull Run, 
from the creek that flows through it, and which empties into 
Clinch river. This valley contains a large quantity of rich 
farming lands. It is abundantly watered and was at one time 
heavily timbered. This valley is bounded on the east by Cop- 
per Ridge, which in its turn bounds Beaver Valley on the 
west, this latter valley being one of the most fertile in the 
county. Hinds' Valley lies between Beaver and Black Oak 
ridges, the lower half of which in Knox county, is watered by 
Hickory creek, which flows into Clinch river. Grassy Valley, 
bounded by Black Oak and Webb's ridges, is of much im- 
portance from an agricultural point of view, much more so 
than Poor Valley, which comes next. But Knoxville Valley 
exceeds in importance any of the others, it being in fact the 
valley of East Tennessee. 

The rocks within this valley are of the Nashville and Tren- 
ton limestone, which yields a dark, friable and fertile soil ; and 
as all the creeks emptying into the Tennessee on its right bank 
flow through this valley, and as the Tennessee itself washes 
its entire eastern side, it is more abundantly watered than are 
all the other valleys of the county. Added to all these natural 
advantages is the artificial advantage of the East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia railroad, which runs along the bed of 
the valley, furnishing rapid transportation and communication 
to and between the various towns and cities along its course 
and to the farmers throughout the entire length of the valley. 
To all of these things may be attributed the rapid and sub- 
stantial growth of the city of Knoxville. 

In connection with what may lie stated on the subject of coal, 
it must be noted that the rock formation in the vicinity of 


Knoxville is much older than the carboniferous strata. In fact 
the Knoxville strata belong to the very oldest of the stratified 
rocks, viz. : the Potsdam or Primordial group, as classified by 
Prof. Dana. The layers of rock constituting the Knoxville 
group are immediately upon the metamorphic or azoic rock, 
and belong to the very lowest of the Lower Silurian age. 
After their formation came the Upper Silurian, the Devonian 
and the Sub-Carboniferous, before any coal was formed. The 
Lower Silurian embraces three great groups of rocks, viz. : 
the Ocoee conglomerate, the Chilhowee sandstone, and the 
Knox group, the latter group being also divided into three 
formations, viz. : the Knox sandstone, the Knox shale and 
the Knox dolomite. 

The coal measures consist of a series of sandstones, shales 
and stone coal, interstratified, and range from 200 to 2,500 feet 
in thickness. In the flat top of the Cumberland tableland the 
sandstones and shales form the cap of the two Short moun- 
tains in Cannon county ; the sandstones and shales of the out- 
liers in Overton and Fentress, and the same formations are on 
the top of Lookout mountain, Walden's Ridge and Racoon 
mountain. Coal is also found in Scott, Cumberland, Van 
Buren and Grundy counties. 

Of the Knoxville group the most valuable rocks are the 
sandstones, which are interstratified with hard shales, the 
shales and sandstones being of many different colors, such as 
brown, red. chestnut, buff, gray, etc., and many of the iron 
ore deposits of the eastern counties rest upon the several divi- 
sions of the Knox group. 

The Knox shale is a very important formation, and is often 
interstratified with thin layers of blue limestone, yielding the 
finest specimens of oolitic limestone to be found anywhere in 
the state. This shale, between Knoxville and Clinton, gives 
us Poor Valley, Hinds' Valley, Bull Run Valley, and Wolf 
Valley, and in the Knoxville shale valleys are located some 
of the finest farming lands in this portion of the state, the 
limestone contributing largelv to the strength and fertility of 


the soil, and some of the iron ore banks are located on this 

But the Knox dolomite is the most important and massive 
of the three divisions of the Knox group, the thicker layers 
being often worked into millstones, and in the upper strata 
of this division there are cuts of dull, variegated dolomite, 
which are worked as marble and used as building material. In 
color it is light gray, variegated with brownish red clouds, 
and it is rather fine grained. 

In addition to this variety of marble there are in the Knox 
group many iron ore banks, which contain two species of ore, 
viz. : limonite and hematite. Any of the strata of the Knox 
group will under certain conditions yield limonite, and limonite 
banks occur in all the mountain counties from Johnson to Polk. 
Hematite is found in the shale layers from one to two feet 
thick in Carter county, and there occur in this division also 
jasper and chalcedony. Iron pyrites is also found in the 
Knox group, usually associated with galena and blende. Car- 
bonate of lead is also found in some localities, as also is the 
black oxide of manganese. Besides the above are found heavy 
spar, fluor spar, calcite and quartz. 

The Knox dolomite and the Knox shale give some of the 
finest farming lands in East Tennessee, and are therefore of 
special interest to the agriculturist and to the inhabitants of 
cities, the aggregate area in East Tennessee of the farming 
lands based on the Knox group being far larger than that 
of the same lands based on the Nashville and Trenton groups. 

But marble being one of the most noted products of the 
state, deserves a more particular description than has thus 
far been presented. And this description will be best given in 
the language of a pamphlet published in 1869. entitled "Facts 
and Figures Concerning the Climate, Manufacturing Ad- 
vantages, and the Agricultural Resources of East Tennessee." 
printed by T. Haws & Co.. Knoxville. Following is a quota- 
tion from that pamphlet : 

"There is great interest attached to the marble of East Ten- 


nessee. In the columns and balustrades which largely con- 
tribute to adorn the state capitol at Nashville and the na- 
tional capitol at Washington may be seen specimens of the 
fine quality of our variegated marble. We have in East Ten- 
nessee the variegated fossiliferous, the grayish fossiliferous, 
magnesian, black breccia conglomerate varieties. The first 
species is found in quantity in Grainger, Jefferson, Roane, 
Knox, Monroe, Meigs. McMinn and Bradley counties. There 
are two varieties of this species. The one is an argillaceous 
limestone, little fossiliferous, of a dull, brownish red and some- 
times greenish, and receives a smooth, fine polish. The other 
is par excellence the marble of East Tennessee. It is a highly 
fossiliferous, calcareous rock, has a bright ground of brownish 
red colors which are more or less freely mottled with white 
and gray fleecy clouds and spots. This variety is found in 
large quantities in Knox, McMinn and Hawkins counties. 
Quarries are being worked in each of these counties and 
shippers find a ready sale for all they can ship to the eastern 
markets. A block of the light mottled strawberry variety was 
sent from Hawkins county to the Washington monument:. 
This block attracted the attention of the building committee of 
the extension of the national capitol, who, although they had 
specimens before them from all parts of the Union, decided 
in favor of and used the marble from East Tennessee. The 
marble used in the Tennessee capitol was taken from Knox 
county. A large quantity from the same quarry was used in 
ornamenting the Ohio state capitol. One bed of grayish white 
lies near Knoxville, which is 375 feet thick; ninety feet of 
which, near the base of the bed, is massive white marble. The 
remainder contains more or less of the reddish points which 
make it variegated, the mottling consisting of fossil, corals 
and crinoids. On the French Broad river five miles east of 
Knoxville is a bluff of a beautiful light variegated marble 
which could be worked with little expense. Black marble is 
found in some localities in the extreme eastern part of the 
state. The whole extent of country between the Cumberland 


and Smoky mountains is underlaid with the marble formation, 
and geologists have long looked upon this region with peculiar 

Zinc is also abundant in East Tennessee, there being a fine 
bed of this mineral in Knox count)*, as well as at Mossy creek, 
and there are large quantities of limestone interspersed with 
the marble beds. 

But the greatest interest must always attach to the supply of 
coal, for as the great industries of the world largely support 
the civilization of the age, so does the consumption support 
most if not all of the great industries of the world. And so far 
as Tennessee is concerned most of the coal in the state is con- 
fined to the eastern portion, and in the main is limited to the 
Cumberland mountains and their cognate ridges. And while 
in some cases this coal is properly bituminous, yet in most 
cases it is semi-bituminous. Prof. Safford says, "Our coal in 
good qualityand in beds thick enough to be profitably worked. 
is at least equal in the aggregate to a solid stratum eight feet 
thick and co-extensive with the tableland, and hence to 4.400 
square miles.' - If the entire area of the state be taken at 
42,000 square miles, which is nearly correct, then the coal 
area, if evened up to a thickness of eight feet, would occupv 
somewhat more than one-tenth of the entire area of the state. 
And as the amount of coal within the state when the first set- 
tlers arrived, about 1760, was in the neighborhood of 35.000,- 
000,000 tons, considering a cubic yard equal to a ton, and if 
at one time in the dim recesses of the past the entire state were 
underlaid or overlaid with coal, as it may have been, it is easy 
to see what a prodigious waste of valuable material nature 
has made in the denudation of such a large portion of the state, 
whereby somewhere near 320,000.000,000 tons of coal have 
been washed off into the GiTlf of Mexico and the Atlantic 

In 1865 Mr. S. \Y. Ely, an experienced geologist from 
Ohio, made a report to a certain company by which he was 
employed, in which he said : 


"In truth this inestimable mineral is so liberally deposited 
in the structure of the Cumberlands, that it would tax the im- 
agination to comprehend the quantity. I trust the time is near 
at hand when Cincinnati and Louisville and the interior towns 
of Kentucky will seek in the coal of your Scott county lands, 
an article which exceeds in purity and other excellent qualities 
any I have ever seen from the bituminous fields of the 

Since this report was made, the Knoxville and Ohio railroad 
has opened up the coal beds of Anderson county, which are 
within a distance of thirty miles of Knoxville, and from these 
Anderson county coal fields, coal has since been shipped not 
only to Knoxville, but also to many other towns and cities, 
both east and west, as to Nashville, Memphis, Atlanta, Augusta 
and Macon. 

The counties in which coal is found are the following: 
Anderson, Bledsoe. Campbell. Claiborne, Cumberland, Fen- 
tress. Franklin. Hamilton, Marion, Morgan. Overton, Putnam, 
Rhea, Roane, Scott, Sequatchie, Van Buren. Warren, White. 
Only a small portion of this vast territory has as yet been de- 
veloped, as previous to the war there were but few railroads 
anywhere near the coal, but since then many railroads run 
in all directions from Knoxville, connecting with the Cincinnati 
Southern, the Louisville and Xashville, opening up new fields 
in all directions. 

Besides the other minerals mentioned there are copper, lead, 
silver and gold, though the last two metals do not exist in very 
large quantities. Gold is found in Monroe, Blount and Cocke 
counties, in the former county a man in mining it ljeing able to 
earn about $1 per daw 

The iron of the state of Tennessee exists in three distinct 
regions, as follows: The Eastern region, the Dyestone region 
and the Western region. It is with the two former only that 
Knoxville is especially interested. In the Eastern region the 
iron ore is classified as limonite, or brown ore; hematite, or 
red ore. and magnetite, or magnetic ore. In the Dyestone 


region, which skirts the eastern base of the Cumberland Table- 
land, or Walden's ridge, the ore is fossiliferous. 

Limonite is the great ore of the Eastern region, and con- 
sists of iron, 59.92 per cent ; oxygen, 25.68 per cent, and 
water, 14.40 per cent. Hematite consists of iron, 70 per cent, 
and oxygen. 30 per cent, and magnetite iron, 72 per cent, and 
oxygen. 27.6 per cent. Dyestone is a variety of hematite, 
and, as its name implies, is used much for coloring. 

In Campbell county, according to Prof. Safford, there is a 
remarkable bed of fossiliferous ore. where, "owing - to the 
great number of minor folds or wrinkles in the rock, the ore 
layer is repeated a great numl>er of times, and crops out in 
numerous parallel bands for a distance of five or six miles ; 
many of them being from twenty inches to three feet thick. 
In some places it is six feet thick. The Knoxville and Ohio 
railroad passes through this iron region. Coal also abounds 
in vast quantities in the Elk Fork valley. There is a similar 
deposit of iron and coal at Wheeler's Gap, also on the rail- 

The following extract from an iron manufacturer's com- 
munication to an association interested in the extent of iron 
in East Tennessee, made previous to 1869, is of peculiar value 
in this connection : 

"Within eight miles of Knoxville are abundant beds of 
iron, and within twenty miles there is a body of iron said to 
be nearly equal in quantity to the Iron Mountain of Missouri, 
and of precisely the same quality. * ; ' : * Xo country of 
the world furnishes mineral wealth more convenient in local- 
ity, superior in quality, greater in variety, or easier of access 
than are our vast deposits. Almost every county possesses 
a wealth of iron sufficient to enrich a state or pay the debt 
of a nation, and the facilities for manufacturing are as great 
as the mineral is abundant. Convenient water power, an un- 
limited supply of timber and bituminous coal, cheap food and 
cheap labor, furnish all the facilities for producing iron 
cheaply and in unlimited quantity. A distinguished iron 


manufacturer from New York gave it as his opinion that iron 
could he made by charcoal at one of the mines of East Tennes- 
see and hauled ten miles to the railroad at one-half the cost 
of producing a similar article in the North. If that can be 
done with charcoal ten miles from a railroad, what shall be 
said of mines equally rich and exhaustless lying where the 
railroad track cuts the ore-bed and where coal banks are as 
abundant as the iron? 

"Along the line of the Knoxville and Ohio railroad, not 
fifty miles from Knoxville, are numerous properties now 
offered for sale at moderate prices where iron and coal lie 
side by side in limitless quantities and surrounded by beau- 
tiful forests of choice timber, with lime and sandstone, fire 
clay and water power close at hand, all waiting, as they have 
waited for ages, for the magic touch of industry, to' convert 
them to use. In some localities these iron beds are pierced 
for the first time by the cuts on our railroads; and yet, such 
is the blindness of our present policy that we bring from be- 
yi Hid the Atlantic the iron rails to construct a railroad upon 
our own iron beds! More than two million of dollars have 
been sent out of East Tennessee since the war. for iron and 
iron wares that should have been produced at home. With 
such a fact before us there can be no question of a home mar- 
ket for all we can produce. The foundrymen of Knoxville 
have, until the present time, been compelled to purchase iron 
brought from Scotland to produce a single mixture for soft, 
light and thin castings. There are numerous places in East 
Tennessee where similar iron could be produced profitably at 
less than the cost of this freight alone, saying nothing of the 
price of the iron. 

"The iron of Carter county has borne a reputation for 
nearly seventy years unsurpassed by any in the United States 
for toughness and adaptability to any use. The castings of 
this iron will bend before breaking, and car wheels made of 
it have worn more than twelve years on our railroads. And 
yet there is not a blast furnace in operation in that county at 


this time, and we import from abroad at vast expense the iron 
that might be obtained from these mines at one-third the 
price we are now paying. The Tellico Iron Works of Monroe 
county, more celebrated than those of Carter, with iron equal 
in quality and much greater in quantity, have been idle for 
years, producing nothing." 

At the time the above was written there were two furnaces 
in Greene county carried on by northern companies, and one 
then recently established by Gen. J. T. Wilder in Roane coun- 
ty, that were in quite active operation, producing three times 
the iron that was being produced by all the old furnaces in 
East Tennessee. 

When all things are taken into consideration, it may be 
stated with a good deal of positiveness. that Knoxville is as 
well situated for manufacturing as any city in the Southern 
states, except possibly Birmingham. Ala. And in some re- 
spects it is better situated than this fine Alabama city. The 
climate, as shown in this chapter, is most emphatically a tem- 
perate one, and it is naturally perfectly healthful. If disease 
at any time prevail it is because of unsanitarv conditions which 
come about through oversight, or neglect, and which can al- 
ways in a short time be completely removed. 

Provisions are abundant and average in price about the 
same as in other cities in the country. East Tennessee, as has 
been shown, is a grass growing, grain growing and cattle 
raising country. Iron and coal are abundant and within easy 
reach, by means of the great systems of railroads centering in 
Knoxville, an outlet being supplied in every direction. Bv 
means of both railroads and the numerous streams which flow 
from all parts of the mountainous country timber is easily 
brought to Knoxville. and there is an almost inexhaustible 
supply of all kinds, such as white and yellow pine, red. white 
and black oak, black walnut, hickory, chestnut, yellow poplar, 
red and white cedar, ash. locust, cherry and hemlock. 

Brick clay is also abundant throughout East Tennessee. 

One of the most important questions asked bv an emigrant 


to a new country is as to its climate. Is it hot or cold, wet or dry, 
and is it or is it not subject to extremes of heat or cold, dry- 
ness or moisture? The entire history of migratory movements 
shows that in the main they are made along parallels, either 
of latitude or of temperature, and not along meridians. Most 
if not all of the writers on the climate of East Tennessee agree 
in placing it midway between the two extremes of northern 
cold and southern heat, and thus well adapted to health and 
industry. Of East Tennessee Knoxville is almost in the geo- 
graphical center and is nearly 1.000 feet above the sea, and 
thus while considerably further south than Ohio its climate 
does not vary much from that of the latter state. Altitude 
is one of the elements that determine the climate of a country, 
the rate of decrease in temperature being one degree for every 
300 or 350 feet of elevation, or, according to Prof. Henry, 
one degree for every t,3>3> feet. As Knoxville is nearly one 
thousand feet above the sea its average temperature is three 
degrees below what it would be if on a level with the ocean. 
The average annual temperature of Knoxville is about 57 de- 
grees, while that of Middle Tennessee is about 58 degrees 
and that of West Tennessee about 60 degrees. Then, too, 
the force of the winter winds from the west and northwest 
is greatly broken by the Cumberland mountains, and the win- 
ters are thus rendered comparatively mild and pleasant. 
Swamps and stagnant pools are almost unknown in this por- 
tion of the state, and hence the region of Knoxville is entirely 
exempt from fever and ague. The mountain air is pure and 
wholesome, the elevation of the country preserves it always 
from the encroachments of yellow fever, and the emigrant 
to this region no matter whence he comes, whether from the 
Eastern, Western or Southern states, or from Norway, Italy 
or France, finds himself upon his arrival already acclimated 
to the eastern part of Tennessee. 

According to the records preserved by Prof. Safford in his 
Geological Survey of the state the average temperature of 
Knoxville for 1852 was 55.67 degrees; for 1854 it was 57.67 


degrees, and for 1856 it was 57.75 degrees. The mean heat 
of summer along the parallel traversing the middle of the state 
ranges from 74 degrees in East Tennessee to 77.5 degrees in 
West Tennessee. The winter and summer temperatures of 
Knoxville for the years 1852, 1854 and 1855 together with 
the average winter and summer temperatures for those years, 
were as follows : 

1852, winter. 39.28 degrees; summer. 70.87 degrees. 

1854. " 37-76 " " 75.85 " 

1855. " 38.40 " " 74.09 
Average " 38.48 " " 73.60 

From the Meteorological Record kept by the East Tennessee 
University for January, 1868, the following statistics are 
derived : 

Mean temperature for the month, 35.05 degrees; coldest 
day. the 30th ; average for the 24 hours, 20.16 degrees: warm- 
est day, the 7th. average for the 24 hours, 52.86 degrees ; the 
extreme temperatures for the year 1868 were 14 degrees and 
92 degrees, and the mean temperature for the year was 60 

During January, 1869, there were fifteen days on which 
plowing could have been carried on, and every day of the 
month was fit for outdoor work. There were but few days 
during the entire year which by reason of either heat or cold, 
were unfit for ordinary outdoor work upon the farm or else- 
where. East Tennessee occupies a happy mean in climate 
between the two extremes of heat and cold and in all the ele- 
ments that constitute a pleasant and healthful climate there is 
scarcely a place between the two great oceans on the east and 
on the west, or between British America and the Gulf of 
Mexico, that will bear comparison with this region. 

During the eight years immediately preceding 1881 the 
mercury descended below zero only three times, viz. : in Jan- 
uary, 1877. in January, 1879. and in December, 1880. In 
the same eight years the mercury reached 100 degrees but once. 


During three years of the eight it did not go above 95 degrees, 
the average temperature for the eight years being 57.8 degrees. 
The mean summer temperature was 73 degrees, and the mean 
winter temperature, 40 degrees. The average maximum tem- 
perature was about 91 degrees and the average minimum 
temperature about 2 degrees. 

The following table shows the annual mean temperature, 
the highest and lowest temperatures, the annual mean relative 
humidity and the total annual rainfall for Knoxville for eleven 

years, 1871 to 1881. inclusive: 

Annual Total 

Annual Mean Highest Lowest Mean Rel. Annual 

Year. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Humidity. Rainfall. 

1871 58.0 95.5 6.0 71. 1 4822 

1872 55.0 94.0 1.0 69.8 44.66 

1873 56.5 92.0 6.0 70.5 59-25 

1874 57-7 97-0 11.0 70.4 58.38 

1875 55-5 94-o 2.0 717 73.87 

1876 55.7 96.0 6.0 70.0 41.19 

1877 57.0 95.0 14.0 68.0 54.35 

187S 57.6 97.0 6.0 68.2 47.76 

1879 58.8 100.0 3.5 65.5 4895 

1880 58.5 96.0 5.0 70.1 52.54 

1881 58.6 100.0 9.0 70.4 46.67 

The following table shows the average temperature for each 
month during the years 1881 to 1898, inclusive: 

Years. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

I8SI . . 

. 36 













• 43 













■ 39 













• 30 













• 35 













• 38 













• 37 













. 40 













• 41 












1890. . 

• 49 













• 40 













• 35 












1893- ■ 

• 30 













• 44 













• 36 













■ 40 













■ 36 













• 43 












The following table shows the highest, lowest and mean 


elevation of the barometer at Knoxville for the years 1881 to 
1898, inclusive: 

Years. Highest. Lowest. Mean. 

1881 29.56 28.45 2 90" 

1882 29.60 28.49 29.08 

1883 29.64 28.51 29.08 

1884 29.60 2S.47 29.05 

1885 29.57 28.36 29.04 

1886 29.64 28.33 29.05 

1887 29.57 jX.411 29.07 

1888 29.53 28.54 29.07 

1889 29.58 28.40 29.07 

1890 29.56 28.52 29.09 

1891 29.65 28.44 29.08 

1892 29.52 28.39 29.68 

1893 29.71 28.37 29.04 

1894 29.53 28.44 29.07 

1895 29.79 28.53 29.06 

1896 29.66 28. 16 29.08 

1897 29.56 28.53 29.04 

1898 29.62 28.42 29.04 

The following- shows the rainfall for the years 1881 to 1898 
inclusive: 1881. 45.67 inches: 1882, 66.36: 1883. 52.67; 
1884, 62.53: 1885, 54.70: 1886. 61.45: 1887, 42.98: 1888, 
53.03; 1889, 47.73; 1890, 49.59; 1891. 46.61; 1892. 44.62; 
1S93. 43.42; 1894,37.44; 1895,38.75; 1896.44.95; 1897, 
52.95 ; 1898, 42.79. 

The presentation of averages, however, does not always 
give a clear idea of what a climate really is ; hence a few 
statistics regarding the extreme low temperature at Knox- 
ville since the establishment of the weather bureau may prove 
of interest, if not of value. The lowest temperature during 
that period was on January 10, 1884, when the mercury regis- 
tered 16 degrees below zero. Perhaps the most remarkable 
period of cold weather ever experienced at Knoxville since 
the establishment of the weather bureau was during the week 
beginning on Sunday, February 12, 1899. On that day the 
mercury went down to 6 degrees above zero; on Monday it 
went to 9 degrees below zero, and on Tuesday morning, Feb- 
ruary 14, it fell to 10 degrees below zero, and at that particu- 
lar time Knoxville was the coldest place reported in the United 


Four great gaps in the mountains furnish available outlets 
for railroads, and determine the direction of commerce and 
travel toward distant parts of the country. The gaps in the 
French Broad in the Alleghanies on the east, of the Emory 
river in the Cumberland range on the west, determine the 
direction of an east and west line from the coast of the At- 
lantic to the Cincinnati Southern railroad, and the Emory Gap, 
the Careyville Gap in the Cumberland range on the north, 
and the gap of the Little Tennessee in the Alleghanies surely 
determine a north and south line, connecting with the Georgia 
system of railroads and with the southeastern seaboard towns. 

Knoxville lies where all these lines must meet and inter- 
sect each other. It is also> on the Tennessee river, which is 
for several months in the year navigable for steamboats of 
considerable size. Knoxville is also on the East Tennessee. 
Virginia and Georgia railroad, which connects the grear 
northeast with the great southwest, and could not be better 
situated for communication with all parts of the country. 
There must have been much of the fortuitous in the selection 
of this site for a city, for it was impossible for any one re- 
sponsible for the selection of the location to have foreseen the 
vast uses to which these gaps in the mountains could be and 
would be put ; there being then no such thought as that rail- 
roads would at some day find their way through them. 

In this connection it may be well to note the distances from 
Knoxville to some of the principal cities of the north and 
south: To Louisville and to Cincinnati. 266 miles; to Cin- 
cinnati via Emory Gap, 300 miles ; to Norfolk, 539 miles ; to 
Port Royal, 378 miles; to Norfolk via Asheville. 578 miles; 
to Wilmington, N. C. 487 miles; to Charleston via Augusta. 
Ga., 404 miles, and to Port Royal via Augusta, 378 miles. 
The latitude of Knoxville is 35 degrees 56 minutes and its 
longitude is 85 degrees 58 minutes. 

The water supply of this region is ample and pure. From 
every vale and mountain side there are many clear springs, 
numbering thousands in the aggregate, which pour forth their 


cooling streams, and there are in some places mountain torrents 
foaming over rocky beds and leaping over precipices; beauti- 
ful brooks winding slowly through fertile fields, and larger 
streams filled not only with clear water, but also> with fish of 
various kinds, among them the trout. All along many of 
the streams is excellent water power which can never fail, and 
which in time must be utilized to drive machinery of various 
kinds, and to develop electricity in a much cheaper way than 
by steam, especially when the price of coal shall have advanced 
by the introduction of more and larger manufacturing estab- 
lishments and a denser population, thus increasing the demand 
for fuel all over the south. There are also many mineral 
springs, some of which are known throughout the country, 
and in the vicinity of which have been built up what are now 
famous summer resorts, where even in the summer months 
the mercury does not rise much above seventy degrees, and 
where the nights are, in the hottest weather, delightfully cool. 
At some of these places fires in the grates are welcome through- 
out the entire year. 



Domain of Cherokees — Approach of Hunters, Trappers and Explorers 
— Immigration — Gradual Withdrawal of Indians — Treaties— Fort 
Stanwix — Hard Labor — Lochaber — Purchases of Watauga Associa- 
tion — Jacob Brown and Richard Henderson — Treaties of Long 
Island; of Holston, Dumplin, Coytoy, and Hopewell — Westward 

KNOXVILLE at present is the commercial center of an 
extensive territory, limited practically by the same 
boundaries which correspond to those of the Cherokee 
nation of Indians about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Her commercial travelers visit southwestern Virginia, western 
North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, northern 
Georgia, northeastern Alabama, and eastern Tennessee. The 
domain included the head-waters of the streams in the divi- 
sions of the states named, comprehending the mountains of 
the lower Appalachian system. Not all of this immense tract 
was occupied by them, nor was it unclaimed by other nations. 
While not formidable claimants, the Six Nations, Shawnees, 
and Delawares asserted their rights to a portion of it.* 

Prior to the explorations of the first hunters and trappers 
and to the establishment of the first forts in eastern Tennessee, 
movements and negotiations had been begun which were to 
continue until, ultimately, this nation of intrepid warriors 
was removed west of the Mississippi river. The conflicts be- 
tween neighboring tribes, the ravages of disease, particularly 
the smallpox, and other causes led to such diminution of the 
population of the Cherokees that at the time of the ingress 
of the explorer they were ill prepared to resist the onflowing 
tide of immigration, soon to set in by reason of his description 

*Charles C. Royce: The Cherokee Nation of Indians, 141, in report 
of Bureau of Ethnology, i88;}-'84. 



of the beneficence and prodigality of nature in the region 
beyond the Alleghanies. Whether actuated purely by love of 
sport and adventure, as Dr. Thomas Walker, YVallen, and 
their hunting parties, or by a combined quest for land and 
game, as Daniel Boone and Henry Scaggins, or by motives of 
discovery THid permanent habitation, as James Smith and 
James Robertson, or by the spirit of trade and commerce, as 
James Adair and John Findley, each returning individual and 
company or party gave such glowing accounts of the luxuri- 
ance of forests, fertility of the soil, abundance of game, 
freshness and purity of the waters, richness of pasturage, and 
exemption from external interference as to stimulate an imme- 
diate movement into the trans-Alleghany country for fixed 

The starting point in the settlement of Tennessee is the 
cabin of William Bean, built in 1769 near the junction of 
Watauga river and Boone's creek in upper East Tennessee. 
From this point it is interesting to note the tide of immigra- 
tion as it surged forward from Virginia and the Carolinas over 
the mountains into the valleys beyond. Like the impetuosity 
of the mountain torrent it continued its onward course, brook- 
ing no opposition and overcoming every obstacle. The checks 
it received were momentary, only serving, as it were, to gather 
renewed force for the occupancy of wider bounds. It is the 
beginning of a thrilling and marvelous history. Therein are 
crowded within the space of a quarter of a century deeds of 
heroism and daring, experiences of hardship and suffering, 
records of success and triumph that enkindle ancestral pride 
and foster patriotic devotion. What booted it that the Indian 
claimed it as his hunting ground, employed his lazy existence 
in darting over the hills in pursuit of game and skimming in 
his light canoe over the sparkling streams, or indulged his 
savage nature in banishing or exterminating those of his own 
blood? The pioneer regarded it a struggle of intelligence 
and civilization with ignorance and barbarism. He was will- 
ing, personally or through his governmental agents, to give 


the Indian in presents, money or other equivalent the value set 
by him upon his claims, though he himself had little or no 
respect for such claims. Perhaps his opinion touching these 
claims was best expressed in the policy of the mother-state, 
Ni nth Carolina, who "considered in all her provincial and 
state acts that the pretended title of the Indians was mere 
moonshine. It never was anything more."* 

In the uneven contest it was not difficult to forecast the 
trend and outcome of events. Like the melancholy theme 
running through the chorus of Greek tragedy or the sad 
fate that pursued the fortunes of the house of Atreus, the 
dark , ominous clouds of extermination and expatriation 
lay across the pathway of the Cherokee. In treaty-making 
councils, in battles in the open or under cover, or in 
hand-to-hand conflicts, he was no match for his pale-face 
brother. The prophetic lament of Oconostota at the treaty 
of the Sycamore Shoals, the sullen protest of Old Tassel 
at Coytoy, the splendid generalship of Dragging Canoe 
at Island Flats, the strategy and cunning of Old Abra- 
ham at the Watauga fort, and the perfidious daring of John 
Watts in the threatened attack on Knoxville — all these 
availed nothing. The hand-to-hand fight of John Sevier and 
the "brave" at Boyd's creek, of Moore and the chief at Island 
Flats, and of Hubbard and Cntoola near Citico tell the same 

Trained in the school of self-help, along with self-defence, 
the step to self-government was an easy one for the pioneer 
ti ' take. The Watauga Association and the state of Franklin 
were but movements created by imminent perils and unlooked- 
for emergencies. With the influx of large bodies of settlers, 
many of them representing disorderly elements of society, 
and with almost impenetrable forests, impassable mountains, 
and great distances separating them from the home govern- 
ment, and that government lukewarm in its interest and 

"Opinion of Judge John Haywood in Cornet vs. Winton's Lessee; 2 
Yerger's Tennessee Reports, 156. 


indifferent to appeals for protection, it was natural that in 
the then western wilds the settler should seek to throw around 
himself every safeguard. That he was not a separatist in spirit 
is shown by his gallant stand and signal success at the battle 
of King's mountain during the Revolutionary war, and 
later by his loyalty to Washington and the Federal govern- 
ment, when his appeals for permission to assume the offensive 
against the Indian invader and marauder were constantly re- 

In the chain of events leading up to the dispossession of 
the Cherokees from the territory embracing Knoxville treaty 
negotiations form important links. These treaties have a 
chronological sequence in importance and character, and might 
be divided into three classes according to> the objects had in 
view by the framers, or their agents. The first had to do 
with alliances, the second with alliances and the acquisitions 
of territory, and the third with the acquisitions of territory. 
Every treaty had in view the cultivation and maintenance of 
peaceful relations. The treaty relations of the Cherokees with 
the English colonial governments began as early as 1721, 
when the province of South Carolina, to protect her frontiers 
against French territorial encroachments, entered into a treaty 
of peace and commerce. Nine years later North Carolina pur- 
sued the same course. For years these treaties were observed, 
and harmonious relations existed. However, upon the out- 
break of the French and Indian war, the Carolina governors 
sought to strengthen the alliance, to secure safety to the fron- 
tier. Fort Loudon, the first habitation of the Englishman in 
Tennessee, was built accordingly, in 1756. Thus far except 
the relinquishment of claims to lands to which the Catawbas 
had a better title, no portion of their lands had been given up 
by the Cherokees. 

The acquisition of territory from the Cherokees began with 
the almost contemporaneous treaties of Fort Stanwix and 
Hard Labor in 1768. By these treaties a small strip of terri- 
tory within the present limits of Tennessee was acquired, be- 


ginning thirty-six miles east of Long Island on the Holston 
river. Even while these treaties were in course of negotiation, 
white settlers were invading territory beyond the bounds to 
be agreed upon in treating. This brought about an immediate 
subsequent treaty and the adjustment of a new boundary.* 
These encroachments occasioned the treaty of Lochaber two 
years following in South Carolina, which brought the confines 
thirty miles down the Holston, to a point six miles east of 
Long Island. The next cessions of territory are in the nature 
of leases, out of deference to the inhibitions of George III., 
in 1763, and are made to the Watauga Association and to 
Jacob Brown for stipulated amounts of goods. Three years 
afterwards, in 1775, for additional remuneration these become 
in fee simple the property of the lessees. These acquisitions 
include all the waters of the Watauga river; part of those of 
the Holston to a point near the mouth of Cloud's creek, and 
those of the Nollichucky to the mouth of Big Limestone creek. 
The same year Brown adds to his purchase the lands on both 
sides of the Nollichucky below the Big Limestone's mouth 
to the mouth of Camp creek, a distance of ten miles down the 
river. Richard Henderson's purchase by treaty in 1775, by 
the deed known as the "Path Deed," acquired the lands north 
of the Holston beginning near the mouth of Cloud's creek 
and extending up that stream to the Virginia line. These 
purchases taking place in March, 1775, it will thus be seen 
that at the outbreak of the Revolutionary war. all that now 
embraces Sullivan, Johnson and Carter counties, much of 
Washington, and some of Greene, Hawkins and Unicoi coun- 
ties had been wrested from the Cherokees. 

The next treaty, in 1777, known as that of the Long Island 
of the Holston. was more in the nature of a peace treaty and 
brought little additional territory. By its terms some parts of 
Brown's line were adopted and on the Holston. lands as far 

*Ramsey, Annals of Tennessee, 77. 


down as the mouth of Cloud's creek were ceded.* This and 
its companion treaty of Dewitt's Corners in South Carolina 
gave great offence to the Chickamauga contingent of the Cher- 
okees, and led to their removal to the region where they 
founded near and below Chattanooga of to-day the five Lower 
Towns, which for seventeen years were a constant menace and 
annoyance to the settlements. The thorough chastisement ad- 
ministered to the Cherokees by the Christian, Rutherford and 
Williamson expeditions from Virginia, North Carolina, and 
South Carolina respectively, produced a temporary respite 
from Indian assaults, but an arbitrary act of the North Caro- 
lina legislature in 1783 brought a renewal of bitterness and 
jealousy. Without the concurrence of the Indians or con- 
sultation with them, North Carolina had by this act extended 
her western boundaries to the Mississippi river, while reserv- 
ing to the Indians that portion of the state in which were 
their towns, cultivated fields, and the territory adjacent. It 
will be seen later how this act was a factor in the settlement 
of Knoxville. 

In 1785 the independent state of Franklin, arrogating to 
herself all the rights and dignity of a duly constituted com- 
monwealth, invited the Cherokees to a treaty. to' be held at the 
mouth of Dumplin creek on the north side of the French 
Broad river. In return for large cessions of territory south 
of the Holston and French Broad rivers extending to the ridge 
dividing the waters of Little and Little Tennessee rivers, the 
Franklinites made promises of "compensation in general 
terms."l The same year at Coytoy another treaty between 
the same parties took place which conveyed to Franklin all 
the lands sold by North Carolina and entered on the west side 
of the Holston river. Though protesting that they knew noth- 
ing of such sales Old Tassel and Hanging Maw yielded, after 
"a straight talk" on the part of the Franklin commissioners 

♦Ramsey, 173. 
tRamsey, 299. 



threatening extirpation.* These two treaties involved the 
cession of most of Knox county. Those settling, therefore, 
on lands then ceded did so in good faith, not only having land 
warrants purchased from North Carolina by authority of her 
legislature, but also the sanction of the state of Franklin. 
However, the treaty of Hopewell, the first entered into between 
the United States and the Indians and negotiated the latter 
part of November, 1785, gave an abrupt check to the lawful 
possession of the territory by its restoration to the Indians, 
though it came too late to stem the tide of immigration that 
had gone in and possessed the land. The settlers "had done ex- 
panded," as many as three thousand of them being in the fork 
of the Holston and French Broad rivers. This treaty ignored 
the act of the North Carolina legislature and the treaties of 
the state of Franklin, but reaffirmed Henderson's purchase, 
inasmuch as he was dead, and the commissioners had in their 
possession the deeds showing the lands of the purchase. It 
left the dividing line practically where it was fixed in 1777 
by the Long Island treaty. The commissioners reserved to 
the Holston and French Broad settlers, who were too numer- 
ous to remove, right of occupancy and freedom from molesta- 
tion until that tract in dispute should be adjudicated by 
Congress. This treaty was not signed without the solemn pro- 
test of North Carolina through its agent, William Blount, who 
was present with delegated powers. This, the first appear- 
ance of this gentleman in active espousal of the cause of the 
frontiersman, was an earnest of the distinguished part he 
was to take in upholding and guarding their interests, as 
will be seen, at a later date. Such an act, he maintained, was 
an infringement upon the legislative rights of the state, which 
had granted these as bounty-lands to the officers and soldiers 
in the Continental line of that state in payment of services ren- 
dered in the Revolutionary war. 

A knowledge of the occurrences and conditions antecedent 

*Ramscy, 344-346. 


to the settlement of Knoxville is necessary to explain many 
subsequent events in her history, yet these were but repeti- 
tions of the struggle that had been going on from the first 
occupancy of American soil. They exhibit the ceaseless west- 
ward movement of the pioneer, the reluctant yielding of his 
land on the part of the Indian, and the bitter animosity pro- 
duced by the clashing of two ideas or forces contending for 
supremacy, one little removed above brute instinct, the other 
dictated by intelligent foresight. 



Conditions in the West — Germ of Knoxville — White's Fort — North 
Carolina Grants — Explorations of James White — Fixed Settlement — 
Topography — Growth — New Stations or Forts — Roads — Cession of 
Territory to United States — Blount Appointed Governor — His 
Character — Appointments — Relations of Whites and Indians — Treaty 
of Holston — Provisions and Results. 

IN 1786 the first habitation was erected on the present site 
of Knoxville. At the time affairs in the West were in a 
state of deep ferment and grave uncertainty. Indeed, 
such was the condition all over the country. Congress was 
impotent, the states keeping their best statesmanship at home 
and sending to the national legislature their less experienced 
and distinguished sons. The Hopewell treaty was proving 
a futile compact, the whites continuing to settle upon lands 
declared thereby to be in Indian territory. The North Caro- 
lina party within the bounds of the state of Franklin was now 
making itself felt in rending the refractory state, and restoring 
her to the bosom of her mother. The wily Wilkinson was 
employing his cunning arts and seductive speech to dismem- 
ber Virginia by the separation of Kentucky, and to identify 
the latter's fortunes with Spanish interests. It remained to be 
seen whether the machinations of Spain to sever the West from 
her Eastern connections were to prove abortive when pros- 
pects of extermination and of closing the Mississippi river 
to traffic were held out to the settlers and when such robust 
spirits as James Robertson were yielding to the blandishments 
of the neighbor on the southwest. 

The germ of Knoxville lay in White's Fort, which was 
founded by Col. James White upon the extreme border land of 
the Indian country. He had entered the region thereabout as 
payment for his services in the Revolutionary war. To reward 



the valor and heroism of her officers and soldiers in that war. 
North Carolina gave of her immense domain westward large 
grants of land for their sen-ices, reserving only as hunting 
grounds for the Cherokee Indians the region included within 
the Tennessee, French Broad, and Big Pigeon rivers, east to 
the North Carolina line and south to that of Georgia.* Im- 
mediately after the passage of this act by the North Carolina 
legislature, in 1783, James White, in company with Robert 
Love, F. A. Ramsey, who was a practical surveyor, and others, 
began an exploration to select the most advantageous regions 
open for the location of land warrants. This party, begin- 
ning its work on the French Broad river not far from where 
Newport now stands, followed its valleys southwestward to 
the mouth of Dumplin creek, where they crossed over into the 
lands lying between the French Broad and Holston rivers. 
Crossing the Holston several miles above the present site of 
Knoxville and entering Grassy valley, they examined the 
lands adjacent to the Holston as far as its confluence with the 
then Tennessee river, opposite the present Lenoir City, thus 
passing through the territory which was to include the future 
Knnxville.t It is maintained that this exploration was con- 
tinued as far down the river as Southwest Point, now Kings- 

With the passage of the act of the North Carolina legis- 
lature in May, 1783, for the sale and disposition of western 
lands and with the entry of much of these by Maw 1784. in 
the land office at Hillsboro, the strong tide of emigration from 
North Carolina poured into what is now Tennessee, thus coun- 
terbalancing that influx of population which had hitherto 
flowed from Virginia. Returning to his North Carolina home 
Col. White made preparation to move. In 1784 he went to 
Fort Chiswell, Virginia, where he made a crop. By 1785 he 
had settled in the new territorv and was sitting in the councils 

*Haywood. History of Tennessee, 121. Reprint. 

tRamsey, Annals of Tennessee. 278. 

JSketch of Knoxville, in Art Work of Knoxville. 2. 


of the state of Franklin.* His temporary abode was four 
miles above the junction of the Holston and French Broad 
rivers, where lie remained only one year. In 1786, joined 
by an old neighbor and fellow-soldier, James Connor, like- 
wise of Rowan, now Iredell, county. North Carolina, he moved 
thence, following the water courses downward, and estab- 
lished himself on the north bank of the Holston below the con- 
fluence of the two rivers. Here, several hundred yards from 
the river, he built his cabin and fort. Beauty of situation, 
availability of water power, proximity to numerous springs, 
and other natural advantages rendered the spot peculiarly- 
attractive. The first clearing, according to tradition, was on 
ground that now includes the site of the First Presbyterian 
church, though the monarch trees near by would seem to 
question the correctness thereof. The cabin, one and a half 
or two stories high, was erected north of the clearing, between 
the present Union and Commerce streets. Having regard to 
the purposes of defence, it stood at one corner on a quarter of 
an acre of ground quadrangular in shape. Three other cabins 
not so pretentious occupied the other angles, and were con- 
nected therewith by heavy stockades eight feet high, provided 
with port-holes well arranged for defence. t More recent 
writers upon local history disconnect the fort or blockhouse and 
the cabin, placing the former on or between the sites of the 
Palace Hotel and the Hampden Sydney School and the latter 
on the present site of Mrs. Jane Kennedy's residence, just back 
of the Imperial Hotel. The L of this residence is thought to 
be the original cabin, weatherboarded in later years.J 

A study of the topography of this site will serve to show 
how admirable for defence was the location and how wise the 
judgment that dictated the selection. Half a mile apart, on 
the east and west respectively. First and Second creeks so 
flowed as to make an almost perfect parallelogram, while the 

*Ramsey, Annals of Tennessee, 295. 
tRamsey, Annals of Tennessee. 374. 

t]. W. Caldwell, History of Knoxville, in East Tennessee, Historical 
and Biographical, 455. Sketch of Knoxville, in Art Work of Knoxville. 2. 


ground sloped towards each stream in regular descent ; on 
the north were abrupt hills and on the south was the river 
reached through the narrow gorges of the creeks or over 
abrupt precipices. On two sides, then, the approaches were 
exceedingly difficult, while the elevations on the other two gave 
a commanding sweep of vision and a decided advantage of posi- 
tion. Apart from its strategic importance and its natural 
resources, its location almost midway between the then ex- 
treme outposts of the population included within the present 
Tennessee was fortunate for its future. It was, so to speak, 
an unconscious prophecy of the place it was to occupy in sub- 
sequent years when, in 1789, upon the election of John Sevier 
to Congress, the certificates of the returning officers were 
brought to the house of James White for comparison by the 
Clerk of the Superior Court of Washington District, who for 
the convenience of the counties in Miro District attended at 
that place.* 

In tracing the historic incidents leading up to the founda- 
tion of Knoxville the embryo is found in the unpretentious 
cabin and strong personality of Jtafnes White. A settlement 
beginning with the simplest means of livelihood and the crud- 
est conditions of life, where bread depended upon the pound- 
ing of corn and the supply of meat upon unerring marksman- 
ship, where the ranger and the scout lietook themselves in 
safety to recount adventurous scenes and hairbreadth escapes, 
where the immigrant paused to consider the inducements for 
permanent habitation or to rest his travel-weary cavalcade, it 
has grown to assume the position and dignity of a cultured, 
prosperous, and populous city. If James White had not been 
the father of his distinguished son, Hugh Lawson White, if 
he had not been throughout his career a useful pioneer, a 
brave soldier, a patriotic citizen, and a faithful public official. 
thereby winning an enduring fame, he would deserve it as 
the founder of a city which has enriched the state and the 
nation, not only by its contributions of material wealth and 

*Ramsey, Annals of Tennessee, 433. 


prosperity, but also by its illustrious array of business men, 
ministers, journalists, scholars, jurists and statesmen. 

The years intervening between the establishment of White's 
Fort and the formation of the "Territory of the United States 
South of the River Ohio," 1786 to 1790, were full of keen 
interest to the settlers. Despite Indian depreciations and mur- 
ders, the conflicts of state and national authorities, internal 
dissensions and factional differences, the settlement of James 
White continued to grow until by the time Governor William 
Blount had fixed upon it as the seat of territorial government 
it had become a somewhat densely populated community. The 
year 1786 was particularly favorable for growth, bringing 
comparative freedom from Indian incursions and outrages in 
view of the concessions made by the Hopewell treaty. The 
immigrant profited by it and swelled the increasing tide of 
population or pushed on beyond. In view of its urgent neces- 
sity Col. White erected on the creek just east of the fort a 
small tub mill, the infant industry of Knoxville. The same 
year that saw the building of White's Fort, John Adair's sta- 
tion was established five miles northeast, as a supply store for 
the Cumberland guards who were entrusted with the safe 
conveyance of settlers through the wilderness to the Cumber- 
land settlements. Stations were founded further westward in 
rapid succession, so that by 1787 the cutting and opening of 
a wagon road by way of Campbell's station and the lower 
end of Clinch mountain to the Cumberland country, became 
a matter of legislation on the part of the North Carolina legis- 
lature. The next year James Robertson announced through 
the columns of the North Carolina State Gazette the new 
road open for service.* This road seems, however, for several 
years to have been suited only for pack trains. y The stir 
and bustle of life around White's Fort was further accentuated 
by the presence of soldiery, the growing hostility and wanton 

♦Ramsey. 503. 505. 

tRoosevelt. The Winning of the West. Vol. IV., Ill; The American 
Historical Magazine, Vol. II., 60. 


outbreaks of the Indians being checked only by the prospect 
of sudden invasion and the wreaking- of speedy vengeance. 

A step of far-reaching consequence to the young settlement 
was now taken. In 1789 North Carolina, as payment of all 
obligations incurred in the Revolutionary war, which were to 
be assumed by the general government, ceded to the United 
States all right and title to the Tennessee country. In the 
spring of 1790 the transfer was completed. While James 
White is justly regarded the father and founder of Knoxville, 
by his side as the next most conspicuous figure in her early 
history stands William Blount, commissioned governor of the 
"Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio" by 
Washington on June 8, 1790. Blount, from the largeness 
of his ideas and the wisdom of his policy, may be termed 
appropriately the Pericles of Tennessee. His appointment 
was an auspicious event for Knoxville, as subsequent events 
proved. A man of broad sympathies and tolerant views, of 
extensive legislative experience, of distinguished lineage, of 
courtly manners and large hospitality, of rare skill in the arts 
of diplomacy, he possessed pre-eminently the qualifications for 
the high office he was selected to administer. There was the 
additional recommendation that he came from the state which 
had just ceded the territory, and had enjoyed such opportuni- 
ties for contact with frontiersmen and study of their difficulties 
as gave him the practical knowledge required for dealing in- 
telligently with the delicate problems involved. Joined with 
his duties as governor was the superintendency of Indian 
affairs in the territory. 

The governor reached the scene of his new labors October 
10, 1790, fixed his temporary capital at the house of William 
Cobb in the fork of the Holston and Watauga rivers, and pro- 
ceeded at once to the discharge of his official duties. After 
the appointment and commissioning of officers for Washing- 
ton and Miro districts, one of the first and most delicate tasks 
imposed upon him was the arrangement of a treaty with the 
Cherokee Indians. The issues at stake involved the welfare 


and security of all those inhabitants in the fork of the Holston 
and French Broad rivers, south of the same streams and Big 
Pigeon, and northwest of the Holston. Their numbers ran 
up into the thousands. The Hopewell treaty had given um- 
brage to the whites and little satisfaction to the Indians. It 
brought, therefore, no cessation of hostile feelings, marauding 
expeditions, and murderous attacks. Proclamations of con- 
gress and threats of the Secretary of War proved unavailing 
to check the onward flow of immigration and encroachment 
upon lands guaranteed by treaty rights. Expeditions into the 
Indian country and summary punishment by burning- villages, 
devastating crops, and capturing women and children served 
only as a temporary barrier to the retaliatory measures inspired 
by Indian cunning and venom. On their part, as has been 
shown, the settlers claimed the land under acts of the North 
Carolina legislature and treaties of the defunct state of Frank- 
lin, which they deemed duly constituted authorities. 

After repeated efforts, involving the sending of various rep- 
resentatives among the Indians to enlist their interest and to 
counteract the malign influence of mischief-makers on the 
frontier and in the nation, and after changes of date and lo- 
cation. Governor Blount succeeded in assembling the chiefs 
for council at a point four miles below the confluence of the 
Holston and French Broad rivers on the present site of Knox- 

An account of this treaty has been left*, which enlivens 
greatly the dreary details of Indian treachery and white 
aggression. The picture drawn is suggestive of some 
mediaeval court where the feudal lord is surrounded by 
his vassals to witness some feat of skill, to attend some 
council of his Witenagemot, to make some application of 
the ordeal, or to receive some embassy from a foreign court. 
The locality, which is near the foot of the present Central 
avenue, is a sylvan retreat where the rippling waters of First 
creek go to lose themselves in the outspreading bosom of the 

*Ramsey, 555. 


Holston river, and where the gently sloping hillside forms a 
natural amphitheater for the eager spectators. Beneath a 
monarch of the forest, seated in his chair of state, clad in the 
splendid paraphernalia of a high-ranking military officer, 
the governor waits to give audience to the representatives of 
the Cherokee nation. James Armstrong, otherwise "Trooper" 
Armstrong, who knew the etiquette of European courts, 
is the master of ceremonies. As the chiefs are intro- 
duced to him by an interpreter, he in turn, age taking 
precedence, presents them to the governor. A crowd of twelve 
hundred Indians, braves, women, and children gaze on the 
scene, while a large company of the whites of the neighbor- 
hood lend their presence to the occasion. The chiefs sit around 
in silent dignity, the speaker alone rising to present their 
cause to the presiding officer upon his bidding them to unfold 
their grievances. Thus far this was the great event of Gov. 
Blount's administration. It was to impress the Indians with 
some idea of the power, splendor, and majesty of the govern- 
ment under which he held sway, while the absence of the 
agents and implements of war signified to them its friendly 
and peaceful intentions. 

After a seven days' conference, ending July 2, 1791. the 
treaty was signed by William Blount for the United States 
and by forty-one chiefs for the Cherokee nation of Indians. 
On October 26, 1791 , President Washington laid l^efore the 
senate the papers relative to the treaty for advice as to rati- 
fying them. On November 9 following. Senator Hawkins 
from committee reported back to the senate their approval 
of the terms of the treaty, which now, as far as the authorities 
at the capital were concerned, meant the restoration of peace 
and friendship between the Cherokees and the United States. 
The treaty's material provisions were assurances of mutual 
friendship, the acknowledgment of the protectorate of the 
United States, the mutual surrender of prisoners, the designa- 
tion of boundary lines and the guarantee of valuable goods 
and an annuitv in consideration of the extinguishment of In- 


dian claims, the unmolested navigation of the Tennessee river 
and use of a road connecting Washington and Miro districts, 
provision for the punishment of criminals, notification of any 
designs detrimental to the welfare of the United States, and 
material aid in the fostering of industrial pursuits among the 
Indians on the part of the United States.* By this treaty 
the lands on the south side of the Holston river, opposite 
Knoxville, were ceded. 

When it is recalled that the treaty, in reality, did not 
strengthen the bonds of friendship between the two nations, 
that strained relations and frequent outbreaks continued un- 
abated, that it required seven days of patient negotiation to 
bring about any agreement, that the point of dispute, the 
ridge separating the waters of Little and Tennessee rivers as 
a dividing line, remained undetermined for some years, and 
that a delegation of Indian chiefs without the consent or 
knowledge of Blount visited Philadelphia and extorted larger 
gifts of goods and bounties from the national government, 
one is disposed to question the efficacy of the governor's tac- 
tics and diplomacy on this occasion. 

*Royce, The Cherokee Nation of Indians, 158, 159. 



Date of Founding — Confusing Statements of Historians — Articles of 
Agreement Between Proprietor and Commissioners — Original Draw- 
ers of Lots — Act Establishing Knoxville — Blount's Arrival — Named 
in Honor of General Henry Knox — Reasons. 

KNOXVILLE was founded and named in 1791. The 
constitution of the United States had been in operation 
three years; Washington had been president two years; 
and William Blount had been governor of the territory south 
of the River Ohio one year. The year is significant as that 
which saw the passage of the first internal revenue bill, the 
establishment of the United States Bank, and the differentia- 
tion of two great political parties based on principles outlined 
and advocated respectively by Hamilton and Jefferson. 

February, -VQ2, has been accepted generally as the date of 
the establishment and laying off of Knoxville, but as to the 
exact time much confusion exists. The two oldest and most 
widely known historians of the state, Haywood and Ramsey, 
make contradictory statements, each in his own work. Speak- 
ing of the Knoxville Gazette, Haywood calls attention to the 
name and date of the paper, alleging, however, that "Knox- 
ville was not laid off till February, 1792."* Farther on, citing 
the act of the territorial legislature establishing Knoxville, 
he says, "which had been laid off by Col. James White in the 
year 1791."! Ramsey, speaking of the Gazette, says: "In 
February of the next year (1792) Knoxville was laid off by 
Col. White," yet farther on he says: "Some of the lots were 
sold in 1 79 1. but no considerable improvement was com- 
menced until February of 1792, when several small buildings 

♦History of Tennessee, 272. 
tPage 336. 



were erected."* The semi-centennial of Knoxville was cele- 
brated February 10, 1842, the date having been arbitrarily 
fixed. On this occasion the late Dr. Thomas W. Humes was 
the orator. In the appendix to his published address is a 
letter from Hugh Dunlap to E. G. Eastman, then editor of 
the Knoxville Argus, in which he says: "I am the only man, 
whom I know to be alive, who was living there when the lots 
were laid oft". * * * In February, 1792, Col. Charles 
McClung surveyed the lots and laid off the town. I do- not 
recollect on what day of the month. It excited no particular 
interest at the time. "j 

The oldest extant authorities on this subject are the Knox- 
ville Gazette and the published acts of the territorial legis- 
lature. These say specifically and unequivocally that the town 
was laid out in 1791. As documents of historic importance 
and unique interest both are given in their entirety. The 
Gazette, in its issue of December 17, 1791 , has this notice or 
advertisement : 

"Knoxville, October 3, 1791. 

"Articles of agreement made and concluded on this third 
day of October, 1791, by and between James White, proprietor 
of the land laid off for the town of Knoxville, of the one part, 
and John Adair, Paul Cunningham, and George McNutt, 
commissioners appointed in behalf of the purchasers of the 
lots in the town of Knoxville, of the other part, all of Haw- 
kins county and Territory of the United States of America 
South of the River Ohio. Witnesseth that the said James 
White do bargain and sell to the subscribers for lots in the 
said town. 64 lots, each containing one-half acre square, re- 
serving 8 lots which are not to be loted for. The said town 
to be loted for and drawn in a fair lottery by the said com- 
missioners in behalf of the subscribers, on the third of October 
aforesaid ; and further, the said James White doth hereby bind 
himself, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns to 
make or cause to be made, a good and sufficient title for each 

*Annals of Tennessee, 558. 
tAddress, 91, g2. 


lot to the person drawing the same, as soon as payment is 
made, agreeable to the terms of sale of said lots. And we 
the commissioners aforesaid, do covenant and agree in behalf 
of the said purchasers, to superintend the drawing of the 
tickets for the said lots and that we will do equal justice be- 
tween the parties, without fear or affection to any, whether 
present or absent. And the said James White doth agree that 
all the lands lying between the said town and the river, one 
pole in breadth along the river bank excepted, and all the 
land between the town and the creek, as far as the southeast 
corner of Broad street, with a street thirty-three feet wide 
around the remainder of the town, shall be commons for the 
said town. And further that the lots for which payment hath 
not been made agreeable to the articles of sale of the said 
lots, shall be for the use of the said James White, he, when 
selling them, binding the purchasers to abide by the rules and 
regulations which shall be made by the aforesaid commission- 
ers. And the said commissioners shall have power to act. and 
to regulate all matters respecting the said town, until an act 
of assembly shall be made for the rules and regulations thereof. 
And further, it is agreed that any person refusing to comply 
with the rules for building and other necessary expense, shall 
pay to the said commissioners a sum not exceeding five dol- 
lars for such refusal made. The fines shall be collected and 
applied to the use and benefit of said town. 

"In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 
third day of October, 1791. 

Teste: James White, 

Charles McClung, John Adair. 

James Cozby. Paul Cunningham, 

George McNutt. 

James White, I. James Armstrong. 4. 

James W. Lackey, 2. William Davidson, 5. 

His Excellency William Andrew and J. Belfour, 6. 

Blount, 3. John Hays, 7. 



Thomas Amis, 8. 

Jacob Brown, 9. 

James Knox, 10. 

James Richardson, 11. 

William Boyd, 12. 

Thomas Amis, 13. 

James Hodges, 14. 

Hon. Judge Anderson, 15. 

John Gehon. 16. 

Ignatius and J. Chisholm. 17. 

John Carter, 18. 

James Cozby, 19. 

Thomas King, 20. 

Rev. Mr. Carrick, 21. 

Jacob Carper, 22. 

John Love, 23. 

John Owens, 24. 

James Greenway, 25. 

Jacob Carper, 26. 

George Roulstone, 27. 

Reserved Lot, 28. 

Reserved Lot, 29. 

Andrew and J. Belfour. 30. 

John Rhea, 31. 

Matthew A. Atkinson. t,2. 

Rev. Mr. Carrick, 33. 

John Stone, 34. 

Hon. Judge Campbell, 35. 

Reserved Lot, 36. 

Reserved Lot, 2>7- 
Samuel Hannah, 38. 
Jacob Carper, 39. 
George Roulstone. 40. 
Andrew Green. 41. 
John Adair. 42. 
William Lowry, 43. 
Nathaniel Cowan, 44. 
Samuel McGaughey, 45. 
William Henry, 46. 
William Cox, 47. 
John Chisholm, 48. 
John King, Sr., 49. 
Lewis Newhouse, 50. 
Peter McNamee, 51. 
Nicholas Perkins, 52. 
Daniel Hamblin, 53. 
John Hackett, 54. 
Jacob Carper, 55. 
Robert Legitt, 56. 
Adam Peck, 57. 
David Allison, 58. 
James and W. Lea. 59. 
John Troy, 60. 
William Small, 61. 
Hugh Fulton, 62. 
James Miller, 63. 
Thomas Smith. 64. 

"We. the commissioners, do certify that the above names 
are set opposite to the numbers agreeable to the lottery as thev 
were drawn. 

"John Adair, 
"Paul Cunningham. 
"George McNutt. " 


"N. B. : Those persons who subscribed for lots are desired 
to pay the purchase money immediately, otherwise their sub- 
scription will be deemed void, and the lots disposed for the 
benefit of the proprietor." 

The act for establishing Knoxville was passed by the ter- 
ritorial legislature in September, 1794, and is as follows: 

"An act for establishing Knoxville, on the north bank of 
Holston, and immediately Mow the second creek that runs 
into Holston on the north side, below the mouth of French 
Broad river, and for apoointing commissioners for the regula- 
tion thereof. 

"Whereas, In the year one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-one it was found expedient to establish a town on the 
north bank of Holston, immediately below the second creek 
that runs into the north side of the same, below the mouth 
of French Broad, Governor Blount having determined to fix 
the seat of government on the said spot ; and, whereas, a town 
was accordingly laid out by James White at the above de- 
scribed place, and called Knoxville, in honor of Major General 
Henry Knox, consisting of the necessary streets and sixty-four 
lots, numbered from one to sixty-four, as will more fully ap- 
pear, reference being had to the plat of the said town. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the governor, legislative coun- 
cil and house of representatives of the Territory of the United 
States of America South of the River Ohio, That a town be 
established on the above described spot of ground, which shall 
continue to be known as heretofore, by the name of Knox- 
ville, in honor of Major General Knox, consisting of the neces- 
sary streets and sixty-four lots, from number one to sixty-four, 
agreeable to the plan of the said town, made in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. 

"Sec. 2. And be it enacted, that Colonel James King, John 
Chisholm and Joseph Greer, Esquires, George Roulstone and 
Samuel Cowan be and hereby are appointed commissioners of 
the said town, with power to regulate the same, and, if neces- 
sary, with the consent of the proprietor, to enlarge it. 


'"Sec. 3. And be it enacted. That a correct plan of the said 
town as originally laid off in the year one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-one, be made by the commissioners, and 
lodged in the office of the register of the county of Knox for 
the benefit of all persons concerned, with their names as com- 
missioners subscribed thereto. And that it be the duty of the 
said commissioners to designate the first and second corners 
by the fixture of a stone or stones at each corner, at least 
eighteen inches in the ground and six above, and to use good 
care that the same be not removed or defaced."* 

That the lots drawn passed to the ownership of those whose 
names are opposite is evidenced by conveyances in the first vol- 
ume of deeds in the office of the Register of Knox county. 
There one will see that James White on July 16, 1792, con- 
veyed lots 21 and 33 to Samuel Carrick for the sum of eight 
dollars per lot. That building had begun in and about Knox- 
ville in 1791 may be learned from a letter of Governor Blount 
to James Robertson, written from the house of William Cobb 
on January 2, 1792, wherein he says: "Mrs. Blount and two 
of my sons are here, and here we shall stay until the first of 
March and then move down to Knoxville. The reason we 
do not move sooner my houses there are not done."f 

The name Knoxville was applied to the place before it was 
laid off. Governor Blount, in a letter to James Robertson 
dated September 3, 1791, says: "I shall be living at Knox- 
ville by the 10th of December at farthest. "$ That the destined 
position of the place was already recognized is shown by the 
fact that George Roulstone, while publishing the first issues 
of his paper at Rogersville. in 1791, called it the "Knoxville 
Gazette." The distinction of naming Knoxville in honor of 
General Henry Knox, Washington's Secretary of War, is 
ascribed by Phelan** to James White, by Marcus J. Wrightf f 

*Laws of the State of Tennessee published by George Roulstone, 39. 

tAmerican Historical Magazine, Vol. I, 281. 

^American Historical Magazine, Vol. I, 192. 

**History of Tennessee, 149. 

ttLife and Services of William Blount, 12. 


and by RoosevelttJ to William Blount. Whether the 
name was bestowed as an expression of gratitude for services 
rendered to his country or as a compliment to a cabinet officer 
may never be known, but the fact suggests an interesting bit 
of history which may offer some explanation. General Knox, 
the year before the administration of Governor Blount began, 
unqualifiedly and bitterly censured the settlers upon Cherokee 
lands. Touching their encroachments he expressed himself 
in vigorous language, characterizing the settlement of the 
lands as a gross violation of treaty rights, and suggesting the 
application of extreme penalties to uphold the authority of 
congress, which had been exposed to ridicule and contempt. 
He speaks of the "disgraceful violation of the treaty of Hope- 
well with the Cherokees. as a direct and manifest contempt 
of the authority of the United States" and "of the lawless 
whites" who "render the promises of the government imbecile 
unless that government asserts its authority." He urges that 
a garrison of five hundred soldiers should be stationed within 
the territory assigned to the Indians to protect them against 
such ravages and encroachments as had been practised.* 
Later, in January, 1791, in communications to the president 
and laid before congress, General Knox, asserting that no 
partial measures would be adopted in dealing with the fron- 
tiers, said that favors granted to the other parts should likewise 
be granted to "the exposed parts of the Cumberland settle- 
ments, and the settlements lying upon, and between, the Hols- 
ton and French Broad Rivers. "f Relative to the frontiers, 
in the same communication he says: "The population of the 
lands lying along the Western waters is increasing rapidly. 
The inhabitants request and demand protection; if it be not 
granted, seeds of disgust will be sown ; sentiments of separate 
interests will arise out of their local situation, which will be 
cherished either by insidious, domestic, or foreign emissaries. 

ttWinning of the West, Vol. IV, 106. 

♦American State Papers. Indian Affairs. Vol. IV, 53, 54. 

tSame. 107. 


It, therefore, appears to be an important branch of the admin- 
istration of the general government to afford the frontiers all 
reasonable protection, as well in their just rights as against 
their enemies."* Still later, on February 22, 1792, writing to 
Governor Blount, he says : "But, if the hostile Indians should, 
after having these (peaceful) intentions of the government 
laid fully before them, still persist in their depredations on the 
frontiers, it will be considered as the dictate of humanity to 
endeavor to punish, with exemplary severity, so incorrigible 
a race of men, in order to deter other tribes, in future, from 
a like conduct, "f 

It was not in keeping with the rugged, Scotch-Irish char- 
acter of James White to be eager or disposed to name his 
town in honor of a man who had not refrained from the use of 
harsh language and opprobrious epithets in speaking of his 
settlement in common with others, whereas it was like the 
tactful course of William Blount to gain if possible the favor 
and consideration of the Secretary of War, and to bring him 
to a better understanding of the needs and difficulties of the 
Tennessee settlers. As Knoxville was founded and named in 
1 79 1, so it may be safe to maintain that the naming of it was 
the act of William Blount. 

*American State Papers. Indian Affairs, Vol. IV. 113. 
tSame, 252. 



Establishment of Knox County — Officials Appointed — First Lawyers — 
County Roads and Buildings — Commercial Growth — Pioneer Mer- 
chants — Hostelries — Occupations — Postal Facilities — Army Post — 
Relations of Citizens and Soldiers. 

AFTER Governor Blount's decision to fix the seat of the 
territorial government at Knoxville, and the laying out 
and sale of lots, the next most important step in its 
development was the establishment of Knox county, with 
courts of pleas and quarter sessions to be held at Knoxville. 
This was done by ordinance of the governor on June 1 1. 1792, 
Charles McClung and James Mabry being designated as com- 
missioners to run and mark certain boundaries. It brought 
an array of court officers and lawyers to the young town, 
either as permanent inhabitants or frequent visitors. Five 
days after the passage of the act a bench of fifteen justices 
of the peace, commissioned by the governor, had the oath ad- 
ministered to them by the Hon. David Campbell, one of the 
territorial judges. The other officers were Charles McClung, 
clerk ; Thomas Chapman, register, and Robert Houston, 
sheriff. The first court, by proclamation of the sheriff, met 
at the house of John Stone on July 16, 1792, and was attended 
by the following justices: James White, who was appointed 
chairman ; Samuel Newell, David Craig, and Jeremiah Jack. 
The lawyers admitted to practice in this primitive court 
were Luke Bowyer, Alexander Outlaw, Joseph Hamilton, 
Archibald Roane, Hopkins Lacy, John Rhea, and James 
Reese, to which list was added some months later the name 
of John Sevier, Jr. Most of these played a conspicuous part 
in the affairs of state. Alexander Outlaw was a state-maker 
and a legislator. Joseph Hamilton had an honorable career. 


Archibald Roane became governor of Tennessee, John Rhea 
was a member of congress for eighteen years, and James 
Reese was a member of the second Franklin convention. 
Some of these enjoyed the best educational advantages of 
their day. Roane and Hamilton were educated at Liberty 
Hall, the germ of Washington and Lee University, under 
William Graham, a Princeton graduate, and Rhea was re- 
puted a graduate of Princeton College. They were likewise 
the fosterers of education ; otherwise the following facts prove 
that college trusteeships were empty compliments: Roane and 
Hamilton were simultaneously charter trustees of three col- 
leges, Blount, Greeneville, and Washington, while Rhea was 
likewise of Washington and Greeneville. 

The court took immediate steps to make Knoxville accessible 
to all portions of the county by opening roads and highways, 
a wise measure which the present generation has sought to 
improve upon by the construction of thoroughfares that are 
models. Alexander Cunningham was granted permission to 
keep a public ferry at his landing opposite Knoxville, and 
south, across the Holston. roads were laid out leading to Col. 
Alexander Kelly's mill and to David Craig's on Nine Mile 
creek, north to the ford of the Clinch river, west to Campbell's 
station, and east to the mouth of French Broad river.* 

The next note in this forward movement might indicate 
progress or retrogression ; it is in the form of a protest de- 
manding a better jail, and emanates from the sheriff. The 
court accordingly appointed commissioners to contract for the 
erection of a jail, whose "dimensions were sixteen feet square, 
the logs to be a foot square, the lower floor to be laid of logs 
of that size, to be laid double and crosswise, the loft also to 
be laid with logs, and covered crosswise with oak plank, one 
and a half inches thick and well spiked down."f Likewise to 
meet the ends of justice, at the same time, January 26, 1793, 
the court authorizes the same commissioners to let contract for 

*Ramsey, 568. 
tRamsey, 569. 


building a courthouse. Two months before this the governor 
and territorial judges, Campbell and Anderson, had passed an 
act authorizing the courts of the several counties to levy taxes 
for the repairing or building of court-houses, prisons and 
stocks and for other expenses incurred. The occasion of the 
act was the removal of the expressed doubt whether the courts 
of pleas and quarter sessions, acting under the laws of North 
Carolina, had authority to levy taxes for the purposes named. 
The tax was not to exceed fifty cents on each poll and seven- 
teen cents on each one hundred acres of land. 

Knoxville was now beginning to enjoy a veritable building 
and commercial growth. Governor Blount built his first cabin 
on a knoll between the University hill and the river, which 
was reached from the town by a winding road along the river. 
Soon afterward he built a more commodious residence on 
what was later the residence lot of S. B. Boyd, Esq. "The 
mansion stood ne#r the center of the lot — was finished with 
some taste, and the grounds were better improved than any 
other in town."* Like the courthouse of modern days at the 
small county seat, his office became the center around which 
clustered the business houses of the place. Merchants adver- 
tised their stores with reference to their proximity to the 
governor's office, which stood just to the side of his residence 
on State street, not far from the corner of State and Front 

The pioneer merchants were Nathaniel and Samuel Cowan 
and Hugh Dunlap, the latter occupying one of the government 
"shanties" erected at the time of holding the treaty of Holston, 
the former being on the corner of State and Front streets, 
opposite Chisholm's tavern. These were speedily followed by 
others, as the wave of migration moved westward and Gov- 
ernor Blount's capital became more of an assured fact. Some 
of them, from the upper towns. Jonesboro and Rogersville. 
retained at these places their interests before committing them- 
selves fully at Knoxville. James Miller, while merchandising 

*Ramsey, 560. 


at Rogersville, advertised to open store at John Adair's in 
Grassy Valley, but two weeks later decided to open at Knox- 
ville on June 1, 1792.* Miller was an enterprising man, hav- 
ing made the first attempts to raise silkworms in the territory 
and, as a merchant, anticipating the wholesale trade by adver- 
tising that he would make a "great allowance to those who 
buy and sell again." Nathaniel and Samuel Cowan continued 
their business at Jonesboro. The next merchants to arrive, 
if the order of their advertisements in the Gazette indicate pri- 
ority, were S. Duncan and Co., in December, 1792; John 
Sommerville and Co. in February. 1793. and Titus Ogden in 
February, 1 793- Charles McClung in December, 1792, offers 
"first-rate powder for sale at house which Col. White formerly 
lived in near Knoxville. $1.00 per lb., for which good mer- 
chantable corn will be received at 1-3 of a dollar per bushel, 
delivered at my house. "t 

Some of the advertisements in the Gazette forcibly remind 
one of modern methods. S. Duncan and Co. give notice that 
they are going-to leave Knoxville and, therefore, offer liberal 
inducements to customers. Six months afterwards they are 
advertising new stock. J. Sommerville and Co. have a display 
advertisement filling two columns, ending it, however, with 
notice that no credit will be allowed. Other merchants of 
the territorial epoch were James Ore. Samuel Miller, asso- 
ciated with James Miller, and King and Crozier. Soon after 
beginning business Titus Ogden died, lamented as a useful 
and exemplary citizen. As witness from the state of North 
Carolina he had been present at the Holston treaty in 1791. 
and was paymaster of troops and of Indian annuities. Goods 
were bought in the markets of Philadelphia and Baltimore 
and, brought overland, involved time, labor and expense. 
Hugh Dunlap, in the letter already mentioned, says: "I 
left Philadelphia with my goods in December, 1791, and did 
not reach Knoxville until about the 1st of February, 1792." 

*Knoxville Gazette. May 19 and June 2, 1792. 
tKnoxville Gazette, December 1. 1792. 


At the outset the taverns begin to do a thriving business, 
as many as four houses of entertainment being advertised by 
John Chisholm, Alexander Carmichael, John Wood, and Peter 
McNamee. Other occupations also receive encouragement, 
inasmuch as jewelers, tanners, tailors and the butcher acquaint 
the public with their willingness to serve them, while well- 
diggers and tanners are advertised for and promised "good 

With increasing business and population there came a de- 
mand for postal facilities. In the early part of 1792 a rumor 
was current that a continental post would run between Rich- 
mond and Knoxville beginning on June 1st the same year.* 
This, it seems, did not materialize, as later, in October, John 
Chisholm advertised in the Gazette that he would establish for 
the sum of $250.00 a postal service to include Jonesboro and 
Abingdon, Virginia, and to return by Sullivan courthouse and 
Rogersville to Knoxville, making the circuit in twenty-one 
days. This scheme must have fallen through, for in Novem- 
ber of the same year Roulstone and Co., of the Gazette adver- 
tise a post from their printing office every other week, to 
leave the next morning after publication of the paper and to 
make all the county towns in Washington District and Abing- 
don, Virginia. Again, there are proposals advertised to carry 
mails between Knoxville and Abingdon once in two weeks. 
These efforts show the urgent necessity of a regular mail ser- 
vice. Accordingly, in 1795 the national government gave 
Knoxville a bi-monthly mail, with George Roulstone as post- 
master, which relieved somewhat the pressing necessity for an 
improved service. By Knoxville came all mail for the West 
and much for the East. Hitherto letters and papers had been 
committed to the care of travelers and emigrants, who upon 
arrival opened their wallets and distributed their charge to 
eager crowds, always glad to confer such favors gratuitously. 
Important government correspondence was conveyed by vol- 
unteer expresses, who received as pay for their services about 
$1.00 per day. 

"Knoxville Gazette, February 25. 1792. 


Knoxville then, as she aspires to be now, was an army post, 
which meant much to the life and business of the town. 
Though John Adair's house had first been named as a depot 
of supplies, later it was found better to make Knoxville the 
place for the rendezvous of troops and the depository of arms 
and supplies. In 1793 Capt. Carr with a company of United 
States troops came and began the erection of a barracks for 
his men, which occupied the site of the present courthouse. 
This building extended from Main street towards the river, 
and was a two-story structure, the upper story projecting two 
feet on every side beyond the lower as a means of defense. 
Portholes on every side and even in the floor of the upper 
story added to the completeness of the defense, while the fell- 
ing of trees within gunshot prevented the approach of an 
assailant.* The Gazette^ mentions with genuine pride the 
arrival of William Rickard's troops from Salisbury, North 
Carolina, who, after a long and tedious march, entered the 
town with a movement bespeaking the order and discipline 
of war-worn veterans. The columns of the paper for almost 
a twelve-month, with each issue, bear the name of Com- 
mander Rickard, either advertising for deserters, clashing with 
the merchants of the town, officiating on the Fourth of July 
celebration, or giving notice forbidding the citizens from hav- 
ing anything to do with his soldiers without written orders. 
Hugh Dunlap says in the letter hereinbefore quoted that Carr 
was arrested by his lieutenant. Rickard, for drunkenness a 
few months after their arrival, and resigned his office through 
chagrin at the efforts of his subordinate officer to supplant 
him. Daniel Smith, the territorial secretary, writing to 
the Secretary of War, July 19. 1793, mentions a Capt. Kerr, 
in command of regulars, to whose care he intended to entrust 
a number of families removing to the Cumberland country. X 
It is evident that in the dim past of Knoxville the soldier was 

*Dr. Humes, Semi-Centcnnial Address, 59; Goodspeed, History of 
Tennessee, 840. 
tMarch 9, 1793. 
JAnierican State Papers. Indian Affairs, Vol. IV, 464. 


sometimes an element of disorder and confusion. Nathaniel 
and Samuel Cowan advertise that they will expect captains 
of militia as security for goods sold to the soldiers, to pay if 
the soldiers do not discharge their obligations.* On the other 
hand Rickard publishes this notice :f 

"I do once more forbid the inhabitants of this town and 
vicinity from having any dealings with the soldiers of my 
company, without permission in writing from the command- 
ing officer, as they not only involve themselves in difficulty 
thereby, but also injure the public service. I have been in- 
formed that some persons in the country have purchased 
articles of the soldiers, such as part of their regimentals, 
public axes, etc. Purchasers are invited to bring all such 
soldiers to headquarters. 

"William Rickard, Commanding Officer, 

"12th Company, 3rd Sub-Legion. 

"Camp New Boston, near Knoxville." 

*KnoxvilIe Gazette, May 4. 1703. 
tGazette, January 2. 1794. 



Indian War Imminent — Conditions in the West — Indian Atrocities — 
Policy of Blount and the National Government — Threatened Attack 
on Knoxville — Preparation of Whites — Pioneer Character — Stephen 
Foster's Account of the. Massacre at Caret's Station — Sevier's Suc- 
cessful Raid. 

THE presence of regular troops and organized bodies of 
militia indicated the tension of relations between In- 
dians and settlers. The year 1793 was one of excite- 
ment and constant anxiety. In 1792 there were ominous 
events and influences. With the intelligence of St. Clair's 
defeat in the Northwest, the dissatisfaction over the treaty of 
Holston. and the increasing thirst of young braves for plun- 
der, carnage, and prestige, the frequency of murders and 
depredations became noted. The restraint imposed by the 
national government upon the military organizations that 
guarded the frontier, to act only on the defensive, and the 
toleration of the frontiersmen under great provocation served 
to invite attack and molestation rather than to encourage 
peace and friendship. Notwithstanding the fact that Govern- 
or Blount had been invited by the Cherokee chiefs, Hanging 
Maw, John Watts, and others, to meet them in conference at 
Coyatee, whither he repaired to be greeted with distinguished 
honors in the presence of two thousand Indians and to be re- 
ceived with protestations and manifestations of peace and 
good will, still the great scalp dance in the Lower Cherokee 
towns, participated in by Cherokees, Creeks, and Shawnees. 
was a surer prophecy of what was in store for the struggling 
settlements along the Holston and Cumberland rivers. The 
successful intercepting of Capt. Samuel Handley and his 
company of forty-two men near Crab Orchard by a party <>t 



these Indians, his capture and the discomfiture of his men, 
gave renewed confidence in the plans of extermination. 

With the immediate danger of a protracted and destructive 
Indian war there came to the governor grave and delicate 
responsibilities. The young government at Philadelphia was 
not vet secure in its domestic or foreign policy. Important 
negotiations were pending, which if disturbed or thwarted 
meant untold detriment and disaster to the South and West. 
It was yet in the minds of many an open question whether 
the vast region of country drained by the Mississippi river 
eastward should belong to Spain or the United States, or 
should become part of a great southwestern empire. The free 
and unobstructed navigation of the Mississippi was likewise 
an unsettled question of gravest concern to the settlers. It 
required all the arts and refinements of diplomacy to forego the 
commission of a blunder, which might prove fatal to the wel- 
fare of the young nation trying her unpracticed hand upon an 
effete monarchy. The policy of Spain was, after supplying 
the Indians with guns and ammunition, to incite them to 
attacks upon the American settlements and thus to foment a 
war of extermination ; that of the United States was with 
rum and presents to cultivate the friendship of the nations 
and thus to preserve intact all that territory ceded by the treaty 
with Great Britain in 1783, which included the domain inhab- 
ited principally by the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Creeks, and 
Choctaws. A statement of these facts is necessary to appre- 
ciate the causes of the Indian troubles which, in the East, cen- 
tered around Knoxville, but fell most heavily upon the Cum- 
berland settlements in Middle Tennessee. They serve also 
to explain, without excusing it, the indifference of Congress 
to making a wise provision for the defense of the Holston and 
Cumberland settlers against Indian forays. 

The increasing atrocities of Indian bands, emboldened by 
fortuitous circumstances, brought the settlers to the verge of 
despair. With grim determination they resolved to visit upon 
their foes death and destruction, regarding neither age. sex 


nor faction. Governor Blount sent to the places of their up- 
rising or rendezvous Sevier or White or some other influential 
man of the settlements, and for a time quelled the spirit of 
revenge and insubordination. However, the killing of the 
friendly Chickasaw, John Morris, while a guest at the gov- 
ernor's home in Knoxville, the invasion of John Beard and 
his one hundred and forty followers, against orders, of the 
Upper Cherokee towns, and the killing of Hanging Maw's 
wife and other kindly disposed Indians, and Col. Doherty's 
invasion of the Indian country when ordered positively to 
desist, show the utter desperation to which these men were 
goaded. The failure of court-martial proceedings further 
testified to the common impulse by which they were moved.* 
On the other hand, the government and Governor Blount 
were unceasing in their efforts to placate the Indians and to 
preserve peace and friendship. Early in the year the Secretary 
of War wrote to the governor urging him to visit the seat of 
government with representative chiefs of the nation, promising 
an abundant supply of such articles as they and their nation 
may require. f After repeated urgings the governor failed to 
induce them to accompany him, and yet went on with the 
hope of settling controversies and removing all uneasiness. In 
his own home he entertained with lavish hospitality for eight 
or ten days Unacata, a Cherokee chief, when at the end of 
this entertainment he came to the conclusion that the chief 
had all the while acted the part of spy. When Morris was 
killed, either by mistake for a Cherokee or through the wan- 
ton conduct of some disorderly person, he caused him to be 
buried with military honors, walking with the dead man's 
brother among the chief mourners, and later soothed the in- 
jured feelings of the living by "pretty liberal presents.":}: 
When the uprising at Gamble's station took place, threaten- 
ing instant invasion of the Indian country, he dispatched Lieu- 
tenant Kelly, then Col. James White, to the scene to urge 

♦Ramsey, 568. 

tAmerican State Papers. Indian Affairs, Vol. IV, 429. 

^American State Papers. 435. 


acquiescence in the terms of the Holston treaty, and then 
betook himself to the spot. The solicitude expressed in these 
words indicates the gravity of the situation : "I can truly 
say, my feelings were never more agitated than they were on 
this occasion. I considered my reputation as an officer, in 
great measure, the reputation of the country over which I 
had the honor to preside, and my prospects of returning peace, 
all at stake upon the event."* 

The most romantic episode in these troublous times was 
the threatened attack of a combined force of Cherokees and 
Creeks, variously estimated from nine to fifteen hundred war- 
riors, on Knoxville in the fall of 1793. For a time after the 
treaty of Holston. it will be recalled, there was a cessation of 
violent outbreaks ; but here and there sporadic assaults marked 
by an occasional murder or some theft of horses showed that 
beneath the formality of peace lay the smouldering embers of 
irreconcilable race hatred. Sufferings from Indian cunning, 
treachery, vindictiveness, and atrocity had placed the settlers 
on their guard. In the midst of apparent security, every 
means of defense was employed to ward off sudden onslaughts 
and to guarantee personal safety. The cabin was so con- 
structed as to be impenetrable to shot from without, while 
portholes commanding all sides guarded the approaches. 
Scouts patroled the woods to discover any lurking enemy ; the 
workman in the field kept his rifle near at hand to offer resist- 
ance if molested, and wives and daughters learned the arts of 
war, becoming skilled in the moulding of bullets and the use 
of the rifle. All, trained to be ready for any emergency, were 
inured to hardship and became sharp-witted and keen-sighted 
in the hour of dang'#\ Their readiness for combat, their pres- 
ence of mind in imminent peril, their endurance of privation, 
produced a type of manhood and womanhood nowhere ex- 
celled in annals that extol magnanimous souls and preserve 
courageous deeds. Whether it be James Cozby, to protect his 
home besieged by twenty warriors, giving stentorian orders 
♦American State Papers, 455. 


to an imaginary platoon of soldiers and thus striking them 
with terror and thwarting their purposes ; or Margaret Mc- 
Ewen, when Houston's station is attacked by a band of one 
hundred assailants, taking the bullet moulds and placing there- 
in the shapeless lead fired from Indian guns into the fort, re- 
moulding it and bidding her husband : "Here is a ball run out 
of the Indians' lead ; send it back to them as quick as possible. 
It is their own; let them have it in welcome;" or Mrs. Gilles- 
pie when her defenseless home is entered and her sleeping in- 
fant marked for slaughter, rushing to the door and shouting in 
pealing tones to' her husband and others as if hard by, "White 
men, come home ! come home, white men ! Indians ! Indians !" 
or Mrs. Campbell, when her husband and his helper, plough- 
ing side by side, are shot at by cowardly foe, taking down the 
rifle from the rack, barricading the door, and waiting at the 
portholes to receive the ruthless invader; or Andrew Cress- 
well and his wife, when their humble cottage is threatened 
and retreat is possible, resolving that they will hold the house 
until the Indians take them out ; or Samuel Handley, when 
bound to the stake a ready sacrifice to Indian ferocity defying 
his captors to shoot him as a brave man deserves, and upbraid- 
ing them as merciless cowards;* or Mrs. George Mann, when 
her husband has fallen a victim to the brutal instincts and 
malignant hate of the foe, in defense of her home and little 
ones, sending a ball through the body of the first Indian who 
forces an ingress and wounding another and thus rescuing 
herself and household! — these and multiplied examples like 
these attest the material out of which heroic pioneer characters 
were made. 

The chief source of authority for an account of this attack 
is an essay of Professor Stephen Foster, of East Tennessee 
college, read before the Knoxville Lyceum and published in 
the Knoxville Register, September 21, 1831. Any history of 
Knoxville is incomplete that does not recount this intended 

*American Historical Magazine. Vol. II. 88. 
tThomas W. Humes, Semi-Centennial Address, 56. 


attack. Because of its historic value and to give wider cir- 
culation to so noteworthy a contribution to Knoxville history, 
the entire article is given. 


"On the road from Knoxville to Major Joseph Martin's is 
passed Joseph Lonas' on the creek, the formerly celebrated 
Cavet's station. This Cavet's station was nothing but the 
log-house dwelling of a family of thirteen persons in the days 
of Indian havoc and bloodshed. It is eight miles below Knox- 
ville and seven miles above Campbell's station. This latter 
station was one of the chief forts of the country, containing 
as many as twenty families, and assuming an air and attitude 
of defense which inspired courage within itself, and extended 
to the savages that prowled around it a salutary respect for 
the prowess of its interior. 

"In 1793 a party of Creeks and Cherokees. from 900 to 
1,500, crossed the Holston with the design of burning and 
sacking Knoxville. They halted upon the question, 'Shall we 
massacre the whole town or only the men?' The Hanging 
Maw was a leading man in the councils of his people. His 
opposition to the scheme of an indiscriminate massacre was 
strenuous and weighty. Another circumstance is here re- 
lated. Van, Cherokee chief, possessed a little captive boy, 
that was riding behind him. Doublehead became envious 
at this sight, and picked a quarrel with Van, and to satiate his 
malice, killed the little boy with a sudden stab of his knife. 
The animosity of these chiefs added hindrance to delay. 
And before the plan of procedure could be satisfactorily 
adjusted, it was found to be too late to arrive at Knoxville be- 
fore daylight. 

"Then to avoid an entire failure of their enterprise, they 
repaired to Cavet's, as affording the readiest and easiest prey. 
This establishment they reduced to ashes. Its thirteen tenants 
were slaughtered except one. Cavet himself was found butch- 
ered in the garden. Several bullets were still lying in his 


mouth, having been put there by himself for the convenience 
of speedily loading his gun. The day of this slaughter was 
the 25th of September. 

"In the meantime intelligence of the contemplated attack 
had arrived at Knoxville, and given to the minds of its citizens 
that impulse which is only to be looked for on great occasions, 
when the dignity of a single heroic conception is enough to 
consecrate danger and death. The number of fighting men 
in Knoxville was forty. But it was thought preferable to 
combine this force, and to- risk every life in a well-concerted 
effort to strike a deadly and terrific blow on the advancing 
enemy, at the outskirts of the town rather than stand to> be 
hewed down in its center by the Indian tomahawk. 

"Gen. James White was then advanced a little beyond the 
prime of manhood, of a muscular body, a vigorous constitu- 
tion, and of that cool and determinate courage which arises 
from a principle of original bravery, confirmed and ennobled 
by the faith of the Bible. He was the projector and leader 
of the enterprise. Robert Houston, Esq., from whose verbal 
statements the substance of much of this narrative is copied, 
was of the age of twenty-eight, and was a personal actor in 
the scene. 

"It was viewed to be manifest by those who> were ac- 
quainted with Indian movements, that the party would come 
up the back way near the present plantations of Mrs. Luttrell 
and Henry Lonas, rather than the straighter way now traveled 
by the stage. The company from Knoxville accordingly re- 
paired to a ridge, on that road, which now may be inspected 
about a mile and a quarter from Knoxville. This ridge is 
marked by the irregular and shelving rocks of the road, which 
passes over it. 

"On the side of this ridge next to Knoxville. our company 
was stationed at the distance of twenty steps from each other, 
with orders to reserve their fire till the most forward of the 
Indian party was advanced far enough to present a mark 
for the most eastern man of our party. He was then to fire. 


This fire was to be the signal to every man of our own to 
take aim with precision. This would be favored by the halt 
thus occasioned in the ranks of the Indians. And these latter, 
it was hoped, astonished at the sudden and fatal discharge of 
thirty-eight rifles extended over so long a line, would appre- 
hend a most formidable ambuscade, and would quit all thought 
of further aggression, and betake themselves to the readiest 
and safest retreat. 

"But to provide for the worst, it was settled beforehand 
that each man upon discharging his piece, without stopping to 
watch the flight of the Indians, should make the best of his 
way to Knoxville, lodge himself in the blockhouse then stand- 
ing at the present mansion of Mr. Etheldred Williams, where 
three hundred muskets had been deposited by the United 
States, and where the two oldest citizens of the forty, John 
McFarland and Robert Williams, were left behind to run 
bullets and load. 

"Here it was proposed to make a last and desperate struggle ; 
that, by possessing every porthole in the building, and by deal- 
ing lead and powder through it to the best advantage, they 
might extort from an enemy nearly forty times their number, a 
high price for the hazard of all they had on earth that was 
dear and precious. There were then two stores in Knoxville, 
Nathaniel Cowan's and James Miller's. 

"Though the practical heroism of this well concerted and 
thus far ably conducted strategem, in consequence of the sud- 
den retreat of the enemy, was not put to the test of actual 
experiment, yet an incident fraught with so much magnanim- 
ity in the early fortunes of Knoxville should not be blotted 
from the records of her fame. It is an incident on which the 
memory of her sons will linger without tiring, when the din of 
party shall be hushed and its strife forgotten. Those men of a 
former day were 'made of sterner stuff' than to shirk from 
danger at the call of duty. And it will be left to the pen of a 
future historian to do justice to that little band of thirty-eight 
citizens, who flinched not from the deliberate exposure of their 


persons in the open field, within the calculated gunshot of 
fifteen hundred of the fleetest running and boldest savages. 

"This expedition on the part of the Indians, though in its 
issue abortive by their divided councils, was marked with sin- 
gular daring and despatch. They knew that Col. Sevier with 
a detachment of four hundred mounted riflemen, ready to 
ravage their territory, had recently left Knoxville and lay at 
that moment at Ish's station on the south side of the river, 
about ten miles from Cavet's; that a respectable force lay in 
garrison at Campbell's station, and that the above-mentioned 
forty men were at Knoxville. Here then were three points 
from which, at a moment's warning, they would be assailed 
from three different directions at once. But they had formed 
their plan, that by a movement too quick for discovery and 
by a ridge not commonly traveled by our warriors, they would 
pass the forces at Ish's and Campbell's stations, seizing the 
favorable moment of the absence of Sevier's troops, to fall 
upon Knoxville entirely unexpected, scalp the inhabitants in 
their beds, pillage the only two little stores in the place, and 
in the light of its blazing ruins, make off with their booty, 
divided into two or three parties, to elude pursuit, prevent 
delay and make good their escape. 

"The above-mentioned disagreement between their principal 
chiefs, by the loss of a single hour, like the counsel of Hushai 
in Absalom's rebellion, frustrated the whole project, divested 
this band of its martial prowess, and sent it skulking on the 
shameful butchery at Cavet's station. 

''The circumstances of this massacre will strikingly illustrate 
the Indian mode of warfare, a singular union of cunning, deceit 
and atrocity, without concert of action or unity of plan. For 
at the beginning of the attack Cavet's house contained three 
fighting men. These plied their rifles with such coolness and 
dexterity that two Indians lay dead and three were wounded. 
The Indians then made a temporary halt from the fury of their 
onset, and employed Bob Benge, a man of mixed blood, who 
spoke English, to offer to the garrison terms of surrender. 


These were very favorable, namely, that their lives should be 
spared and they exchanged for as many Indian prisoners then 
among the whites. No sooner were these terms accepted and 
the prisoners beginning to leave the house, than Doublehead 
and his party fell upon the men and put them to death. He 
treated the women and children with barbarous indelicacy 
and then killed them. John Watts, who was the main leader 
of the expedition, interposed and saved one of Cavet's sons, 
and poor Benge, who first proposed the conditions of surrender, 
was all the time striving, to no purpose, to check the murderous 
atrocities of Doublehead. 

"How different this confused havoc from the measured 
discipline of the Roman legion where to fight 'extra ordinem,' 
as Sallust says, that is to overstep the battle line and to fight 
alone in front of it, was an offense to be punished with capital 

"When the Indians had accomplished this inglorious deed, 
they made for a well known house on Beaver creek, twelve 
miles from Knoxville, now owned by Mr. Callaway. That 
house had been occupied by Mr. Luke Lea's father. That 
gentleman, from an apprehension of danger, had removed his 
family to the present residence of Col. Miller Francis, only a 
week previous to this terrible morning, and thus happily saved 
them from becoming the victims of Indian fury. Some of 
their bed clothes were still left in the house, and the wheat 
stacks standing by the barns and stables. The whole was soon 
a heap of ashes. 

"The Indians retreated with characteristic speed and ad- 
dress. They sought the fastness of Clinch, and by a brisk 
march they were soon beyond the reach of immediate danger. 
Danger awaited them still. In three weeks they were bearded 
out of their own den by Sevier's invasion." 

Having summoned reinforcements for immediate pursuit, 
the dashing and knightly Sevier was soon on the trail of the 
murderers. The restrictions against carrying the war into the 
enemies' country were removed by the territorial secretary, 


Daniel Smith, and Sevier, infusing his own impetuous courage 
into the spirits of his men, with the speed and fury of the 
hurricane, struck such blows with torch and sword as to 
cause a sudden cessation of Indian hostilities. The campaign, 
extending as far down as the present site of Rome, Georgia, 
is memorable as his last and one of his most effective. Knox- 
ville was relieved ; the gallant soldiery returned with the small 
loss of three men ; Sevier was to enter upon the larger field of 
civil affairs and administrative duties.* 

'Humes, Address. 38, 39; Ramsey, 588, 589. 



Hamilton District — Sufferings from Indians — Appeals for Succor — Elec- 
tions to Territorial Legislature — Preliminary Session — Spirit of 
Legislators — Active Measures for Resistance to Indian Depreda- 
tions — First Regular Session — Acts Touching Education and Tax- 
ation — Act Preparatory to Organization of the State — Constitutional 

GOVERNOR BLOUNT, on March 13, 1793. estab- 
lished a third judicial district, calling- it Hamilton in 
honor of Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury' 
in Washington's cabinet. It comprised the counties of Knox 
and Jefferson, and its courts were to be held in April and Oc- 
tober of each year in Knoxville. At the sitting of the October 
court, in 1793, the grand jury of the district issued an address 
to the governor upon his return from Philadelphia. Therein 
they express in most cordial terms an appreciation of his work 
and services in behalf of the territory over which he presided, 
but lament its sufferings from the atrocious conduct of the 
Indians and hope for a speedy recognition of its needs and a 
declaration of war to prevent further outrages. At the same 
time they remind him of the fact that their numbers had 
reached five thousand free male inhabitants, which warranted 
by congressional ordinance the organization of the territorial 
legislature. This address, dated at Knoxville, October 17, 
1793, is signed by James Roddye, foreman. Joshua Gist, Adam 
Meek, Samuel Wear, John Adair. Adam Peck. James Hill, 
John Blackburn, George McNutt, John Kean. William Donald- 
son, Garret Fitzgerald, William Lea, Thomas McCulloch and 
Jeremiah Jack.* 

As the initial movement towards the formation of a ter- 

*Knoxville Gazette. November 23, 1793. 



ritorial legislature this document possesses a unique in- 
terest. In so far as his authority lay, ever alert to the 
reasonable demands and evident interests of the people, Gov- 
ernor Blount without delay ordered an election of representa- 
tives on the 22d and 23d of December, 1793.* Col. Alexander 
Kelly and Capt. John Beard, both tried Indian fighters, were 
elected to represent Knox county. With the election returns 
all in, the governor on January 1st following called the legis- 
lature to convene at Knoxville on the fourth Monday of Febru- 
ary. In session, religious services marked the beginning. The 
Rev. Samuel Carrick, at the time pastor of the Presbyterian 
church in Knoxville, having offered prayer, preached a sermon 
from this text : "In hope of eternal life, which God, that can- 
not lie, promised before the world began ; but hath in due time 
manifested his word through preaching, which is committed 
unto me according to the commandment of God our Savior. 
Titus 1 : 2, 3." At the outset steps were taken for the organ- 
ization of a duly-constituted law-making body by recom- 
mending to congress ten men, from whom were to be selected 
five as members of the legislative council, the upper house by 
provision of the ordinance of 1787. In the matters of election 
and selection Governor Blount carefully abstained from inter- 
ference by suggestion or recommendation. He says: "I call 
the persons elected to represent the several counties together 
at so early a period that the nomination of counsellors may be 
before Congress in the present session, otherwise there could 
not be a general assembly in the territory until after the next 
session of congress. Who shall lie counsellors I don't care, 
provided they have ability to do their duty."f This was 
another exhibition of that sound judgment and wise policy 
he had displayed when he took charge of the affairs of the 
territory, selecting for office men in accord with the wishes 
of the people. 

* Haywood, 312. 

tLetter to James Robertson. January 19, 1794. in American Historical 
Magazine. Vol. Ill, 283. 



Much has been said and made of the earnest men who 
participated in the Watauga Association, the Cumberland 
Compact, and the state of Franklin, and of the measures and 
principles they advocated. Their deeds and deliberations have 
been far and widely heralded, but not so much is written of 
this first legislative council in Tennessee, which, acting under 
duly authorized calls, entered with patriotic zeal and intelli- 
gent foresight into the consideration and adoption of such 
laws as concerned the immediate pressing and undeniable needs 
of their constituents. Still the question of all-absorbing pub- 
lic interest was the hostile attitude and violent outbreaks of the 
Indians. For months previous this editorial paragraph had 
been running through successive issues of the Gazette: ''The 
Creek nation must be destroyed ! or the southwestern frontier, 
from the mouth of St. Mary's to the western extremity of Ken- 
tucky and Virginia will l>e incessantly harassed by them. 
Dclcnda est Carthago!" Accordingly the first utterances upon 
assembling were appeals to the governor and to congress to 
aid in the suppression of the murders, robberies, cruelties and 
indignities by which their lives and interests were constantly 
imperiled. Deeming themselves almost a merciless and helpless 
prey to the ferocity of their enemies, yet without the abandon- 
ment of hope, there is a touching and melancholy pathos in 
this description of their suffering: "Scarcely is there a man 
of this body but can recount a dear wife or child, an aged 
parent or near relation, besides friends, massacred by the 
hands of these bloodthirsty nations, in their houses or fields ; 
nor are our friends and neighbors less miserable. They, too, 
can enumerate the suffering of equal calamities."* The appeal 
to congress was not without some tangible results. A com- 
mittee, in their report upon the memorial, expressed deep sym- 
pathy with the petitioners and their objects, and recommended 
measures for the immediate pursuit and punishment of the 
Indians. The house of representatives approved and ordered 

*Hay\vood, 315. 


a bill, but it finally failed. However, through an organized 
medium, congress had been reached and enlightened.! 

Having finished such business as could properly come before 
it at this preliminary session, the legislature was prorogued 
by the governor to meet on the fourth Monday of August, 
1794. In the meantime congress nominated the legislative 
council, and President Washington commissioned the follow- 
ing: Griffith Rutherford, James Winchester, John Sevier, 
Stockley Donelson and Parmenas Taylor. In the legislature 
there was but one lawyer, William Cocke, in the lower house. 
It is fair to presume that the absence of lawyers in this and 
the state's first legislature may be attributed to that antipathy 
to and distrust of the legal profession manifested ten years 
before in the Houston draft of the Frankland constitution, a 
section of which excluded attorneys at law from becoming 
members of the legislature. 

The first regular session of the legislature met August 25, 
1794, and continued to September 30, 1794. Deducting five 
Sundays, it was in session thirty-two working days and passed 
twenty-three acts. At once rules, some of them quaint, were 
adopted, committees appointed and bills introduced. In the 
constituting of committees the names of the Knox county rep- 
resentatives do not appear, they on the third day of the session 
as officers of the militia having been granted leave of absence 
to go on a scouting expedition against the Cherokee Indians. 
The first act proposed and passed reflects the wisdom and 
beneficence of the body, being one to establish Greeneville 
college. The acts of greatest local interest were the establish- 
ing of the town Knoxville and of Blount college, and of the 
office of public printer to be filled by George Roulstone, editor 
of the Knoxville Gazette. Other acts affected more or less 
directly local interests and welfare. Governor Blount was 
assiduous in his attention to the wants of the law-makers and 
generous with his advice. The most elaborate and most im- 
portant act of the session, that establishing the courts and 

tHaywood. 329. 


regulating them, was a measure drafted by him, a deed which 
received the hearty thanks of the legislative body. The bill 
which provoked most discussion and elicited a wide divergence 
of views was the tax bill, the leading point at issue being 
whether lands should be taxed at twelve and a half, eighteen 
or twenty-five cents per hundred acres. The council supported 
the first, then the second, and finally acceded to the demands 
of the house, which championed the last. Besides land, other 
sources of revenue or subjects of taxation were free males and 
male servants between the ages of twenty-one and fifty years, . 
all slaves between ten and fifty years of age, all stud horses 
and all town lots, "a rather queer combination," according to 
Theodore Roosevelt.* 

As evidence of the diligence and fidelity of these public 
servants the fact is mentioned that many of their sessions began 
at seven o'clock in the morning, and that the two houses on 
one occasion met for conference at four o'clock in the after- 
noon. The meeting place for conference was the court house, 
a one-story building about thirty feet long and twenty-five 
feet broad, which afforded the only available room in the town 
sufficiently large for a joint session. The legislative council 
met either in the barracks or the house of John Stone ; the 
house met sometimes in another room of the barracks or at 
Carmichael's tavern. In the settlement of the expenses in- 
curred ten dollars were allowed John Stone for the use of 
his room, and five dollars to James White for the court 
house, f 

The legislature adjourned to meet by the governor's call, on 
the first Monday in October. 1795. Rapidly changing condi- 
tions, the growth and prosperity of the territory, the successful 
invasion of the Lower Cherokee towns and the disastrous de- 
struction of Nickojack and Running Water, the effectual sup- 
pressing of Indian expeditions, the growing feeling of security, 

*Laws of the State of Tennessee, published by G. Roulstone in 1803, 
p. 29: Roosevelt. Winning of the West, Vol. IV, 112. 
t Ramsey, 630. 635. 


the flush state of the treasury, and the belief that, with the 
dignity of statehood, the people through their representatives 
in congress might enjoy greater benefits — these made the 
movement for admission into the Union a common impulse. 
Governor Blount gave his cordial sanction to the movement 
and contributed his personal efforts and influence to this end. 
Instead of waiting the appointed time for the second session 
of the legislature, he summoned it to convene on June 2Q, 


The most important measure under consideration was the 
passage of an act for the enumeration of the population, to 
ascertain whether there were as many as sixty thousand inhab- 
itants to meet the requirements for the organization of a state 
government. The bill passed with one dissenting vote. This 
session was brief, extending to July 1 ith. Only fourteen acts 
were passed, among them one being for the establishment of 
Blount county taken from the territory of Knox county. The 
tax rate was lowered, even going so far as to accept the con- 
tention of the legislative council at the former session, that 
land should be taxed twelve and a half cents per hundred 
acres. In fact, everything taxable was cut in half. 

In accordance with the act of enumeration a census was 
ordered by the governor and taken by the sheriffs in their 
respective counties. By November 28th all returns were made, 
and the governor announced to the President the result. The 
population. 77,262, was found to exceed greatly the required 
number. There were nine thousand voters and sixty-five hun- 
dred of these expressed preference for the organization of the 
state. Wherefore Governor Blount issued a proclamation call- 
ing upon each county to choose in December five delegates to 
a constitutional convention, called to meet in Knoxville on 
January 11, 1796. Elections were held, Knox county sent 
a delegation composed of William Blount, James White, 
Charles McClung. John Adair and John Crawford, the dele- 
gates met and drafted a constitution characterized by Thomas 
Jefferson as the least imperfect and most republican of any 


of the constitutions adopted up to that time.* After some de- 
lay in congress, caused by political jealousy, on June i. 1796, 
Tennessee was admitted into the Union, with its capital at 

*For a full account of the work and proceedings of the constitutional 
convention, see Caldwell's Constitutional History of Tennessee. 73-108: 
paper on the "Constitutional Convention of 1796." by Edward T. Sanford, 
Esq., in Proceedings of the Bar Association of Tennessee, 1896. 92-148. 



Population — Interest in Education — Early Teachers — Samuel -G&rnik-4? a.r r t e^li- 
His School— Blount College — Presbyterian Church Organized — 
Printing Press — Literary Effort — Books— Physicians — Amusements 
— Darker Phases — Strong Elements of Character. 

THE early history of Knoxville is, for the most part, 
the history of Indian hostilities and governmental be- 
ginnings. Having followed as minutely as the sources 
permit its military and political history, it remains to look 
at that side of the people's life which indicates most accurately 
the present status and determines most largely the future. This 
involves their interest in education, religion and literature, 
their social intercourse and their mode of life. 

One has but to note the constituent elements of a population 
to determine its interest in matters of education. Knox county, 
like the remainder of East Tennessee, having been settled 
largely by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who fostered education 
along with religion, the school house sprang up by the side of 
the house of worship, and the rudiments of knowledge were 
inculcated with the principles of religion. At the outset the 
interests of education suffered materially from the fact that 
communities were sparsely settled, from the dangers of Indian 
attacks, from the necessities imposed by pioneer life when the 
boys had to hew down the forests and till the soil, and the girls 
attend to the spinning wheel, loom and other domestic duties. 
"Go to school half the year and work the other half," was the 
rule governing school attendance. The character of instruction 
was as a rule quite indifferent. Some of the teachers were of 
the itinerant class with no thought of permanency, some in- 
temperate and ill-humored, who chastised unmercifully and 
injudiciously, while others were devoted to their work and 


spent their lives in the cause. Governor John Reynolds of 
Illinois, who spent his early childhood in the vicinity of Knox- 
ville prior to the removal of his family to that state, has left 
this testimony to the types of teachers and methods of instruc- 
tion then employed : "I was sent to school at a tender age. 
My first teacher was a cross, ill-natured Irishman, as unsuitable 
a character as can be well imagined to have the charge of a 
young and diffident child. I was often severely chastised, 
though I had not intentionally committed any fault. The 
scholars soon learned to detest him and learned little else. The 
unjust severity with which I was treated made the very name 
of school odious to me. My next teacher was a just and kind- 
hearted man, who was much esteemed by his pupils. Under 
his tuition I became fond of going to school, and improved 
rapidly. I attended these schools in 1794-95."* 

As far as the record goes, the two earliest known instructors 
in or around Knoxville were the Rev. Samuel Carrick and 
Governor Archibald Roane, and the first pupil Hugh Lawson 
White, distinguished names in the annals of the statef The 
Memoir states that when young White was fifteen years of 
age, in 1788, he was studying the ancient languages under the 
tutorage of these teachers, Samuel Carrick being a young 
Presbyterian minister and Archibald Roane a young barrister. 
The pioneer teacher of Knoxville then was the Rev. Samuel 
Carrick, who settled in the vicinity of the place in 1791. Mr. 
Carrick had visited this portion of the country in 1787, and it 
is maintained by some that he became a resident within the 
present limits of Knox county the next year. However, his 
dismissal from Hanover to Abingdon Presbytery, and his 
resignation of the trusteeship of Liberty Hall academy in 1791 
fix this year as that of the removal. J He took charge of Leb- 

*Life and Times of Governor John Reynolds, 12, 13. Governor Reyn- 
olds returned in 1810 to Knox county to pursue his studies under the 
; Rev. Isaac Anderson at old Union academy, on the present Washington 
pike, where he was a schoolmate of Sam Houston. 

tNancy Scott. Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, 9. 

tDr. James Park. Address upon the Centennial Anniversary, of the 
First Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, 12; General Catalogue of Wash- 
ington and Lee University. 57. 


anon church in the Fork and taught in connection with his 
pastorate. His home was fixed on a farm four miles northeast 
of Knoxville, at the west end of the present county bridge over 
Holston river. Here, in December, 1792. he planned an insti- 
tution of large scope and pretensions. It was to be opened on 
January 1, 1793, at his "seat" and under his direction, wherein 
should be given a "competent introduction to Latin and Greek 
languages, attention being particularly given to grammatical 
construction, pronunciation, the design and connection of 
each author; the English language grammatically, applying 
the rules in reading, parsing, correcting and composing; the 
liberal arts and sciences, viz., geography, logic, natural and 
moral philosophy, astronomy and rhetoric. The seminary 
will open two sessions in the year, continuing five months 
each. The terms will be $7.00 per scholar for each session, 
paid at entering. Beginners in Latin will be admitted at the 
beginning of the session only, which will be the first of Janu- 
ary and the first of July annually. "f 

The next and the most important and far-reaching step in 
the educational beginnings of Knoxville was the already men- 
tioned establishment of Blount college, now University of Ten- 
nessee. § The first president was the Rev. Samuel Carrick. 

The first and only church organization prior to 1796 was 
the First Presbyterian church, organized in or before 1793. 
The Rev. Samuel Carrick, as mentioned, in February, 1794, 
delivered before the territorial legislature a discourse which 
was subsequently published and advertised as preached by the 
"pastor of the church in Knoxville."* The congregation 
worshiped either in the court house or in the barracks, as they 
continued to do for some years. The original bench of elders 
was composed of James White, John Adair and George Mc- 

■"" tKnoxville Gazette, December 1, 1792. 

§For full particulars of the history of this institution see Moses White. 
Early History of the University of Tennessee; T. C. Karns, History of 
the University of Tennessee in Merriam's Higher Education in Tennes- 
see: Edward T. Sanford, Blount College and the University of Tennessee. 
*Gazette, April 10, 1794. 


Nutt.f The foundation of this congregation, built upon a 
quickened conscience and an unswerving faith, has left its 
enduring impress upon the community. 

The presence of the printing press encouraged immediately 
literary effort and production. Published discourses by the 
Revs. Samuel Carrick and Hezekiah Balch were announced 
for sale in the columns of the Gazette. The controversial spirit, 
so characteristic of the people at a later stage of their history 
when political and religious divisions arose, manifested itself at 
the outset. Correspondents signing their names "Trenck," 
"The Reviewers" and "Amicus," fulminated their views 
through Roulstone's bi-monthly organ and sparred at each 
other with incisive pen. The first effort or attempt at anything 
of a permanent nature and value was put forth by William 
Tatham, who first appears upon the stage of Tennessee history 
as one of the commissioners of the Watauga Association and 
the clerk of the court or committee of five. Later he was asso- 
ciated with Spruce McCay and William R. Davie, Esquires. 
in the land warrant business. He is best known by his famous 
"Fiat justitia" promulgation — a protest against the selfish 
policy of Joseph Hamilton, James Reese, Archibald Roane, 
Hopkins Lacy and S. Mitchell, lawyers constituting the Knox- 
ville bar, who advertise that they will enter into no suit unless 
paid therefor in advance.* Influenced by his interest in the 
welfare of the southwestern country whose cause he had early 
espoused, anxious to remove all impressions prejudicial to the 
truthful history and real status thereof, and wishing to intro- 
duce strangers to a knowledge or better conception through 
maps and correct accounts, he proposed to write the history of 
its rise and progress from the first settlement or lease from 
the Indians and to illustrate it by maps. Making Knoxville 
his headquarters, he eagerly sought all data in the way of 
history and geography.! The arrival of Col. Tatham was 

tDr. James Park, Centennial Address. 17. 
*Gazette. March 23, 1793. 
tGazette. November 3, 1793. 


heralded by Roulstone with his accustomed enterprise and en- 
thusiasm. The editor said : "Col. Tatham, we are happy to 
saw has arrived with a large amount of geographical materials 
and fixed his office in this town. This gentleman has been 
at considerable pains and expense to perfect a map of the south- 
ern states, which is now far advanced, and will be shortly 
completed. This work is fully descriptive of the country, and 
very neatly executed. Col. Tatham has also engaged, under 
the patronage of his excellency Governor Blount, to bring for- 
ward a map of the rising territory, for which purpose he is 
about surveying the rivers, roads, etc. 

"We need not inform our fellow-citizens how much their 
prosperity will be enhanced bv this careful work. It is there- 
fore hoped that those who possess partial surveys or drawings 
of any part of the country will furnish them for the use of this 
undertaking, and that the respective surveyors and others, who 
possess personal information, will cheerfully contribute their 
aid."* If anything ever came of this highly commended ven- 
ture, the muse of history has thrown the mantle of oblivion 
over it. 

The tastes of the reading public are best indicated by the 
advertisements appearing from time to time in the Gazette. 
Samuel and Nathaniel Cowan offer for sale the following: 
Hervev's Meditations, Wilson's works. Marshall's works. 
Bibles, Testaments, spelling books, hymn books, primers, 
Philadelphia Harmony, Buchan's Family Physician. Titus 
Ogden advertised at his store on State street copies of Iredell's 
Revisal of the Laws of North Carolina and Martin's Justice. 
Roulstone & Co. offer for sale Toplady's Translation of 
Zanchi on Predestination. 

No community is complete in equipment that does not have 
its physicians for the body as well as for the soul. Dr. James 
Cozby was the pioneer doctor of the vicinity of Knoxville. ad- 
ministering antidotes against disease and performing opera- 
te ms of surgery. About the middle of May. 1794. Dr. Thomas 
*Gazette, March 23. 1793. 


McCombs tenders his professional services to the people of 
Knoxville, bespeaking a share of their patronage and basing 
his claims upon the long studies and careful training he had 
enjoyed in the Atlantic states under eminent practitioners, and 
upon fidelity to his profession. He proposes to keep on hand 
a large assortment and supply of genuine medicine, as if there 
were adulterated medicines in those good old days.* In the 
summer of the same year Dr. Robert Johnston advertises, and 
only a few months afterwards calls for a settlement of bills and 

With the seriousness and earnestness crowded into their 
lives, the first settlers were not without the means and occasions 
of amusement. Corn huskings, house raisings, log rollings, 
quiltings and dances made up largely the sports of the country 
people, while balls, receptions. Fourth of July celebrations and 
school exhibitions furnished those of the town. Mary Graing- 
er Blount, the accomplished wife of the governor, was in all 
these the center of attraction, and her entertainments were 
the models after which others were patterned. The gay uni- 
forms of young officers, the rich silks of young maidens, the 
flare of multitudinous lights from candelabra, and the soul- 
stirring music of fife, bugle, drum and violin throw a glamour 
of romance over the scene. 

An account of the Fourth of July celebration in 1793 has 
been left, which offers a pleasing view of the festivities in- 
dulged in on that occasion. At two o'clock in the afternoon 
the federal troops under the command of Capt. Rickard 
paraded before the public and fired the federal salute. The 
handsome appearance of the company and the thorough exe- 
cution of the evolutions made a great impression. At four 
o'clock the citizens of the town partook of an elegant banquet, 
after which toasts were drunk as follows : 

1. The day. 2. The illustrious chief magistrate of the United 
States. 3. The Honorable Secretary of State. 4. The Hon- 
orable Secretary of War. 5. The Honorable Secretary of the 

*Knoxville Gazette. May 8. 1794. 


Treasury. 6. The Honorable Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. 7. His Excellency William Blount. 8. 
The Honorable Secretary Smith. 9. The Honorable Judges 
of the Southwest Territory. 10. The Ministers of Spain and 
America, who have opened up the navigation of the Mississippi. 
1 1 . ( ien. Wayne and bis Army. 12. Piamingo and the Chicka- 
saw Nation. .13. May the wisdom and humanity of the Gen- 
eral Government soon put an end to the distresses of our fellow- 
citizens of the frontier. 14. The virtuous but unfortunate 
LaFayette. may he be restored to freedom and America. 15. 
The friends of freedom, who are this day assembled to cele- 
brate the glorious epoch of our liberty. "In the evening Mr. 
Rickard's company were under arms ; they were drawn up in 
a grove near the encampment, where they fired a feu de joic, 
which, from the darkness of the evening and the judicious 
manner in which the company was disposed, produced a most 
pleasing effect ; after which there was a display of fireworks, 
from an elegant colonnade in front of Mr. Rickard's marque. " A 
Another favorite source of amusement was the exhibition 
given by the students, boys and girls, of Blount college. It 
must be recalled that this was long before the era of stump 
speaking and political campaigning, so that every gathering 
of the kind was a strong social bond and provided an excellent 
opportunity for social intercourse. An open space, in the rear 
of the barracks and included in its grounds, was the scene 
of festivities. From a platform, whose sounding board was 
one side of the building, the youthful declaimers, orators and 
composers, presented in formal phrase to the audience by Mr. 
Carrick. poured forth upon waiting ears rhythmic melodies, 
stirring eloquence, descriptive effusions and moral essays. The 
interspersing of booming cannon and martial music added to 
the enthusiasm of the occasion. f To appear creditably before 
his hearers was the crowning ambition of the young partici- 
pant, while their applause and commendation made him the 

*Knoxville Gazette. July 13. 1793- 

tDr. Humes. Semi-Cententiial Address. 60. 


hero of the hour, the pride of his home, and the joy of his 

It would be misleading to leave the impression that there 
were no darker sides or pictures to this pioneer life. That 
there were miscreants and stirrers-up of strife, brawls and dis- 
sensions goes without saying. Some of these were inexcusable, 
some ludicrous. Like John Overton, foundet of Memphis. 
James White was troubled with depredations upon his timber 
lands, and repeatedly warned the culprits with threats of prose- 
cution. The following incident shows that advantage was 
taken sometimes when least expected, and that the dissentients 
aired their grievances through the public print. Capt. Par- 
menas Taylor, one of the legislative council, returning from a 
campaign with John Sevier, left his horse, suffering from foot 
evil, at the home of his friend, Capt. A. Bird. There the ani- 
mal was left from October. 1793. to April following, when a 
board bill was presented to Taylor for $80, though the horse 
was valued at $100. Upon protest Bird abated $50, where- 
upon Taylor "submitted a statement to the candid public to 
judge of the righteousness of the charge."* 

The murderous career of the Harpes, who plied their bloody 
vocation towards the end of the period under survey, forms as 
dark a picture as the annals of demoniacal fury and bloodthirsty 
malice unfold. 

Glancing back over the trend of events from the beginnings 
of Knoxville to the time of Tennessee's admission to the Uni< in, 
its growth and development, it will lie seen, depended upon 
those factors which lie at the basis of national wealth and 
prosperity — a sturdy manhood and a courageous woman- 
hood, flinching not in the presence of dangers and obstacles, 
but keeping in view one undeviating purpose, the redemption 
of the soil from barbarism and the dedication of effort to the 
upbuilding of a strong and enduring social fabric. 

*Gazette. May 8. 1794. 



First White Settlement — Original Capital of Tennessee — Incorporated 
in 1815 — Looking for Railroads — Gas Lights Introduced — Extension 
of Corporate Limits — First Steam Fire Engine — Market Established 
— Fire Department Created — Water Works — System of Sewers- 
Names of Mayors — Paving Streets and Building Bridges — List of 
Postmasters — Three Municipalities Consolidated. 

IN 1790 North Carolina ceded to the national government, 
which cession was finally accepted, the territory which now 
composes the state of Tennessee. In May following con- 
gress passed a law for the government of the territory south- 
west of the River Ohio, which law or ordinance followed the 
general lines of the famous ordinance of 1787, with this differ- 
ence that North Carolina made the cession conditional upon 
the non-passage of any law tending to emancipate the slaves, 
which doomed the great Southwest to suffer from negro 
slavery, and as one of its remote results brought on the war 
of 1861-65. 

William Blount of North Carolina was appointed governor 
of the new territory and at once proceeded to his new home. 
The town of Knoxville was soon afterwards selected as the 
capital, where Governor Blount built a good house, which had 
a lawn in front. The two districts into which the territory 
was then divided were named Washington and Miro (Mero), 
John Sevier being appointed brigadier-general of the former, 
or Eastern district, and James Robertson of the latter or 
Western district. 

Early in 1791 Governor Blount entered into a treaty with 
the Cherokee Indians or with their principal chiefs and hun- 
dreds of their principal warriors, meeting on the Holston, and 
there in consideration of an annuity of $1,000, afterwards 
increased to $1,500, these Cherokees surrendered all their 



claims to the various tracts of land for which they had claimed 
Under former treaties. This treaty with the Cherokees in 
connection with a treaty made with the Creek Indians the 
previous year, extinguished the Indian title to all the lands 
in Tennessee, with the exception to some lands in the western 
part of the state, still held by the Chickasaws, and_thus the 
whole of East Tennessee came into possession of the whites. 

One of the taverns of those early days in Knoxville adver- 
tised its rates as follows : One shilling for breakfast, one 
shilling for supper, and one shilling and sixpence for dinner. 
Board and lodging by the week was two dollars, and board 
alone, nine shillings. 

White's Fort, as this place was called before it was 
named Knoxville, was the center of the settlement here. The 
treaty ground was at the foot of Water street. Knoxville was 
laid off in February, 1792, by Col. James White, the town 
consisting of the necessary streets and sixteen squares, four 
squares each way, and each square containing four lots. These 
sixteen squares were bounded by the following streets, as they 
are to-day: Church street on the north. Front street along 
the Holston river on the south ; Crooked or Walnut street on 
the west, and Water street running along First creek on the 
east. A portion of the lots within these boundaries was sold 
in 1 79 1, and after the laying off of the town in 1792 small 
buildings were erected, and lots were designated by the pro- 
prietor for county purposes. Temporary buildings for a court 
house and jail were erected, the court house being on the lot 
adjoining and west of the residence of S. R. Rogers. The 
jail was constructed of logs one foot square laid down close 
together, and the floor and loft were of similar materials. It 
was inclosed with long palisades driven deeply into the ground 
and sharpened at the top. The building was about sixteen 
feet square and stood near the spot formerly occupied by the 
Bank of East Tennessee at the corner of Gay and Main streets. 

Barracks were erected and extended from Gay to' Prince 
street and embraced the entire front of that square on Main 


street. This building was made of logs notched closely to- 
gether, and though an extensive was not an expensive struc- 
ture. Being constructed as it was it was secure as a defense 
against small arms. The second story projected two feet 
beyond the first on every side, so as to prevent the application 
of fire in case of a siege. Portholes were left in both stories 
at suitable distances, and the entire area around the building 
was cleared of trees as far as a rifle would carry a ball, not 
even a stump being left large enough to protect the body of 
an enemy. In 1793 the first government troops were sta- 
tioned in Knoxville. The barracks referred to above stood 
where now the court house stands. 

The first lots improved were those nearest the river in the 
southeast corner of the town, but it was not until 1794 that 
the trees were cut down from the lots afterward owned by 
Capt. Crozier east of Gay and north of Cumberland street. 
Crozier's corner was then considered out of town. The cabin 
of Gov. Blount was on the knoll between the university and 
the river. Afterward a more suitable residence location was 
selected by him, on the lot afterward owned by Judge Boyd. 
The mansion stood near the center of the lot. the grounds being 
quite extensively improved. The governor's office was imme- 
diately between his own residence and Chisdlm's tavern, the 
pioneer tavern of the place. Col. McClung's clerk's office 
was on the corner afterward known as Craighead's. Nathan- 
iel Cowan's house was on the corner of Water and River 
streets. Stone's tavern was on the property known as Park's 
corner, and Joseph Greer resided on the lot afterward owned 
by S. R. Rogers. 

The approach to Knoxville was at first along the deep hollow 
or ravine which reached Cumberland street before its junction 
with Main, in front of where stood the residence of Major 

When the legislature adjourned in 1794 the two houses 
concurred in a resolution allowing James White five dollars 
f 1 >r the use of the court house during the session of the assem- 


bly. The following quotation is from Ramsey, pages 638-9: 
"Among other acts of a local character (passed at the session 
of October, 1 795 ) , was one for establishing Knoxville. It was 
at that time the seat of the territorial government, and so con- 
tinued to be during the existence of that organization. It be- 
came the seat of government of the state of Tennessee and so 
continued to be for many years after. Kingston, Murfrees- 
bo rough and Nashville were its successors for several years, 
when in 181 7 Knoxville again became the seat of govern- 
ment, but for the last time. The sudden flood of emigration 
toward the West had carried with it the center of population 
beyond the Cumberland mountains, and with it the seat of 
government. The scepter had departed from her ; but time and 
change and progress cannot deprive her of her ancient honors, 
nor make her less venerable for the proud associations that clus- 
ter around her early history. Here Squollecuttah, Kunokeskie, 
Nemtooyah, Chuquilatague, Enolchi. Talohtuski and other 
chieftains of the Cherokee nation met Governor Blount for 
council, smoked the pipe of peace and formed the treaty of 
Holston ; here the pious White was joined in the wilderness, 
lived his life in patriarchal simplicity and unostentatious use- 
fulness ; here died the founder of Knoxville and his memory 
is here embalmed in the affectionate remembrance of a succeed- 
ing generation. Here the infant government of the territory 
was cradled and afterward in its youth was nurtured by the 
paternal care of Blount. Anderson and Campbell. Here, too, 
the sages and patriots of 1794 met and deliberated and made 
laws. Here, too, was born the infant Hercules, since become 
the giant Tennessee. Tennessee looks back to Knoxville and 
recognizes her as the home of her youth and the fond center 
of her heart's recollections." 

On November 28. 1795. Governor Blount certified to the 
legislature a schedule of the inhabitants of the territory, the 
enumeration having been taken with a view of ascertaining 
whether there were people enough within the territory for the 
formation of a state. Knox county in that schedule is credited 


with inhabitants as follows : Free white males sixteen years 
and upward, including heads of families, 2,721; free white 
males under sixteen, 2.723 ; free white females, including heads 
of families, 3,664; all other free persons, 100; slaves, 2,365; 
total number of inhabitants, 1 1.573 • voting for the formation 
of a state government, 1.100; against it, 128. 

On the same day the governor issued a proclamation pro- 
viding for elections to be held in each county, at which five 
delegates to> a constitutional convention were to be elected from 
each of the eleven counties of the state, to convene at Knox- 
ville January 1 1, 1796. The delegates from Knox county were 
William Blount, James White, Charles McClung, John Adair, 
and John Crawford. The session began next day with prayer 
by the Rev. Mr. Carrick, and on the committee to draft the 
constitution were William Blount and Charles McClung, the 
latter being chairman of the committee. The draft of the con- 
stitution was read at the secretary's table January 2j, and 
passed unanimously February 6, 1796. This year Knoxville 
contained forty houses and a population of 1,200. The next 
year the place was selected as the county seat. 

Knoxville remained the capital of the state until 181 1, and 
was again for a short time the capital in 18 17. in which year 
the last session of the legislature was held within its limits. 
In the early days of its history, Knoxville was the home of 
many of the prominent men of the young state, such as William 
Blount. James White, John Sevier, Andrew Jackson and Davy 
Crockett. To the pioneers of the state this city was the dis- 
tributing point for all kinds of goods and supplies, and it has 
since remained the recognized center of trade for not only the 
greater part of East Tennessee, but also for territory beyond 
the limits of the state, and it is now also the educational and 
religious center of a territory far larger than East Tennessee. 

"The original block house was situated on the square on 
which the present court house stands, but a little further to 
the north. The second story overhung the first, and there 
were projecting abutments at each corner. 



"It was in the second story of this block house that the first 
legislature met while Knoxville was the capital of the territory. 
The senate met in the upper story of a log house, afterward 
weatherboarded, belonging to Charles McClung, and standing 
immediately south of the old Webb brick house on the corner 
of Water and Cumberland streets, Water street having since 
borne the name of Crozier street and now Central avenue. 
This old house of Mr. Webb's was the first brick house built 
in Tennessee, and the pioneers had much amusement in wit- 
nessing the efforts to make a house out of 'daubs of mud.' 
The second brick structure in Tennessee was the house used 
by Joseph L. King as a dining room immediately beneath the 
present opera house. The next brick house in Knoxville was 
built by James Park, and is now the residence of Judge Temple. 
On this house was employed William Morgan, of Masonic 
notoriety, Morgan being discharged because of alleged unsatis- 
factory work. He then went to Madisonville. where he pub- 
lished his original exposition of Masonry, but later went to 
Xew York state and ultimately disappeared, some say in the 
waters of Lake Ontario. 

"The first United States troops that came to Knoxville were 
under the command of Lieut. Edmund P. Gaines of the United 
States army, and camped at Cantonment Springs, a few miles 
east of Knoxville. where Dr. Fayette Rogers had some years 
ago a fish hatching establishment. Lieut. Gaines married 
Barbara Blount, the red-headed daughter of Governor 

On October 17, 1797. the legislature passed an act for the 
regulation of Knoxville, and John Adair. Paul Cunningham 
and George McNutt were elected commissioners. These same 
•commissioners had been in their respective offices for several 
years, and were in all probability the first commissioners of 
the town. On August 1, 1794. they leased to Samuel Cowan 
a piece of land "lying and being as follows: adjoining Water 
street and exactly opposite lot No. 1 and lot No. 16, between 

* W. A. Henderson. 


them and the river, the property of said commissioners, given 
to them by James White, agreeable to a copy of an obligation 
inserted in the 4th number of the Knoxville Gazette, Decem- 
ber 17, 1 791, and leased for ninety years from August 1, 1794, 
for and in consideration of one cent to said commissioners in 
hand paid, and to their successors yearly every year on the 
first day of January each year throughout the entire period of 
ninety years." 

This land or lot lay on the side of the hill and was bounded 
as follows: "Beginning at a cedar post, and running thence 
south 35 degrees east six and a half poles to a locust stake; 
thence south 55 degrees west fourteen poles to a locust stake; 
thence north 35 degrees west six and a half poles to a locust 
stake, and thence north 55 degrees east to the be- 

The curious minute is then recorded in the council pro- 
ceedings that "The lease says 93 roods, as well as the plat, 
instead of 2 roods and 13 poles, an error of 22 acres, 2 roods 
and 2j poles." As it is clear that the plat of ground leased, 
being 6\ rods one way and 14 rods the other, contains just 91 
roods, or square rods, or 1 1 square rods more than half an 
acre; how the error above mentioned, of 22 acres, 2 roods and 
2j poles, was 'made would seem extremely difficult of ex- 

Under an act of the legislature passed October 29, 1801, 
the following persons were appointed commissioners of the 
town, the appointment being made January 2, 1802: Jenkins 
Whiteside, Pleasant M. Miller, John Crozier, Francis May 
and Patrick Campbell. On January 4, all being present except 
Mr. Whiteside, they were sworn into office by Robert Craig- 
head, justice of the peace for Knox county. Pleasant M. Miller 
was chosen chairman and George Roulstone. clerk. In 1803 
town 1< its were taxed $2 each, and parts of lots in proportion. 
Each white poll was taxed seventy-five cents and each black 
poll $1.50. 

In 1809 the Knoxville water works were incorporated and 


pure spring water from McCampbell's springs was brought 
to the city by means of logs bored through the center and laid 
along Tazewell pike. 

On October 27, 1815, an act was passed by the legislature 
incorporating the inhabitants of the town of Knoxville, and 
on January 13. 1816, the first meeting of the board of aldermen 
was held in the court house of the county. The members of 
this first board under this act were Thomas Emmerson. Thomas 
McCorry, Rufus Morgan, James Park. Thomas Humes, James 
Dardis and John M. Cullen. James Park, being a justice of 
the peace, swore in the other members, and then James Dardis 
swore in Mr. Park. Thomas Emmerson was elected mayor ; 
Anderson Hutchinson, recorder, and David Nelson, high con- 
stable, and John M. Cullen was appointed treasurer. William 
Park, John Crozier and Calvin Morgan were appointed asses- 
sors, and the tax on real property was fixed at one-fourth of 
one per cent. Each white and slave poll was taxed $1 ; retail 
merchants were required to pay $5 ; retail licenses were $5 ; 
tippling shops had to pay $5 and billiard tables $20. 

On February 20, 181 6, Rufus Morgan, James Dardis and 
Thomas Humes were appointed to contract for and superin- 
tend the erection of a market house, which was to be 26 feet 
long and 18 feet wide. This market house was finished in 
the following December, and Thursdays and Saturdays were 
designated as market days. This market house stood on what 
was then called Market street, now Main street, midway be- 
tween Prince and Walnut streets, the latter being then known 
as Crooked street. The house stood until 1823. when it was 
sold and removed. 

In June, 1817, $340 was appropriated for the improvement 
of the streets; $120 to be expended on Cumberland street. $80 
on State street, $60 on Water street, and the rest on other less 
important streets. In February. 1822, a fire company was 
organized with Calvin Morgan as captain and John Boyd. 
Carey Thatcher. David Campbell and William Park, lieuten- 
ants. An ordinance passed at this time required every owner 



of a dwelling, office or store to provide a leather bucket. At 
the next meeting Thomas Aiken and James Hickey were 
appointed night watchmen, whose duty it was made to patrol 
the streets and to call the hour and the state of the weather 
at the end of each hour. 

In 1826 a systematic effort was made for the first time to 
improve the streets of Knoxville. All free inhabitants and 
slaves of the description subject by the laws of Tennessee to 
w 1 nk on the public roads ( except students in East Tennessee 
university) were required to work on the streets four days 
during each year, or pay seventy-five cents forfeiture for each 
day's failure. The city was at this time divided into three 
wards ; the first ward being that portion of the city east of 
State street and extending north to the boundary street of 
the town, which is now Clinch street; the second ward in- 
cluded that portion of the town lying between the 
first ward and Prince street, extending north to 
College street, and the third ward embraced the 
remainder of the town west of the second ward. Overseers 
of the streets for each ward were appointed, their duties being 
the same as those oi overseers of highways. An ad valorem 
tax on real estate was levied and the moneys thus raised on 
any street were to be expended on that particular street ; 
moneys raised on corner lots to be expended equally on the 
contiguous streets. Street commissioners were appointed to 
disburse the moneys appropriated for the respective streets. 
The property owners on Main street petitioned the board of 
aldermen to double their taxes for street improvement ! 

In January. 1839, the citizens of Knoxville for the first 
time elected their mayor, that officer having previously been 
chosen by the aldermen from their own number. At this 
election W. B. A. Ramsey was elected, receiving forty-nine 
votes to forty-eight cast for James Park. 

About this time it was thought that Prince street would 
be the principal thoroughfare of the city, and that State street 
would be a very important one; but by 1852 Gay street had 


captured about three-fourths of the trade, and it was then 
determined to permanently improve this street. 

In 1837 and 1838 the subject of water works occupied a 
great deal of attention in the board of mayor and aldermen. 
Messrs. Oldham and Moseley offered the site of their factory 
for a site for such works for $1,500, the board offering the 
bonds of the city for $1,000 bearing interest, and the bonds 
then held by Air. Kennedy as they stood. In March, 1838, 
correspondence was opened with Albert Stein looking to his 
engagement as engineer to superintend the erection of the 
contemplated works, and he was thus engaged. On Novem- 
ber 24 the proposition of Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Morgan was 
accepted, and the mayor ordered to have the premises sur- 
veyed, and was authorized to execute the bonds of the city for 
the payment to Mr. Kennedy, to the amount of $6,500, due 
six months after date, and to execute a tend of the city for 
$1,000 to Calvin Morgan, payable twelve months after date, 
and also an obligation to furnish a hydrant within fifty feet 
of the reservoir to be used by Mr. Morgan exclusively for 
domestic purposes, in payment for a piece of land two hundred 
feet square, for a site for the proposed reservoir. December 31 
Capt. S. S. Thatcher was appointed to superintend the removal 
of Mr. Kennedy's dams on First creek. On January 26, 1839, 
sealed proposals were called for for furnishing 160 tons of 
cast iron pipe for the water works. On March 30, 1839. the 
mayor was authorized to execute the bonds of the corporation 
for $6,500 to the trustees of the East Tennessee college to run 
fifteen years, with interest payable semi-annually, for the pur- 
pose of taking up the bonds previously issued to Mr. Kennedy 
in pavment for a site for the water works. 

In the earlv days, when Knoxville had no fire engine, the 
method of extinguishing fires was exceedingly primitive, and 
interesting to the present age. The fires were put out as best 
the people could manage with buckets and single-handed means. 
About 1 82 1 every head of a family in town was required to 
procure a leathern bucket, holding two gallons, which was so 


prepared as to be water-tight, and afterward each family was 
required to own two such buckets. In 1822 the entire male 
population between the ages of fifteen and fifty was organized 
into one grand fire company, with suitable officers. The first 
fire engine brought to town was very small, and had no hose, 
but had a nozzle about eight feet long. Through this nozzle 
the water was thrown up from a reservoir, which the owners 
of the buckets had to keep full. When an alarm of fire was 
given every owner of a bucket rushed to the scene, together 
with the women and children of his family, and the men 
formed themselves in a line on one side of the streets from 
the creek to the fire, the women and children forming another 
line on the other side of the street. Buckets full of water were 
then passed up from the creek on the side lined up with men 
and down the other side to the creek through the hands of the 
women and children. This old engine thus supplied with 
water lasted until the war, when it was destroyed together 
with many other things and institutions peculiar to this sec- 
tion of the country. Two hand fire engines were purchased in 
the year 1859, and volunteer fire companies were organized. 

On January 13. 1846, an ordinance was passed providing 
for the election of a tax collector and treasurer, whose duty 
it should be to collect the taxes due to the corporation and to 
disburse the funds that might be in the treasury, and that said 
tax collector and treasurer should also act as recorder, and 
that for his services as recorder he should receive $20. On 
the same day Hiram Barry was elected tax collector, but Mr. 
Barry resigned on the 27th of the same month, David A. 
Deaderick being elected in his place. It was also ordained 
at this time that license to sell spirituous or vinous liquors 
within the corporation should be the same sum that was then 
payable to the state, as per the act of January 23, 1846. 

May 13, 1846, the recorder was ordered to make out a list 
of property within the corporation subject to pay tax to the 
state, and that an ad valorem tax of one-half of one per cent 
upon all real property be levied, and that the tax on each free 


poll should be $i and that licenses be issued to merchants and 
others upon their payment of the taxes imposed by ordinance 
of April 14, 1838. 

July 16, 1846, the mayor of the town and I. P. N. Craig- 
head were appointed a committee to secure the construction 
of a suitable house for the fire engine. 

In 1850 it became necessary to exercise control over market 
wagons coming into town from the country, and an ordinance 
was therefore passed requiring the town constable to arrange 
these wagons on the west side of Gay street, extending from 
the corner of Main as far west as the wagons thus arranged 
would extend. 

The board of health for 1850 was appointed March 22, as 
follows : William J. Baker, B. R. Strong, John W. Paxton, 
William Palmer, J. M. Welcker, George McFarlane and R. D. 
Jourolmon. On April 19 the board required all persons who 
had not been vaccinated to be vaccinated. 

July 5, 1850, the mayor and the board of aldermen passed 
a resolution to the effect that the recorder call the citizens of 
each ward together in a meeting at the courthouse in order 
that another effort might be made to organize a fire company 
in the town, and on the 10th of the same month it was ordained 
that in case of the failure to raise sufficient means by taxation 
to complete the improvements on the streets then in progress, 
bonds of the corporation of the denomination of $500, pay- 
able in twenty-five years, be issued to the extent that such im- 
provements might require, provided that not more than 
$10,000 in the aggregate should be issued, and that the bonds 
issued should bear interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum. 

August 7, 1850, the people were notified that on the 17th of 
that month an election would be held for the purpose of ascer- 
taining whether the mayor and the board of aldermen should 
go into the erection of waterworks for the town. 

October 3, 1850, the engineer of the city was instructed to 
ascertain by survey the corporation boundaries, beginning at 
the junction of Main street with Second creek, and ending at 




the north boundary of said corporation, and also to ascertain 
whether Mrs. J. H. Kennedy's kitchen was within the limits 
of the corporation. On the 5th of that month the engineer, 
Albert Miller Lea, reported that in accordance with the above 
resolution he had examined the limits of the corporation on 
the southwest and northwest, and had to report: 1. That all 
the houses along" and near Second creek from the bridge on 
.Main street to the head of Bosworth's dam, were clearly within 
the limits of the city. 2. That the northwestern line of the 
city, assuming the width of the street on the northwest side of 
the Second Presbyterian church lot at the minimum width of 
even thirty-three feet, runs near the mouth of the ravine 
which passes through what is called "William's Grove," 
passes very near to the front wall of the residence of the Rev. 
Air. Myers, cutting off his front yard, and thence crossing the 
field of Calvin Morgan, cuts Gay street near the south edge of 
a clump of plum trees, and passing on leaves off G. M. Hazen's 
lot to the south, and passes through an apple tree some thirty 
feet to the north of the extreme northern corner of the kitchen 
belonging to the residence of Mrs. Jane H. Kennedy, and 
strikes Water street near an oak which is said to be the corner 
of a lot belonging to the corporation. 

On February 21, 1851, the mayor and board of aldermen 
passed the following preambles and resolution : 

"Whereas. The East Tennessee and Virginia railroad and 
the East Tennessee and Georgia railroad are each under con- 
tract for a considerable portion of their respective lines and 
at no distant day will be united at Knoxville, thereby affording 
one great line of railroad from the northeast to> the southwest, 

"Whereas, It is desirable that the precise localities of their 
respective depots at Knoxville be fixed upon and known at as 
early a day as may l>e, therefore 

"Resolved, by the mayor and aldermen of the city of Knox- 
ville, that the respective presidents of said railroads be and 
they are hereby requested to take the necessary measures to 

L cfC. 


fix and establish permanently and definitely the locations of 
their said depots at Knoxville at as early a day as they may 
deem practicable." 

Following up this question of the railroads coming into 
Knoxville it will be interesting to note the course of the mayor 
and board of aldermen and the people themselves with refer- 
ence to the issue of bonds, to aid in the construction of the 
roads. On March 24, 1852, a resolution was adopted to the 
effect that a committee of two be appointed to inquire whether 
or not it would be expedient to submit to the voters within 
the corporation a proposition made on the part of the East 
Tennessee and Virginia Railroad company to the corporate 
authorities of the town to subscribe for stock in said railroad 
company, and to issue coupon bonds in payment of said stock. 
etc. Aldermen Rodgers and Coffin were appointed the com- 

On April 3 a town meeting was held to consider the ques- 
tion of subscribing to the capital stock of the aforesaid com- 
pany it was determined to hold an election at the court house 
to determine the question, $50,000 worth of bonds being the 
amount under consideration, and at this election there were 
cast in all 85 votes, of which 59 were for the bond issue and 
26 against it. These bonds were to run not less than thirty 
nor more than forty years, and the railroad company was to 
pay the interest on them semi-annually until the completion 
of the road, and if on the completion of the road the company 
had not used the bonds it was to have the privilege of return- 
ing those unused. These conditions were not satisfactory to 
the company, and it therefore declined to accept the bonds. 
The corporation thereupon considered itself released from any 
further obligation with reference to the bonds. 

On March 26, 1853, an election was held for the purpose of 
ascertaining the sense of the voters upon the proposition to 
subscribe $50,000 to the bonds of the Knoxville and Lexington 
railroad company, the result being that ninety-two out of nine- 
ty-three votes were cast in favor of the bonds. This railroad 


is now the Knoxville and Ohio. On October 4. 1856, it was 
voted to increase the amount taken in the stock of this com- 
pany to $100,000. This increase was effected by diverting 
the amount, $50,000, from the amount voted on April 26, 
previous, namely, $100,000, toward or for the erection of 
waterworks for the city. The vote on April 26 was 58 in 
favor of the waterworks bonds, and on October 4, on the 
diversion of $50,000 to the railroad, was 144 in favor and 26 
against. This railroad was then called the Knoxville and 
Kentucky railroad. 

On January 16, 1852, it was resolved by the mayor and 
board of aldermen that a number of negro slaves, not to ex- 
ceed fifteen, should be hired to work on the streets of the 
town until December 2^. next ensuing, on the conditions that 
the white employer of the slaves should clothe, board and 
lodge them, pay their doctors' bills and take care of them in 
sickness, losing the time any slave should be sick. 

On February 20, 1852. it was resolved by the mayor and 
board of aldermen that if a slave should within the limits of the 
town empty any slop or other pot liquor upon the guttering 
or upon the streets of said town, or should empty such slop or 
other filth so that the same should run into the gutter or 
streets, such slave should for every such offense receive not 
less than five nor more than fifteen stripes on his or her back 
by one of the town constables, unless the white person in 
whose employ such slave might be should pay a forfeit of one 
dollar in lieu of said stripes. 

In 1 85 1 an ordinance was passed requiring the sidewalks on 
Main and Gay streets to be eleven feet wide, while those on 
other streets were required to be four and a half feet wide. In 
1852 Gay street had become the principal street of the town 
and it was resolved that this street should be macadamized 
and permanently improved as soon as Main street was com- 
pleted to the east side of Gay street, and beginning on the 
south side of Main street, extending the permanent improve- 
ment on Gav street at least as far as the north side of Cumber- 


land street, a suitable number of hands to be kept employed 
in the extension of the Main street improvement to its western 

In 1853 William G. Swan and Joseph A. Mabry presented 
to the town the lot on Market square on which the market 
house now stands, on the condition that the city would erect a 
suitable market house by the first of January, 1854. This 
liberal proposition was accepted and a contract made with 
Newman & Maxwell to build the house. This new market 
house was opened for the first time on January 3 1 ( Tuesday ) , 
1854. Upon the institution of this market house the city 
council passed an ordinance inflicting a fine of $5 in case any 
tw<> or more persons should combine to raise the price of any 
article in the market, or to prevent any article being sold be- 
low any particular price. 

In 1853-54 Gay and Prince streets were paved with river 
rock, or boulders, or, in other words, with cobblestones, and 
these cobblestones are now the foundation upon which rests 
the macadam afterward placed upon Gay street. 

July 2, 1852, upon receipt of the tidings that Henry Clay 
was dead, a full meeting of citizens responded to the call of 
the mayor, George M. White, of which meeting Hon. William 
B. Reese was chairman. A committee of nine was appointed, 
consisting of Col. John H. Crazier, Samuel B. Boyd. George 
M. White. John M. Welcker. William J. Baker, Dr. F. A. 
Ramsey. W. G. McAdoo, W. C. Kain, and James W. Camp- 
bell, which committee reported a series of resolutions expres- 
sive of the sense of the meeting upon the loss of so great a 
man. Following is a portion of the language used: "As the 
melancholy tidings have sped from point to point, from man 
to man. that Henry Clay is dead, every heart has bowed in 
sadness at the thought. All have ceased for a while in the 
toils and cares of life, to pay a moment's adoration to the 
virtues of the dead; the hammer of the artisan, the shuttle of 
the weaver, the axe of the woodsman, have stopped suddenly 
in their course, paying instinctive homage to the American 


statesman. A nation mourns the loss of its greatest orator, 
and one of its most profound and sagacious statesmen and 
purest patriots. Let the people's tears bedew his grave; a 
nation's affection cherish his memory. The name and fame of 
Henry Clay belongs now, not to parties of the day, but to the 
memory of his country; they are blazoned on its proudest 
pages and are linked with the most important epochs of his 
country's greatness and renown." 

On February 9, 1854, it was resolved that State street be 
< >pened to the northern boundary of the corporation. 

February 16, William M. Churchwell and William G. Swan 
were granted the exclusive right to light the city with gas 
and supply it with water or either, the gas works being re- 
quired to be in operation within eighteen months, the mayor 
and aldermen of Knoxville as a corporate body to be supplied 
with as much gas as they might require at no greater price per 
cubic foot than was then being paid by the city of Nashville. 
On April 1 it was ordained that when the above-named gentle- 
men had expended twenty per cent oi the cost of the water- 
works the city would issue ten per cent of the cost in bonds, 
and so on, until the works were completed, the parties erect- 
ing the waterworks to mortgage them to the city and after 
their completion these parties should invest ten per cent of 
the profits therefrom in the bonds of the city or of the countv 
or state, to be used as a sinking fund for the payment of the 
bonds issued to them on the construction of the works. 

On the 19th of April. 1855, the board of health called the 
attention of the authorities to the Flag Pond on the northern 
limits of the city as a fruitful source of disease, suggesting that 
it be drained and its marshy bed be covered over with a 
stratum of clay two feet thick; that the drain leading from Gay 
street down Cumberland street east to First creek be abated, 
and that the drain from the Coleman House be also abated 
as a nuisance. 

On July 2j, 1855, a most curious regulation of the liquor 
traffic was adopted, it being deemed necessary to the good 


order and quiet of the town to require the sale of spirituous 
and vinous liquors to be regulated by the recorder, he being 
given authority to close all saloons whenever he might deem 
it necessary to so close them, notice being given to each saloon- 
keeper in writing by the marshals of the town. The recorder 
was authorized to keep the saloons closed so long as he might 
deem it necessary. This same regulation was again adopted 
in 1858. 

The corporate limits of the city have been several times 
extended. In 1856 they were extended and there were then 
four wards. In 1858 there were five wards, and in 1868 East 
Knoxville, which had previously existed as a separate corpora- 
tion, was taken in. 

On February 19, 1859, two fire engines were purchased 
from William Wilson of Baltimore for $1,200 each, these 
engines reaching the city about March 18. On January 7, 
i860, an election was held for mayor of the city at large, and 
two aldermen from each of the five wards, resulting in the 
election of James C. Luttrell as mayor. The vote cast in the 
five wards for Mr. Luttrell was 155, and for the other two 
candidates, 126. 

The rates of taxation for the last two years before the 
breaking out of the war of the rebellion, 1859 and i860, as 
established by the board of aldermen, were as follows : On 
each $100 worth of real estate, or less, $1 ; on persons engaged 
in speculating - and dealing in slaves, by purchase or sale, for 
the license, $20, and at the end of the year fifteen cents on 
each $100 in excess of an aggregate capital of $13,333.33, pro- 
vided that the entire tax should not exceed $100; wholesale 
and retail merchants paid the same for license and the same 
aggregate amount of tax, as slave dealers ; and also commission 
merchants ; receiving and forwarding merchants paid a license 
fee of $25 ; auctioneers paid a license of $20, and a tax of fif- 
teen cents on each $100 worth of goods sold, but not to exceed 
$100; confectioners paid a license of $20 and their tax was 
the same as that of wholesale and retail merchants ; brokers 


paid a license of $200 ; note-shavers paid a license of $30 ; the 
owner of a four horse omnibus paid $50; of a two horse 
omnibus, $25 ; of a four horse hack, $30 ; of a three horse hack, 
$25 ; of a two horse hack, $20 ; theater license was $50 per 
year, and every keeper of a Jenny Lincl table or billiard table 
paid $50 per year. Other kinds of licenses were imposed. 
but these will serve to> indicate the range of prices. 

On April 3, i860, it was ordered that two large cisterns be 
built, one at the corner of Gay and Cumberland streets and 
the other at the corner of Gay and Main streets. 

On May II, i860, $25,000 of the $50,000 subscribed to the 
Knoxville and Kentucky railroad was paid over to the proper 
officers of that company, security being taken for the proper 
disbursement of the money for the construction of the road. 
On June 21, 1861, the remaining $25,000 was paid over to the 
president of the company. Joseph A. Mabry. 

April 12, 1861, Williamsburg was opened up to travel and 
traffic, the boundaries of this portion of Knoxville being West 
Boundary street and Second creek, and Main street and the 
Tennessee river. 

April 13, 1866, a committee consisting of Aldermen Pow- 
ell. Hudiburg and Newman was appointed to confer with a 
similar committee appointed by the county court at its last 
previous quarterly session, with reference to the establishment 
of a workhouse, for the joint use of the city and count)'. This 
committee reported on the 28th of September, 1866, that the 
joint committee had unanimously decided in favor of the work- 
house, but that they had not agreed upon who should control 
the labor of the convicts. A committee was therefore appointed 
by the mayor to act for six months in conjunction with a sim- 
ilar committee to be appointed by the county, the joint com- 
mittee to have control of the labor of convicts for that length 
of time. The committee on the part of the city consisted of 
Messrs. Hudiburg, Wilson and Newman. 

The proceedings of the mayor and board of aldermen with 
reference to the purchase of the first steam fire engine ever 


bought by the city are interesting. On September 27, 1867. a 
number of citizens agreed in writing to take a certain amount 
of scrip of the city of Knoxville, payable July 1. 1868, and 
drawing six per cent interest, and receivable for taxes for the 
year 1868, the money to be used by the city in the purchase 
of a steam fire engine, twelve hundred feet of hose and a hose 
carriage, the entire amount to he raised to be $8,250. the scrip 
to be delivered December 1, 1867. The engine had already 
been purchased by the city council, provided the necessary 
funds could be raised by the issue of scrip, the company fur- 
nishing the engine to take half its pay in scrip, and the citizens 
to take the other half. Following are the names of the firms 
and individuals that subscribed for the city scrip. Cowan, 
McClung & Co.. $1,000; Barry & McDaniel, $500; John S. 
Van Gilder. $100: Peter Kern. $150: C. M. McGhee, $500; 
William Rule. Sioo; Coffin. Wilson & Martin. $200; VV. W. 
Woodruff. $100; Henry Ault. Sioo; James R. Cocke, $100; 
Rayl & Boyd, $300; M. D. Bearden, $100: Staub & Co., S400; 
Victor Burger & Son. Sioo; George M. White, $200; John 
R. Beaman. $200, and George M. Beaman, S200; total 
amount. $4,250. 

November 8, 1866. Alderman Kennedy suggested that a 
name should be selected for this new steam fire engine before 
it left the factory of Silsby & Co., and the name selected be 
engraved upon it. This suggestion meeting with favor, the 
name "J. C. Luttrell" was chosen by the city council, and it 
was engraved on the engine, which arrived in Knoxville on or 
perhaps a day or two previous to January 10. 1868. Between 
this date and January 13 the engine was tested, found satis- 
fact( ry. and on this latter date was paid for by the council. 

On June 7. 1867. a committee was appointed, consisting of 
A. S. Hudiburg. S. B. Newman and L. C. Shepard. to draft 
a plan for a building to be erected at the north end of the 
market place that would answer for the meetings of the city- 
council, recorder's office, etc. June 21 this committee reported 
that thev had "pretty much ? greed upon a plan for a building." 


and they were then authorized to contract with some responsi- 
ble person to erect it on the plan they had adopted. This build- 
ing was erected during that and the succeeding year. It was 
a two-story brick, about forty feet square, and had suitable 
rooms in it for the purposes for which it was designed, and a 
room below for the fire engine. 

The erection of a United States building was begun in 1869 
under the superintendency of J. H. Holman, with A. B. Mul- 
lett as supervising architect and George W. Ross as disbursing 
agent. The building is entirely of marble, and though not 
large, is yet one of the most substantially constructed build- 
ings anywhere to be found. It was completed in 1873 at a 
cost of $392,000. It is three stories high, the lower floor being 
occupied by the postoffice, the second floor by the office of the 
pension agent, district attorney and clerks of the circuit and 
district court, and the third by the courtroom and rooms for 
judges and juries. 

On March 30, 1868. a committee appointed to assess tax- 
able property for the year reported a very considerable increase 
over 1867. the increase in real estate being from $1,565,868 to 
$1,952,775. There were on the tax list 150 dogs and 147 
pianos. On this same day the track of the East Tennessee and 
Virginia railroad was made the dividing line between the 
fourth and fifth wards. 

January 4. 1869, an appropriation was made by the city 
council of $15,000 for the establishment of a library in the 
agricultural college, the first $5,000 to be paid when the college 
should be permanently established in Knoxville, and the re- 
maining $10,000 in two equal annual payments immediately 
afterward. An attempt to secure the diversion of this dona- 
tion from the library to general purposes did not succeed. 

January 9, 1869. the legal debts of East Knoxville were 
adopted by the city of Knoxville and on November 19 fol- 
lowing the streets and alleys then laid out through what was 
called the McMullin property were adopted. 

March 25, 1870. the council ordained that inasmuch as the 


floating debt of the city amounted to about $40,000, and had 
become troublesome, the bonds of the city should be issued 
to the amount of $13,300 and that scrip should be issued to 
the amount of $20,000, payable in one, two, three, four and 
five years, the bonds and scrip each to bear six per cent inter- 
est. On the same day the city was divided into eight wards, 
as follows : 

First Ward. — Beginning at the southeast corner of Gay and 
Cumberland streets, thence with Cumberland street and Rut- 
ledge pike to the corporation line; thence with the corpora- 
tion to the river; thence with the river to where the line of 
Gay street extended would strike it. and thence with Gay 
street to the place of beginning. 

Second Ward. — Beginning at the southwest corner of Gay 
and Cumberland streets ; thence with Cumberland street to 
Second creek ; thence with Second creek to Holston river ; 
thence with Holston river to where the line of Gay street 
extended would strike it, and thence with Gay street to the 

Third Ward. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Gay 
and Cumberland streets ; thence up Gay street to Clinch street ; 
thence with Clinch street to the corporation line : thence with 
said corporation line to Rutledge pike ; and thence with Clinch 
street to the beginning. 

Fourth Ward. — Beginning at the northwest corner of Gay 
and Cumberland streets; thence up Gay to Clinch street: 
thence with Clinch street to Second creek ; thence with Second 
creek to Cumberland street ; and thence with Cumberland 
street to the beginning. 

Fifth Ward. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Gay and 
Clinch streets; thence with Gay street to Vine and Mabry 
street to the corporation line ; thence with the corporation line 
to Clinch street ; and thence with Clinch street to the begin- 

Sixth Ward. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Gay 
and Clinch streets ; thence on Gav street to Vine and Academv 


streets to the East Tennessee and Georgia railroad ; thence 
with the railroad to Second creek ; thence down Second creek 
to Clinch street, and thence with Clinch street to the beginning. 

Seventh Ward. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Wa- 
ter and Mabry streets; thence with Water street to Crozier 
street ; thence with Crozier street to the corporation line ; 
thence with the corporation line to First creek ; thence down 
First creek to the corporation line at the bend of First creek : 
thence with the corporation line to Mabry street, and thence 
with Mabry street to the beginning. 

Eighth Ward. — Beginning at the northwest corner of Vine 
and Water streets ; thence with Water to Crozier street ; 
thence with Crozier street to the corporation line ; thence with 
the corporation line to Second creek ; thence with Second 
creek to the East Tennessee and Georgia railroad to Academy 
street ; thence with Academy street to Vine street, and thence 
with Vine street to the beginning. 

It was also ordained on the same day that there should be 
elected two aldermen from each ward. 

April 3, 1870, Alderman Howell moved that the compensa- 
tion which had been paid the aldermen for some years past be 
paid to them for 1870, this resolution or ordinance being 
adopted by the following vote: Lewis. Bearden, Shepard, 
McLemore, Glass, Sullivan, Howell and Payne, eight for it. 
and the following six against it: Atkin, Mitchell, Swan, Mc- 
Campbell, Munson, and Stephenson. 

On the 22d of the same month the mayor, John S. Van 
Gilder, in a somewhat elaborate message vetoed the ordinance 
upon the principle that the mayor and board of aldermen were 
dedicated to "retrenchment and reform." and to administer the 
affairs of the city without compensation, fear or favor, mak- 
ing the offices which they held offices of honor instead of 
profit, and that owing to the embarrassed condition of the 
treasury of the city they were to endeavor to serve the public 
faithfully and use every effort to improve the condition of the 
finances of the corporation. He said : 


"At our first meeting it was unanimously agreed to cut off 
all perquisites of office and to let all fees go into the treasury, 
which has produced a good effect in a just observance of the 
law of equity and impartiality. In former times a public office 
was a place of honor as well as profit ; but in later times they 
have become places of profit and speculation ; hence the reck- 
less extravagance of public funds, the utter disregard of the 
private rights o<f the tax-paying community. I find that by 
the records since the city was incorporated until the last 
three years no alderman was allowed compensation- unless 
for extraordinary services rendered, and. as a chief principle, 
excepting large cities, where their entire time is necessary, is 
it customary for the office to be one of public trust and con- 
fidence. At a regular meeting in January, 16 members pres- 
ent, 2 absent, a tie vote was made, creating the casting vote 
upon me. I then decided no* compensation. At the last meet- 
ing it was brought up for repeal. The two absent members 
being present, voted on each side, making the whole board a 
tie on the record; but by the absence of some without notice it 
was carried, and being a personal matter entirely of the mem- 
bers, justice requires this explanation on my part." 

On April 23, 1838, an interesting ordinance was passed for 
regulating business matters on the Sabbath day. It was to 
the effect that no steamboat or other boat should load or un- 
load at the wharves on the river; that wagons should not load 
or unload merchandise on the streets; that no person should 
disturb any religious congregation; that no person should 
keep open a grocery, confectionery, or other place of business; 
that no one should give away or sell spirituous liquors; that no 
one should cut any timber either with ax or saw, nor should 
any laborer or merchant exercise his ordinary functions on 
that day. But masters of steamboats might, in case of neces- 
sity, obtain permission from the mayor or any two aldermen 
to load or unload their boats. Any slave violating this ordi- 
nance was subject to a punishment of from five to twenty-five 
stripes on the back, unless his or her master, owner or over- 


seer should promptly pay the fine, which might l>e imposed in 
any amount not to exceed fifty dollars. 

On June 17, 1870. a petition signed by a number of the 
citizens of Knoxville was presented to the mayor and board 
of aldermen, asking that the above ordinance be so modified 
as to permit the selling of cakes, confectioneries, ice cream, 
soda water, fruits and tobacco, which petition was referred 
to a committee consisting of B. J. Stephenson and S. D. J. 
Lewis, for investigation' and report, and they reported that 
"in their judgment it is a first-rate document, and one which 
every good citizen should cheerfully obey. We would not dot 
an T nor cross a 't' in the law." This report was adopted 
by the board. But on July 15, 1870. an ordinance was adopted 
by the mayor and board of aldermen repealing a portion of 
the above so-called Sunday law, this repealing ordinance being 
to the effect that all laws prohibiting the delivery of ice and 
milk, or prohibiting butchers from conveying their meat to 
their stalls on Sunday for Monday morning's market, pro- 
vided the same were done in a quiet and orderly manner, at 
reasonable hours, were repealed. 

The fire department was created November 18. 1870, not 
that there had heen no fire companies before that time, for 
therehad been several companies that had rendered the people 
of the city excellent service. The advent of the first steam fire 
engine has already been referred to. By this ordinance of 
November 18, 1870. the entire fire department of the city was 
brought under one head and thus made more effective in case 
of large fires. By it the office of chief of the fire department 
was created, the chief l>eing allowed two assistants, named 
first and second assistants. These three officers were to be 
elected annually by the mayor and aldermen, and they were 
lo serve without compensation. The chief and his assistants 
were to lie and to be recognized as the head of the fire depart- 
ment during the time of any fire, and the captains and foremen 
of any companies or hook and ladder companies should defer 
to the chief and his assistants; afterward no fire company 


was to consist of more than fifty persons, and the engineer of 
the steam fire engine was to be elected by the board of mayor 
and aldermen, and should continue in office during their 

On August 25. 1871. when the sale of the Knoxville and 
Kentucky railroad was imminent, the mayor and the members 
of the finance committee were appointed a committee to confer 
with the officials of Knox and Anderson counties, and if possi- 
ble prevent the loss of the stock in said railroad being lost. 
The sale occurred at Nashville a short time afterward, and 
the mayor received the thanks of the board of aldermen for 
the prompt action he had taken, which resulted so favorably 
to the city. 

On May 30, 1873, the board of mayor and aldermen or- 
dained that bonds should be issued to the amount of $125,000 
for the purpose of establishing a system of waterworks, pro- 
vided the citizens at an election to be held should approve. 
This election came off on June 12, and resulted in a 
vote being cast in favor of the works of 205 and against them 
of 191. 

Early in 1873 Mayor Rule caused the erection of a house in 
a retired spot outside the limits of the city, to be used as a 
smallpox hospital, and ordered the removal of all persons af- 
flicted with that disease to be removed thereto, appointing Dr. 
Swan M. Burnett to take charge of the hospital. He also 
appointed a board of health, with Dr. F. K. Bailey as health 

On December 15, 1873, a proposition was made to the 
"United States" to unite in the construction of a sewer along" 
Prince street from the custom house or government building" 
down to the river, the sewer to be 14x21 inches in diameter, to 
be egg-shaped, and about 1,900 feet long, except that a sewer 
previously built by the city from the north side of Front street 
south to the wharf should be connected with the proposed 
sewer and made a part thereof, the city to pay $772 toward 
the construction of the new sewer. On the next day this prop- 


osition was accepted on the part of the United States by Gen. 
J. H. Holman, superintendent of construction. 

On February 6, 1874, an ordinance provided for the election 
of a city physician, at an annual salary of $300, and on the 
same day the board elected Dr. A. B. Tadlock to that posi- 
tion. On March 6, 1874, an ordinance providing that the 
mayor should receive for his services $1,000 for the year 
1874 was passed, which also provided that each alderman 
should receive $75 per annum. Dr. Tadlock resigned as city 
physician May 5, 1876, and was succeeded by Dr. S. B. Boyd, 
on the 19th of the same month. John M. Brooks was elected 
chief of the fire department February 19, 1875, and resigned 
that position January 23, 1876, being succeeded by William 

July 31, 1875, the board of mayor and aldermen took appro- 
priate action regarding the death of Andrew Johnson, eulogiz- 
ing him as a man of the people, as against being a partisan. 

After repeated attempts to secure the construction of a 
bridge across the railroad tracks at the foot of Gay street, an 
effort was made in 1876 which was a success. Then the East 
Tennessee. Virginia and Georgia railroad company offered 
to pay $5,000 toward the construction of such a bridge, and a 
contract was made with the Louisville Bridge and Iron Co., 
on September 25. to build such a bridge as was needed for 
$13,030, the bridge to consist of four spans, each 424 feet, two 
spans, each 80 feet, and two spans 56^ feet in length. On the 
west side was to be a foot-walk six feet in the clear, and the 
carriageway was to< be twenty feet in the clear. The city set 
the masonry pedestals on which rest trusses and iron piers, 
and the entire structure was completed by January 1, 1877. 

The proceedings of the board of mayor and aldermen in 
securing the construction of a reservoir and establishing a 
system of waterworks is of more than passing interest, hence 
some considerable space is devoted thereto. On April II, 
1879, a proposition was received by J. J. Fitzpatrick and W. 
B. McDonough to establish such a system in Knoxville, this 


proposition being submitted to a special committee of four al- 
dermen and eight citizens, afterward, however, the mayor was 
added to the committee so as to make the number thirteen. 
The aldermen appointed on this committee were Scales, Alli- 
son. Lyon and Sullivan, and the private citizens, Samuel Mc- 
Kiimev. Joseph Jaques, J. B. Hoxsie, John S. Van Gilder. W. 
W. Woodruff, E. J. Sanford. Charles J. McClung, and George 
W. Albers. 

On June 6 this committee reported through Alderman 
Scales, chairman of a sub-committee, that the Tennessee river 
was a good, unfailing and healthful source of supply, all that 
was necessary being a reservoir of sufficient capacity to allow 
the water to settle after being pumped into it. Two sites were 
under consideration — Mabry hill and Fahnestock hill, the 
former being 132 feet above the junction of Gay and Clinch 
streets, and the latter 97 feet above said junction. Fahnestock 
hill, 300x220 feet, could be obtained together with a right of 
way to the river and a station on the river bank for $3,100, 
while Mabry hill, 300x100 feet, together with right of way 
and station for pumping station on the bluff, would cost about 
$8,000. Mabry hill was 263 feet above the Tennessee, while 
Fahnestock hill was only 228 feet above it. Mabry hill would 
allow the tapping of the river above White Spring branch, the 
other site below that branch, and it was thought that on the 
whole Mabry hill would effect a saving to the city through 
the greater effectiveness of the fire department because of the 
greater pressure it would give. 

The result of the discussions and reflections on the whole 
subject was that the board of mayor and aldermen would, 
provided a two-thirds vote of the qualified voters would give 
their consent thereto at a special election to be held for the 
purpose, issue $75,000 in city bonds, for the purpose of con- 
structing the works. This decision was arrived at on June 6, 
1879, by a vote of eleven for the bonds to four against them, 
but even these four were in favor of the works, only preferring 
some other means of securing their erection. On the same 


day a standing committee on waterworks was appointed, con- 
sisting" of Aldermen Scales, Sullivan, Allison and Lyon, and 
Citizens Col. A. Terry, Charles J. McClung and Peter Kern, 
and on the 20th of the same month a board of waterworks 
trustees consisting of five citizens was provided for and ap- 
pointed to have full control of the erection of said works, the 
members of the committee being Peter Kern, Charles J. Mc- 
Clung, S. B. Boyd, Peter Staub and Adrian Terry. Afterward 
Mr. McClung and S. B. Boyd declined to serve, and their 
places were filled by the appointment of Samuel McKinney and 
John S. Van Gilder. 

The election to determine the sense of the voters was held 
on June 28, 1879, resulting in a vote for the bonds of 387 and 
against them of 170, more than a two-thirds vote in the 

August 7 the board of waterworks trustees, named above, 
reported that they had made an agreement with Moses Lane 
of Milwaukee, and were awaiting his report on the compara- 
tive advantages of the two sites, Mabry hill and Fahnestock 
hill, before making a final selection of a site for the reservoir 
and route to the river, etc. Moses Lane soon afterward made 
an elaborate report, which it is not deemed necessary to present 
here in full, showing to the trustees all the elements of ad- 
vantage possessed by the Fahnestock hill over the Mabry hill, 
and favored the construction of a reservoir on the former, to- 
gether with a standpipe thirty feet above the water level in 
the reservoir thus constructed. The elevation of the two hills, 
according to Mr. Lane was: Mabry hill, 263 feet above the 
Tennessee at low water, and of Fahnestock hill. 228 feet, the 
difference in the height to which the water would have to 
be pumped if Mabry hill were selected tending largely to de- 
termine him in favor of the lower hill. Fahnestock hill was 
therefore unanimously selected by the board. 

It had already been determined that the income from the 
waterworks should be divided into three parts — one part to be 
devoted to the running expenses of the works themselves; a 


second part to be devoted to paying the interest on the bonds, 
and the third part to be set aside as a sinking fund to pay off 
the bonds. On September 12, 1879, a waterworks sinking 
fund board of trustees was appointed, consisting of Peter 
Staub for three years, Peter Kern for two years, and H. B. 
Branner for one year. On September 26 John S. Van Gilder 
resigned from the construction trustees and was succeeded 
by H. B. Branner. And on this same day the committee re- 
ported that they had made a contract with Messrs. McDonough 
& Co. for the erection of the waterworks, the price to be paid 
being $64,000, either in money or bonds of the city. 

But notwithstanding the making of this contract there was 
difficulty ahead not then foreseen. On April 9. 1880, Samuel 
McKinney, chairman of the waterworks commission, stated 
that in accordance with instructions received from the council 
the commissioners had employed eminent counsel in the per- 
sons of Judge George Andrews, Judge H. H. Ingersoll. and 
Judge J. B. Cook, the latter of Chattanooga, to pass upon the 
validity of the waterworks bonds, the issue of which had been 
provided for, and that these gentlemen had made an exhaustive 
investigation of the whole matter. The conclusion to which 
they had arrived was as follows : . 

"We are of the opinion that the statute under which the 
bonds are to be issued is valid under the constitution of the 
state, and that the two-thirds vote given for the issuance of the 
bonds is sufficient if the election had been held upon sufficient 
notice to authorize their issue. We think, however, that by 
reason of the failure to give the full notice of ten days as 
required by the statute, the election as actually held was void, 
and that the bonds would be void in the hands of any person 
taking them from the city with notice of that fact, and that 
while the bonds would lie valid in the hands of an innocent 
purchaser without notice, any tax-payer might upon promptly 
filing a bill for that purpose, have the issuance of the bonds 
enjoined by the courts." 

On June 3, 1881, it was ordered that the $75,000 worth of 


bonds which the board had on hand, but which had not been 
filled out, were ordered burned, and they were afterward 
thus destroyed. 

Captain John M. Brooks, a member of the waterworks com- 
mission, then reminded the council that his commission were 
without funds and without authority, and said he thought the 
people should have another opportunity of voting on the 
question. Alderman McCroskey thereupon offered a series of 
preambles and resolution to the effect that inasmuch as the 
preceding proceedings had failed because of their irregularity, 
therefore there should be issued $100,000 in bonds for the 
object sought, provided the people at an election held for the 
purpose, should approve, and April 24, 1880, was chosen as 
the day on which the people should again express their will 
and pleasure on the subject. 

On February 13, 1880. a resolution was introduced to the 
effect that for the year 1880 the salary of the mayor should be 
$300. and that of each of the aldermen $50. This resolution 
was vetoed by the mayor, who was in favor of the mayor of 
the city and the councilmen serving without any compensation 
for that year. A resolution was almost immediatelv intro- 
duced by Alderman Atkin protesting against the vetoing of 
the resolution granting compensation, which was as follows : 
"That it is the sense of this board of mayor and aldermen 
that the mayor of this city is devoid of the power to veto any 
of the proceedings of this council, and we hereby protest 
against the assumption of the power by H. B. Brainier, mayor, 
and it is further resolved that the recorder is hereby required 
to obey the instructions of this board at its last meeting in 
reference to the payment of any bills or salaries at that meet- 

This resolution was declared by the mayor to be out of 
order, and upon an appeal from the mayor's decision. Alder- 
men Atkin, Burger, Boyd, Caldwell. Dickson. Irwin. Hudi- 
burg, McAffry, McCroskey and Michaels voted in favor of the 
appeal, while Aldermen Allison, Hockenjos, McLemore, 


Murphy, O'Connor and Sullivan voted nay. Not having re- 
ceived a two-thirds vote the appeal was lost. 

On September 10 following this same matter came up again, 
and a resolution was adopted allowing the mayor $1,000 for 
the year and each alderman $75. no protest being made, ex- 
cept' that four of the aldermen voted against the resolution, 
seven voting for it. 

The subject of waterworks still occupied the attention of 
the people and of the board of mayor and aldermen, notwith- 
standing the bad luck and failures to which the cause had 
been doomed in the past, and on May 6, 1881, the mayor, 
Peter Staub, delivered an address to the council in which he 
stated that inasmuch as it was not desirable for the city to 
undertake the building of a system of waterworks, he thought 
the privilege of constructing such a system should be granted 
to some private company, and suggested that he lie author- 
ized to appoint a committee to receive bids and to report from 
time to time. A special committee was therefore authorized 
and appointed, consisting of Messrs. Nelson and McLemore. 
but Mr. McLemore, not wishing to serve. Alderman Brooks 
was appointed, the two members thus appointed to act in con- 
junction with the mayor; but at length, on June 20, the 
committee consisted of Peter Staub, the mayor, and Thomas 
A. R. Nelson and John M. Brooks. They reported bids from 
Charles E. Robinson of New York and from R. D. Woods & 
Co. of Philadelphia, the latter firm agreeing to erect water- 
works according to the specifications of Moses Lane for 
$95,000. Then a proposition made by Charles E. Robinson 
and H. A. Church was read and an agreement made between 
these parties and the city attorney was approved by the board 
by a vote of 1 1 to 4, and the mayor and recorder were author- 
ized to sign the contract by a vote of 13 to 2. Next, on Octo- 
ber 1, 1 88 1, still another contract was submitted by F. M. 
Lawrence of Red Bank, N. J., and William Runkle of New 
York, which the committee recommended for adoption, the 
citizen members of the committee. J. A. Rayl and J. W. Gaut, 


being satisfied with it, and thereupon the following resolution 
was adopted : 

"Whereas, The special committee on waterworks have re- 
ceived a proposition from F. M. Lawrence and William 
Runkle; therefore be it resolved that the mayor and recorder 
be and they are hereby authorized to execute a contract 
as soon as the said contractors shall have signed the 

Then on December 30, 1881, came a suggestion which re- 
sulted in the successful construction of a system of waterworks 
which had so long and so persistently been sought, this sugges- 
tion being in the form of an application to the board of mayor 
and aldermen by several of the citizens for a charter for the 
Knoxvilie Water Company, who stated that neither Mayor 
Staub nor any of the applicants, except Mr. Lawrence, the 
contractor, had a particle of interest financially in the matter. 
The mayor and the recorder were then required to sign the 
charter of this company and to affix the official seal of the 
corporation. The Knoxvilie Water Company, on July 1, 
1882. gave bond in the sum of $25,000 to construct a system 
of waterworks in accordance with the plans and specifications 
of Moses Lane, to be completed within twelve months, this 
plan contemplating the use of eight and a half miles of pipes 
to weigh 1,221 tons, and the system to supply 2,000,000 
gallons of water each twenty-four hours. The president of the 
Knoxvilie Water Company at that time was S. E. Cooke, and 
the secretary, A. Barton. The city agreed to pay at the rate 
of fifty dollars per year for each hydrant that it used. 

August 8, 1884, a board of health was established by ordi- 
nance to consist of one lawyer, one commercial man and three 
physicians, regular graduates in medicine. The members were 
to be selected by the city council, and to serve one for one 
year, one for two years, one for three, one for four and one for 
five years, afterward one member to be appointed each 

Among other things this board was required to keep an 


accurate record of the births, including color, sex, date of 
birth, etc., and the same particulars in regard to deaths. 

.March 6, 1885, an ordinance was adopted establishing a 
paid fire department, which was to consist of one engineer, 
one stoker, one foreman, and two pipeman. who were to be 
elected immediately and afterward annually forever. The 
wages of these different members were then fixed as follows: 
Engineer, §75 per month; foreman, $50 per month; stoker, 
$40 per month, and pipemen. $40 each per month. D. New- 
man was elected engineer; William Newman, stoker, D. A. 
Smith, foreman, and Alexander Flennikin and John Moxley, 

January 26, 1886, it was ordained that in addition to the 
officers prescribed by the new charter there should be a chief 
of police, one first and one second lieutenant, and eighteen 
patrolmen, to be elected by the board of public works, as 
prescribed by the charter, they to hold office during- the pleas- 
ure of the board appointing them. Under this new charter 
the board of public works also had the authority to appoint 
a market master, and a watchman and janitor. The volun- 
teer fire department was to receive such compensation for 
their services as they and the board of public works could 
agree upon. 

On July 6, 1888. it was determined to erect a new city 
hall, to cost $14,000, including the heating apparatus, and 
on July 19, there was appropriated toward the cost of this 
new building, $14,117. This new city hall was erected at 
the north end of the market house, and the first meeting of 
the board of mayor and aldermen was held therein on March 
29, 1889. 

The necessity for a system of sewers in Knoxville was ap- 
parent long before the establishment of such a system was 
practicable. Sewers are useless without water, and hence 
before water works were established it would have been use- 
less to build sewers. But at length, after many attempts 
and many failures, water works were constructed in 1882 


and the year following, and in 1SS4 it became possible to look 
forward to a thorough sewer system with a reasonable hope 
of success in the near future. 

A few of the steps leading up to this success may be of 
historic interest. April 18, 1884, the board of health urged 
upon the board of mayor and aldermen the construction of 
such a system of sewers as the city needed, which they said 
the coming use of water from the water works would soon 
demand. On September 18, 1885, Judge H. H. Ingersoll 
called the attention of the board of mayor and aldermen to 
the fact that every day increased the necessity for the estab- 
lishment of a system of sewers, a portion of which he thought 
should be constructed at the earliest practicable moment from 
the railroad down Crozier street to the river and from 
the railroad down Second creek to the river. Judge Inger- 
soll suggested the use of pipes or mains twenty inches in 
diameter, while Dr. S. G. Brown thought these mains should 
be at least thirty inches in diameter. 

On January 21, 1887, Col. J. \Y. Gaut urgently advised the 
council to build the sewers required, and on the same day the 
passage of an act by the legislature permitting the issuance of 
bonds for the purpose was recommended, subject to the will 
of the people of Knoxville, to be determined at an election to 
be held for that purpose. 

On July 5, 1889, M. E. Thompson was granted the right to 
lay a sewer main at his own expense from the corner of 
Crozier street and Fifth avenue to the river, along Crozier 
street said main not to be less than twenty-four inches in 
diameter, and to be laid under the direction and supervision 
of the board of public works and a competent sanitary engi- 
neer, who was to be selected by the board, this sanitary 
engineer being required to make a complete survey and plan 
of sewerage for the entire city, of which the above-mentioned 
line permitted to be laid by Mr. Thompson to be a part of the 
city's system. 

On February 14, 1890, a committee consisting of John S. 


Van Gilder, W. \V. Woodruff, J. L. Cooley, L. H. Middleton. 
J. C. White, John Dempster and Matthew McClung was 
rppointed to supervise the engineering - and other work neces- 
sary to commence the work of establishing such a system of 
sewers as should be adopted. On March 8, 1890, the board 
of public works was requested to correspond with sanitary 
engineers of high reputation with the view of ascertaining 
the approximate cost of making a thorough and complete 
survey of the entire locality and of preparing plans for the 
best system of sewers for the whole city. 

January 30, 1891, the mayor informed the board that the 
bill providing for an election at which the qualified voters of 
Knoxville might express their desires on the question of 
sewers had passed both branches of the legislature. This 
bill was approved by the governor on the 31st, and the elec- 
tion was held under the provisions of this bill on July 16, 
1 89 1. resulting in the casting of 1.220 votes, 1,000 of which 
were in favor of issuing bonds for sewers and 220 against 
such issue. The amount of bonds voted was $500,000, of 
which $250,000 were to be used in constructing sewers, $125,- 
000 for the building of bridges and $125,000 for the improve- 
ments of the streets. 

On July 8, 1892, the office of sewer engineer was created 
by the board of mayor and aldermen, the ordinance creating 
the office being vetoed by Mayor Thompson on the ground 
of economy, and passed over the veto. The salary of this 
officer was at first fixed at $1,200, but was afterward raised to 
$1,500, which increase was likewise vetoed by Mayor Thomp- 
son for the same reason, and was likewise passed over the 
veto. W. B. Crenshaw was elected to the office of sewer 
engineer. On July 20, 1892, there was appropriated for the 
construction of sewers $208,455.02, as follows: For first 
section sewer, $100,288.12: for second section sewer, $89,- 
403.65; for sewer in the tenth ward, $8,763.25; and for pre- 
liminary survey, $10,000. In October, 1893, after the sewer 
system had been constructed the following summary of the 


cost of the same was spread upon the minutes of the council: 
First creek main sewer, $87,527.97; first creek lateral sewer, 
$57,751.20; second creek main sewer, $54,864.20; second 
creek lateral sewer, $31,298.00; engineering, $12,899.21; 
total cost, $244,340.69, from which was to be deducted for 
not plastering the main sewer, $750, making the net cost, 

Comparisons were made of cost of sewer systems with 
Memphis and Louisville, as follows: Memphis system, 
53.74 miles, cost $8,132.92 per mile: Louisville, 23,096 lineal 
feet of brick sewer, the size corresponding as nearly as possi- 
ble with the size of the main sewers in Knoxville, cost $198,- 
364.17, or $8.59 per lineal foot: while 17,558 lineal feet of 
main sewer in Knoxville cost $142,410.72, or $8.11 per lineal 

On April 10, 1891. an act was passed extending the limits 
of the city of Knoxville so as to include the following terri- 

Beginning at a point in the eastern boundary of the city 
in the center of the culvert of the East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia railroad where said railroad crosses First creek; 
thence southwardly following said corporate line down the 
course of First creek to a point in the bend of said creek 
where the present corporation line leaves said creek; thence 
with said corporation line southeastwardly to a point where 
it crosses the boundary line of the property of Joseph \Y. 
Sneed and the McCammon tract; thence northwardly with 
the said line of Sneed and McCammon and with the line be- 
tween the Mabry tracts, known as the Mount Isabella tract 
and Susan Nelson and Mabry's addition on the west and the 
McCammon tract, known as Chilhowee park and the Saxton 
tract on the east; in a general northerly course crossing the 
Dandridge pike to Nelson street; thence eastwardly with the 
county road, which is the eastern extension of Nelson street, 
parts of which are now known as Orange street and Cavalier 
street, to the southeast corner of the State Fair Grounds, now 


known as the Thompson & Strong addition; thence north- 
wardly to the eastern boundary of the said Thompson & 
Strong addition: thence northwardly with the eastern boun- 
dary of the said Thompson & Strong addition to the eastern 
boundary of the street in said addition down to the Corso; 
thence with the eastern boundary of the same northwardly 
to Cherry street as laid off in the Cold Spring addition to 
Knoxville; thence with said Cherry street still northwardly 
to the northern boundary of the said Cold Spring addition 
to the County road, known as the "Hardin Hill road;" thence 
with the said road eastwardly and then northwardly to the 
center of the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad, 
and then with said railroad in a general westward direction 
to the place of beginning. 

The territory inclosed within the limits above mentioned 
became the tenth ward of the city. 

Following is a list of the mayors of Knoxville, together 
with the periods during which they severally served: Thomas 
Emmerson, January i, 1816, to January 1, 1818; James Park, 
January 1, 1818, to January 1. 1822; W. C. Mynatt, January 
1. 1822, to January 1, 1824; James Park, January 1. 1824, 
to January 1. 1827; W. C. Mynatt, Joseph C. Strong, Janu- 
ary 1, 1828, to January 1. 1832; Donald Mcintosh, January 
1, 1832, to January 1, 1834: Solomon D. Jacobs, 1834 to 
1835; W. C. Mynatt, 1835-36: James King. '1837: W. B. A. 
Ramsey. January 1. 1838, to January 1. 1840: Samuel Bell, 
January 1, 1840. to January 1. 1842: Gideon M. Hazen. 1842; 
Matthew M. Gaines, 1843: Samuel Bell, January 1. 1844, 
to January 1. 1840: Joseph L. King, 184610 1847; Samuel B. 
Boyd, January 1. 1847, to January r. 1852; George M. White, 
January 1. 1852, to January 1. 1854: James C. Luttrell, Jan- 
uary 1, 1854, to January 1, 1855: William G. Swan, January 
1. 1855, to November 1, 1856; James H. Cowan, November 
1. 1856, to January 1. 1857: Samuel A. White. January 1, 
1857, to August 1. 1857; Thomas J. Powell, August 1. 1857, 
to January 1. 1858: James M. White, January 1. 1858, to 


May 1, 1858; A. M. Piper, August 1,-1858, to January 1. 
1859; James C. Luttrell, 1859 to 1868; M. D. Bearden, Jan- 
uary 1, 1868, to January 1, 1870; John S. Van Gilder, January 
1, 1870. to January 1, 1873; William Rule. January, 1873, 
to January 1874; Peter Staub, January, 1874, to January. 
1876; Daniel A. Caq^enter, January, 1876, to January, 1878; 
Joseph Jacques, 1878; Samuel B. Luttrell, January, 1879, to 
January, 1880; H. B. Branner, 1880; Peter Staub. 1881; 
Reuben S. Payne, 1882; William C. Fulcher, January, 1883, 
to January, 1885; James C. Luttrell, Jr., January. 1885, to 
January, 1887; Martin J. Condon, January. 1888. to January. 
1890; Peter Kern, January, 1890, to January, 1892; M. E. 
Thompson, January, 1892, to January, 1896; S. G. Heiskell, 
January, 1896, to January. 1898; William Rule, January, 
1898. to January, 1900. 

At the last election held for mayor and alderman in Knox- 
ville in January, 1898, William Rule was elected by a vote of 
1,554 votes over S. G. Heiskell, then mayor of the city, who 
received 1.246 votes, and also over Edwin R. Wade, who 
received 747 votes, the total vote for mayor being 


The successful candidates for aldermen in the several 
wards were as follows: First ward, Robert E. McMillan; 
second ward, H. M. Aiken; third ward, George W. Brown, 
fourth ward. W. H. Gass; fifth ward, Joseph M. Trigg: sixth 
ward, Samuel E. Cleage: seventh ward, O. T. Smith; eighth 
ward, Charlton Karnes; ninth ward, A. D. Waltz; tenth ward. 
J. C. Sterchi, and eleventh ward, J. W. Savior. 

Sanford N. Littleton was elected chairman of the board of 
public works. The associate members are John L. Iludi- 
burg and Thomas Munsey. 

C. C. Nelson, who had served the city as recorder and 
treasurer since 1880 was elected again by the board of alder- 
men, and is now the incumbent of the two offices, and is 
under the city charter ex officio justice of the peace. 

The city attorney is T. L. Carty; city engineer, W. A. ( rage 


since March 23, 1898, and the city physician, Dr. H. P. 

The present status of the board of health is as follows: 
On September 16, 1898, there was appointed a board of 
health of the city of Knoxville, which has for its object the 
protection of life and the care, promotion, preservation of 
the health of the people, and has advisory sanitary jurisdic- 
tion of the city and for one mile beyond the city limits; and 
during the prevalence of pestilential, contagious, infectious 
or epidemic diseases it may extend its jurisdiction to a dis- 
tance of ten miles beyond the limits of the corporation. The 
board consists of six members, one of whom must be a lawyer, 
one a commercial man, three of them physicians, and the 
other is the city physician. The three physicians are re- 
quired to be graduates of medicine and residents of Knoxville, 
and the city physician is the secretary of the board of health, 
serving without extra salary other than that received as city 
physician. The office of health officer was on the same day 
abolished, the patrolmen of the city being required to act in 
that capacity, each in his respective beat, and the associate 
members of the board of public works were required to be 
present, one each week on alternate weeks, at the office of 
the city physician during regular office hours to receive the 
reports of the patrolmen. The members of the board of 
health appointed November 18, 1898, were as follows: Dr. 
J. M. Black, H. J. Kelso, J. H. Kincaid, H. W. Hall and S. P. 

The charter of the city of Knoxville, under which its gov- 
ernment is now conducted, was enacted by the legislature of 
the state June 10, 1885. The first paragraph reads as fol- 
lows: "The inhabitants of the city of Knoxville, Tennessee, 
within the present boundaries of said city, embracing nine 
wards as at present constituted, are hereby constituted a 
body politic and corporate, by the name and the style of the 
board of mayor and aldermen of the city of Knoxville." 

Section 3 of said charter provided that: "The corporate 


authorities of said city of Knoxville shall be vested in the 
board of mayor and aldermen, a board of public works and 
such officers as may be appointed or elected in pursuance 
of law. The board of mayor and aldermen shall be com- 
posed of nine aldermen, who shall be elected for a term of 
two years at a general election by the qualified voters of the 
said city, each of the nine wards electing - by its qualified vot- 
ers one alderman, that person being elected who shall receive 
the largest number of votes." 

The compensation for the services of the mayor was fixed 
at $1,000 per year, and could not be changed during his term 
of office. By section 24 of this charter the board of mayor 
and aldermen were prohibited from levying in any one year 
"for any and all purposes, ordinary and extraordinary, a 
higher rate of tax than 1 1-4 per cent of the assessed value of 
the taxable property within its limits." 

Section 30 of the charter provided that there should be a 
board of public works composed of three persons, one of 
whom should be elected by the people and serve four years, 
the other two to be nominated by the mayor and confirmed 
by the board of aldermen, one to serve two years and the 
other four years, and each two 1 years thereafter one member 
of the board should be similarly nominated and confirmed. 
The salary of the chairman of the board was fixed at $1,800 
and those of the associate members at $600. 

Sections 63 and 64 provided that there should be a board 
of education to consist of five members, not members of the 
board of mayor and aldermen, who should be elected by said 
board of mayor and aldermen from the citizens and qualified 
voters of the town, by ballot, each member of the board of 
education to serve five years. 

This charter also provided for the election of a board of 
public works, the chairman of which was to be elected by the 
people, to hold office for the term of four years, with two 
associate members to be appointed by the mayor, who 
should also have a tenure of four years, except one of the first 


should hold only two years, so that one associate member 
should thereafter be chosen every two' years. At the first elec- 
tion held under this charter, in 1886, Col. Isham Young was 
elected chairman of the board and he held the office until Au- 
gust, 1889, when he lost his life in a railroad accident. The 
first associate members were Peter Kern and Col. Adrian 
Terry. At the biennial election in 1890 John Gleason was 
elected chairman; in 1894 Reps Jones and in 1898 the present 
incumbent, Sanford N. Littleton, with whom the associate 
members are John L. Hudiburg and Thomas Munsey. 

The original contract between the city of Knoxville and 
the Knoxville Gas Light Company was made in 1855, and 
was to continue in force forty vears. The gas supplied to the 
city was to be as good as that furnished upon the streets and 
to the citizens of Nashville by the Nashville Gas Company. 
This contract remained in force until 1883, when on account 
of the many improvements made in the methods of manufac- 
turing gas the officials of the city of Knoxville demanded 
that the Knoxville Gas Light Company should grant a re- 
duction in the price of gas. Gas could be made in 1883, 
these officials claimed, at least fifty per cent cheaper than in 
1855. In 1885 the city officials made an investigation, find- 
ing that the price of gas was still too high and secured an- 
other reduction, a new contract being entered into, but after- 
ward the gas being manufactured by a cheaper process was 
not of such great illuminating power. 

In 1886 a contract was entered into between the city and 
the electric light company by which the latter agreed to light 
the city for $10,000 per annum, a saving of $4,000 per annum, 
or of $36,000 for the remaining part of the gas company's 
contract. This was not done, however, until the company 
had given bonds to the city to guard against loss that the 
latter might sustain in litigation over the breaking of the 
gas company's contract. Arrangements were, however, 
made with the gas company by which the company agreed 
to permit the displacement of its gas lights on Gay street. 


the Market Square and the Custom House Square with elec- 
tric lights, and this displacement occurred only after corre- 
spondence with various electric lighting companies in differ- 
ent cities of the North. 

The officers of the Knoxville Gas Light Company at the 
present time are as follows: R. R. Swepson, president; L. H. 
Spilman, vice-president, elected in 1898, succeeding Dr. A. D. 
Leach; E. H. Saunders, secretary and treasurer, succeeding 
R. C. Jackson soon after Mr. Jackson's death; Robert Young, 
superintendent since 1895. The works of this company from 
the time of its organization in 1855 down to 1888 were on 
the bank of the Tennessee river near the foot of Locust 
street; but in this latter year, on account of the encroach- 
ments the city was making in its growth in the vicinity of 
the works, new works were erected on Jacksboro street near 
Munson street. Here the company has two gas holders, or 
reservoirs, only one of which is now in use, this one having a 
capacity of 350,000 cubic feet. The price of gas to consum- 
ers has been reduced at different times, beginning at $5 per 
1. 000 cubic feet, then being reduced to $2.50, and in 1885 to 
$1.50, for lighting purposes, while for cooking purposes the 
price is $1 per 1,000 cubic feet. Gas is now used for lighting 
purposes by about 2,000 patrons of the company, and for 
cooking" purposes by about 600 patrons. 

The Knoxville Water company was organized December 
26, 1 88 1, and application for a charter made by the following 
gentlemen as incorporators: Peter Staub, J. M. Brooks, F. 
M. Loweree, Joseph T. McTeer, Hector Coffin. Alvin Bar- 
ton and H. H. fngersoll. 

In June, 1882, the Knoxville City Water company, com- 
posed of F. H. McClung, W. W. Woodruff, S. B. Luttrell, 
James D. Cowan, C. J. McClung, M. L. Ross. John S. Van 
Gilder, C. M. McGhee and George W. Ross was organized, 
and this company, as well as the Knoxville Water company 
and J. A. Cloud & Co., submitted bids for the construction of 
water works for the citv. 


On June 16, 1882, the proposition of the Knoxville Water 
company was accepted, which was in part that the system 
of works should have a capacity and quality of machinery 
and material equal to that contemplated by the specifications 
of Moses Lane as supplemented by S. H. Lockett, the reser- 
voir to contain 3,200,000 gallons of water; the company to 
establish seventy-five hydrants, sixty-three of which were to 
be located at points indicated in the Lane plan, and twelve on 
the line of new mains and points designated by the city, 
twenty of them to have double nozzles; the supply of water to 
be at least 2,000,000 gallons of water every twenty-four hours. 
The city was to pay $50 as rental for each hydrant. 

In February, 1894, the Knoxville Water company began 
making important improvements, then greatly needed, in- 
cluding the standpipe now on Reservoir hill, which is eighty- 
five feet high and thirty-two feet in diameter, and the large 
filtration plant. The filtration house is a brick structure 
60x112 feet in size, and contains a high service pumping 
engine and boilers, and also the filters. This improvement 
was made because the company had agreed to furnish North 
Knoxville with filtered water, and the intention was to give 
filtered water to the entire city. The standpipe cost about 
$15,000; the filter plant building about $18,000, and the ma- 
chinery itself nearly $20,000, the entire cost of the improved 
filter plant being nearly $100,000. It was finished in Sep- 
tember, 1894. In August, 1894, the company began mak- 
ing extensive improvements at the pumping station on the 
river bank, increasing its size to about double, what it was 
before, and putting in a new 4,000.000 gallon pump and a 
new intake. During- this same year and 1895 the company 
also relaid a large part of its pipes in the city, and added eight 
or ten miles of pipes. Since the beginning of 1894 the entire 
system has been made new, except the reservoir. There are 
now from forty-five to fifty miles of mains, ranging in size from 
twenty inches down to three inches, this being the smallest 
pipe now used. The company rents to the city at the present 


time (February, 1899) 214 hydrants at a cost to the city of 
$10,128 per year. The president of the company is William 
Wheeler of Boston, Mass.; secretary, E. T. Sanford of Knox- 
ville; treasurer and general manager, Elbert Wheeler of Bos- 
ton, Mass.; and superintendent, Frank C. Kimball, of Knox- 

The Lonsdale-Beaumont Water company was incorpor- 
ated in 1892, the charter members being D. S. Mclntyre, C. 
H. Hudson, W. M. Baxter, D. T. Mclntyre and H. P. Coile, 
and was organized with H. P. Coile, president; C. H. Hud- 
son, vice-president, and D. S. Mclntyre, secretary and treas- 
urer. Its authorized capital stock was $100,000. The pur- 
pose of the organization was to supply water to West Knox- 
ville and other territory, and in furthering this purpose the 
Tillery spring was purchased, located at the head of Third 
creek. Afterward the company secured perpetual leases of 
other springs in the same locality ami also valuable springs at 
the head waters of Third creek, from which latter springs 
alone the system has been supplied so far. The first to be 
used was the Griffin spring, four miles from the city, and later 
the famous Blanc spring, 3,000 feet above the Griffin spring, 
was added to' the system. These two springs furnish the 
water supply to West Knoxville, including such prominent 
institutions as the University of Tennessee, and also the 
Southern car shops, Lonsdale, Knoxville college, and the 
Knoxville woolen mills. 

The springs were at first thoroughly cleaned out and 
walled up by heavy stone masonry and then capped over, so 
as to prevent the admission of any contaminating substance. 
From these springs the water is piped four and a half miles to 
an impounding reservoir situated on the Clinton pike and the 
K. C. G. & L. railway, and excavated in solid rock. It is 
fifty-three feet in diameter and twenty-two feet deep. The 
pumping station is located at the reservoir, the pump being 
a Dean duplex capable of pumping 2,000,000 gallons every 
twenty-four hours. The water is pumped three-fourths of 


a mile into a standpipe seventy feet high and twenty-five 
feet in diameter located on Beaumont ridge, two miles north 
of Fort Sanders. The system consists of seventeen miles of 
pipe ranging from two to twelve inches in diameter, and has 
a pressure capable of throwing five fire streams to an average 
height of 1 20 feet in West Knoxville. rendering the use of 
fire engines unnecessary in that part of the city. The offi- 
cers of this company at this time are W. S. Shields, president; 
Alexander McMillan, vice-president; and H. W. Lyman, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

The first steam fire engine brought to Knoxville was the 
J. C. Luttrell, No. 1, in 1867, a brass Silsby engine, not now 
in use. While not the first in the southern states, yet it was 
near the first, Augusta, Ga., Macon, Ga., and Memphis, 
Tenn.. having had steam fire engines of this make about one 
year earlier. The next steam fire engine bought was the 
Alexander Allison, in 1876, which is now at the Central Mar- 
ket station, and is known as engine No. 2. The third was 
bought in 1893, and is named the M. E. Thompson, located 
at the Central station on Commerce street, between Gay and 
State streets, at which station, besides the engine company, 
there is also a hook and ladder company, and a 65-foot ex- 
tension ladder. 

The fire department is now officered as follows: V. F. 
Gossett, chief; Capt. W. H. Salmon, assistant chief, and cap- 
tain of the hook and ladder company, with five men under 
him; A. G. Bayless, captain of engine company No. 3, at the 
Central station, with seven men under him; John B. Haw- 
kins, captain of engine company No. 2, at Central Market 
station, with six men under him. Herman Schenk is the city 

On March 16, 1888. a contract was made with the Gaynor 
company of Louisville. Ky.. for putting in a complete fire 
alarm system for the city. At first there were to be forty-five 
stations and the price $7,500. At the same time a fire brig- 
ade station was located in North Knoxville. The work of 


erecting the poles for the fire alarm system began January 
24, 1889. This system was in use until 1897, on August 27 
of which year the board of mayor and aldermen accepted a 
new and much improved system. This was the new Gaynor 
six-circuit repeater, and the Gamewell six-circuit automatic 
standard combination repeater and storage battery board, 
the apparatus consisting of one complete chloride accumula- 
tor storage battel - )' plant of 100 cells with the necessary 
shelves or cabinet; one six-circuit combination slate base 
switch board containing the necessary rheostats, lamps, 
meters, galvanometers, switches, etc. The price for putting 
in the entire system was $3,000, of which $2,200 was paid in 
cash and the old system turned in for $800. Knoxville was 
the second city in the southern states to adopt this system. 
Houston, Texas, being the first. The six-circuit automatic 
switch board put in here was the first of that size in the 
United States. It Has given complete satisfaction and is as 
near perfection as such things can possibly be. 

In 1 89 1 the Fifth avenue bridge over the Knoxville & 
Ohio railroad was constructed, the contract for its construc- 
tion being let on January 8 to the King Iron & Bridge com- 
pany. The city appropriated $5,200 toward the payment 
for the land condemned, the entire cost of the bridge being 
$14,835 outside of the masonry. The span of the bridge is 
480 feet, the first span being 117 1-4 feet; the second 103, the 
third 80 feet. The first trestle is no feet, and the trestle on 
the Branner street end 70 feet. The bridge is of the Pratt 
truss pattern, the roadway is twenty feet wide and the foot- 
walk eight feet wide. 

The following bridges over First creek were built in 1892. 
the contracts for them being let on April 29, that year: Oak 
street, Church street and Hill street. The Oak street bridge 
was let to the Groton Bridge company for $21,000; the 
Church street bridge to the King Iron & Bridge company 
for $13,450, and the Hill street bridge to the same company 
for $19,150. For the Oak street bridge the masonry cost 


$6,793 an d the superstructure $530, making the total cost of 
the bridge $28,323: for the Church street bridge the masonry 
cost $4,459 and the superstructure $795, making the total 
cost of this bridge $18,704. and for the Hill street bridge the 
masonry cost $5,451 and the superstructure $630, making 
the whole cost of this bridge $25,231. 

Knoxville had no good streets prior to 1893. though some 
of them had been macadamized for several years. After 
long consideration and investigation as to the success met 
with in other cities with brick pavement, it was decided to 
put down pavements of this kind on a portion of the streets. 
It is not to be denied that so thoroughly had the city authori- 
ties become satisfied that great expectations were entertained 
with respect to this kind of pavement, and on August 25, 
1893. Miss Mary Gaines, a granddaughter of the then oldest 
living ex-mayor of the city, M. M. Gaines, laid the first brick 
in the sand on Gay street near Main. 'Previous to the lay- 
ing of this first brick, however, there were interesting pre- 
liminary exercises. Mayor M. E. Thompson announced 
that these exercises would begin with prayer, which prayer 
was delivered by Rev. Dr. James Park. Then followed an 
oration by Walter M. Cocke, a prominent young Knoxville 
lawyer. The oration having been delivered, Mr. Gillespie, 
general manager of the paving company, handed the first 
brick to Miss Gaines, who laid it in the sand. By night of 
that day about one-half the block on Gay street from Main 
to Cumberland street had been laid. 

When this brick paving began the old stone pavement 
had to be taken up. It consisted of cobble stone, and was 
put down in 1848 under the direction of Albert Miller Lea. a 
professor of mathematics and a civil engineer. Mr. Lea 
paved the wharves and Prince street up to Main. The work 
was continued on other streets in the old city, and on Gav 
street up to 1852. 

On November 20. 1893. a contract was let to John Shea 
for paving Market Square, which was completed by January. 


1894, at a cost of $12,118.42, and at that time Crozier street 
from the railroad north to Depot street was nearly complete, 
and Commerce street from Gay street to the Palace Hotel 
was under contract. 

The following extract from the message of Hon. William 
Rule, mayor of Knoxville, is of interest, as showing the 
financial condition of the city on January 6, 1899, the day on 
which the message was read: 

"The bonded indebtedness of the city now amounts to 
$1,128,600. On $292,600 of that amount the city is paying 
interest at the rate of six per cent. On $34,000 the rate is 
four per cent, and on the remainder, $962,000, the rate is 
five per cent. The annual interest now being paid out of 
the city treasury on this bonded indebtedness is $67,016. 

"The floating debt, including $10,000 recently appro- 
priated for the maintenance of the schools, and estimating 
some minor judgments rendered against the city in the 
courts, is $86,566.06. the annual interest on which, at the 
rate of six per cent would be, in round numbers, $5,200. 
This added to that on the bonded debt will make the interest 
charge against the city to be provided for in the budget of 
the next fiscal year $72,216. 

"Of the floating debt here mentioned, $56,766.06 was 
handed down to us as a legacy from the old municipalities, as 

Old Knoxville $43,124. 11 

West Knoxville 9-953 ■ 25 

North Knoxville 3,688 . 70 

Total $56,766.06 

"In addition to this the floating debt has been increased 
during the fiscal year by items over which the present board 
of mayor and aldermen had no control, as follows: 

The J. W. Sneed judgment $15,500 

Bill of Gaynor Fire Alarm Co 1,700 

Sundry court judgments 1.700 

Total $18,900 


"It thus appears and is a fact that outside the. judgments 
rendered by the courts for which this board is not responsi- 
ble, and which were in a measure unavoidable, and, except- 
ing the loan for the public schools, the present city council 
lias increased the floating debt only about $500." 

Following is a list of postmasters at Knoxville with the 
dates of their appointment, kindly furnished upon request by 
J. L. Bristow, fourth assistant post-master general: George 
Roulstone, April 1, 1795; John Crozier, August 30, 1797; 
Lewis P. Roberts, December 3, 1838; James W. Campbell, 
March 26, 1841; Samuel W. Bell, January 18. 1845; James C. 
Luttrell, June 26, 1849; John E. Helms, April 5, 1853; Felix 
W. Earnest, February 21, 1856; George W. Harris, July 2j, 
1857; J. F. J. Lewis' March 8, 1858: Charles \Y. Charlton, 
May 3, 1859; James C. Luttrell, July 20, 1861 ; James Rodg- 
ers, April 9, 1869; William Rule, March 14, 1873; Oliver P. 
Temple, October 21. 1881; James M. King, October 19, 
1885; John L. Hudiburg. April 9, 1889; J. W. Gaut. Febru- 
ary 16. 1894, and William L. Trent, February 23, 1898. 

The report of the Knoxville postofnce. as completed No- 
vember 3, 1898, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, was 
as follows: Receipts for July, 1897, $6,262.34; for August, 
$5,821.11: September, $5,964.23: October, $7,156.85; No- 
vember, $6,140.04; December, $6,755.26; January. 1898. 
$6,881.72; February. $6,049.73; March, $6,716.27; April, 
$6,180.37; May, $6,301.37; and June, $5.903.51 ; total amount 
received, $76,132.80', or an average monthly receipt of 

LJp to near the beginning of the civil war the growth of 
the town was rather slow, and its intercourse with the world 
outside of the mountain ranges plainly in view in all direc- 
tions was necessarily limited. But in 1856 the first railroad 
reached the town from Georgia, and in 1857 railroad connec- 
tions were made with the state of Virginia. But the civil 
war for a time put an end to progress in this direction, and 
during the war much of the town was destroved by fire. The 


battle of Fort Saunders, fought on Sunday morning, No- 
vember 29, 1863, in which nearly 1 .000 lives were lost, was 
one of the most severe of the war. when the time it lasted is 
taken into account. And during the period of reconstruc- 
tion the growth of the city was also necessarily slow, and yet 
many of the soldiers of both Federal and Confederate armies, 
delighted with the climate and other features of this region, 
settled down here and have since made it their permanent 
homes. In 1865 there were but 4,000 inhabitants in the city; 
in 1870 there were 8,000; in 1880 there were 10,000; in 1890 
there were 22.535 within the city proper, and when the popu- 
lation of the suburbs is added there were over 40,000. In 
1898 there are 50,000. of whom about one-fifth are negroes, 
this being a smaller proportion than is found in any other 

southern citv. 


Was incorporated by an act of the legislature passed Febru- 
ary 22, 1856, and was bounded as follows: 

Beginning at the mouth of First creek in the Holston river; 
on the line of the corporation of the city of Knoxville; thence 
up the meanders of said river to the mouth of Samuel Mc- 
Cammon's spring- branch; thence up said branch, including 
his spring, and from thence in a direct line to the lower end 
of the Bell place on First creek, the line of the corporation of 
Knoxville, and thence down said creek with the corporation 
line to the place of beginning; provided that the corporation 
of East Knoxville shall not be responsible for the keeping 
up of the bridges, but the same shall continue county bridges 
as heretofore, unless the said corporation shall otherwise 
agree with the county court to take charge of said bridges. 

This act provided for the division of the corporation of 
East Knoxville into three wards, and for the election by the 
qualified voters of a mayor and for two aldermen from each 
ward. 'William Swan, William F. Seav and James Rodgers, 
or any two of them, were authorized to make the division 
into wards, which thev did. According: to this charter an 


election for mayor and six aldermen was held on the second 
Saturday of March that year, and was to be so held each suc- 
ceeding year. In 1856 the mayor elected was William Swan. 
and the aldermen were as follows: First ward. James Rodg- 
ers and Samuel Morrow; second ward. W. G. Brownlow and 
S. S. Thompson, and third ward, James O. Patton and J. B. 
G. Kinsloe. 

William Swan was elected mayor in 1857 and also in 1858: 
James Rodgers in 1859. resigning in October of that year. 
William Craig being elected to fill out the unexpired term; 
Mr. Craig was elected in i860: W. G. Brownlow in 1861; 
William Craig in 1862, 1863 and 1864; John S. Van Gilder 
in 1865 and 1866; M. L. Hall in 1867 and S. H. Smith in 
1868, serving until the annexation of East Knoxville to 
Knoxville in January. 1869. 

William F. Seay was recorder and treasurer of East Knox- 
ville during the existence of that corporation. 

On October 29, 1868, a called meeting of the board of 
mayor and aldermen of East Knoxville was held for the pur- 
pose of discussing the propriety of annexation to the city of 
Knoxville, at which were present S. H. Smith, mayor, and 
Aldermen Foster, Burger. Householder. Stephenson and 
Johnson. M. D. Bearden. mayor of Knoxville. was present 
and made a speech on the subject in favor of the annexation, 
and extending the boundary of Knoxville so as to include 
East Knoxville. This step was finally approved and the two 
corporations merged into one. 

The last meeting of the board of mayor and aldermen of 
East Knoxville was held January 5, 1869, at which there 
were present the mayor, S. H. Smith, and Aldermen Child- 
ress, Stephenson, Burger, Dozier. Foster and Johnson. The 
mayor stated that inasmuch as in a few days the corporation 
of East Knoxville would cease to> exist, he thought it best 
for the board to firing their business to a close, and on motion 
it was ordered by the board that inasmuch as the property 
of the corporation had been listed for twelve months on 

— I 


March 8, 1868, and that only ten months in the year would 
expire before it would have to be listed again, therefore 

Be it Resolved, That all uncollected taxes be reduced one- 
sixth, and that all persons who had paid their taxes should 
have refunded to them one-sixth of what they had paid. 

A contract made some time before with William Hays to 
excavate and macadamize Water street from Main street near 
M. J. Childress's residence to the Holston river was reported 
by the street committee by H. Foster, chairman, this con- 
tract having been entered into October 28, 1868. This was 
the last entry made on the records of East Knoxville. 

On October 19, 1894, a communication was received from 
each of the two outlying corporations. North and West 
Knoxville, with reference to the consolidation of the three 
corporations, and Knoxville, favoring - such consolidation, 
appointed as her two commissioners Judge Joseph W. Sneed 
and John S. Van Gilder. The legislature of the state on 
April 2. 1897, passed an act providing that the three cities 
might become one if they SO' desired, but this act also pro- 
vided that an election should be held within four months 
from the time of its approval, at which the people should 
have the right to choose between consolidation and remain- 
ing as they were, separate cities. This election was held in 
all three cities on the same day, July 23, 1897, with the re- 
sult that there were cast in Knoxville 699 votes for consoli- 
dation, and 35 against it; in North Knoxville, 154 votes for 
it to 87 against, and in West Knoxville 142 votes for it to 
6 against it, making in all 995 votes for to 183 ag-ainst con- 


Was incorporated under an act of the legislature of the state 
attested by John Allison, secretary of state, January 16, 1889. 
A meeting was held February 4, 1889, of citizens in this por- 
tion of what is now Knoxville to effect the organization of 
the government of North Knoxville, an election having been 
held, at which the following officers were elected: L. A. 


Gratz. mayor; and A. W. Anderson, S. A. Caldwell. \Y. E. 
Moses. O. T. Roberts. W. O. White and J. \Y. Ward, alder- 
men, the number of votes cast at this election being 239. 
Following is the act of incorporation referred to above, show- 
ing the boundaries of the territory included in North Knox- 

"Be it known that the city of North Knoxville, Tennessee, 
situated in Knox county, state of Tennessee, and beginning 
at the eastern side of the right of way of the East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia railroad where it intersects with the 
corporate limits of the city of Knoxville, Tenn.: thence with 
said eastern line of said right of way to its intersection with 
Ricker street; thence with the center of said Ricker street 
to its intersection with Pearson avenue: thence with the 
center of Pearson avenue to its intersection with the 
east line of the right of way of the Knoxville, Taze- 
well and Jacksboro turnpike: thence in a direct line north 
83 degrees west to the center of Morse street ; thence with 
the center of Morse street in a southwesterly direction to 
the boundary line betw&en the Second and Twelfth Civil dis- 
tricts of Knox county; thence with the said boundary line 
to the northern boundary line of the corporation of the city 
of Knoxville, Tenn.; thence with said boundary line of the 
said city of Knoxville, Tenn., to the beginning', is hereby 
duly and legally incorporated, and as such is entitled to all 
the benefits and is subject to all the responsibilities of the 
laws of the state applicable to municipal corporations." 

The offices of recorder and treasurer were combined, and 
Robert Irwin elected thereto, and A. M. Burns was elected 
policeman, afterward called marshal, each of these two offi- 
cers to receive forty dollars per month. February 12, 1889, 
the tax upon each $100 worth of taxable property for the 
unexpired portion of that year was fixed at seventy-five cents 
and poll tax at $1 per year. 

As no modern corporation can carry on its improvements 
and conduct its business without borrowing money, so North 


Knoxville, on April 13. 1889, submitted the question to the 
legal voters at an election held that clay as to whether they 
would authorize the issuance of $100,000 in bonds for the 
improvement of the streets, etc., the result of the elec- 
tion being that 159 votes were cast, 156 of which were in 
favor of the issuance of the bonds. On May 4 follow- 
ing an ordinance was passed providing for the issuance of the 
bonds, which were to run thirty years and bear interest at 
the rate of five per cent. On May 1 1, a contract was entered 
into with McDonald, Shea & Co. to grade the streets at cer- 
tain prices; for instance, solid rock excavation cost the cor- 
poration 75 cents per cubic yard, loose rock 35 cents, and 
earth 17 cents per cubic yard. 

In many instances corporations in issuing bonds meet with 
unforeseen difficulties, and North Knoxville was no excep- 
tion to the rule. The sale of its bonds having been effected, 
the purchasers declined to take them for the reason that al- 
though the assessment of property within the corporation 
had been fixed by law on January 10, 1889, yet the assess- 
ment was not actually made until some time in June, and the 
election authorizing the issue of the bonds was held in April. 
In order therefore to enable North Knoxville to sell her 
bonds, another election was necessary to be held after the 
actual assessment of the property. This election was there- 
fore held August 22, 1889, resulting in the casting of 199 
votes, of which only three were cast against the issue of bonds. 
The assessment made in June showed that there was in the 
corporation of taxable property $1,020,550, and under the 
law they could borrow not over ten per cent of this valuation, 
hence the issuance of $100,000 in bonds was clearly within 
the law. 

A chemical fire-engine was purchased and paid for. after 
being submitted to a severe test on September 21, 1889. 

On February 3, 1890, the city engineer submitted a report 
as to the amount of work done on the streets and the cost 
for the previous nine months, which was in substance as fol- 


lows: That there had been graded 40,380 lineal feet of streets, 
in doing- which there had been excavated 126,861.1 cubic 
yards of stone and earth, besides other work, all at a cost of 

February 8. 1890, the finance committee reported that the 
receipts of the corporation had been up to that time $126,- 
804.78, and the disbursements $93,167.27. 

On February 1, 1890, L. A. Gratz was re-elected mayor, 
and the following aldermen were elected: O. T. Roberts, A. 
W. Anderson, W. O. White, T. P. Roberts, John Shea and 
W. E. Moses for the first, second, third, etc., districts, re- 
spectively. L. A. Gratz was again elected mayor in 1891 
and 1892. this year by 137 votes, as against 70 votes cast for 
W. A. Wray. In 1893 W. L. Welcker was elected mayor, 
and served continuously in that office as long as North Knox- 
ville existed as a separate corporation. Robert Irwin con- 
tinued to serve as recorder and treasurer until his death in 
August, 1894, when he was succeeded by W. E. Moses, who 
held that office until the consolidation of the corporations. 
On February 20. 1892, the finance committee reported that 
for the three years of the existence of the corporation the 
receipts had been $138,318.73. 

In 1892 by a vote of the people of North Knoxville the 
council was authorized to issue $75,000 in bonds for street 
improvements, and for a sewer system, but later, when the 
question of consolidation with Knoxville had been settled, 
the mayor of North Knoxville, Hon. W. L. Welcker, in an 
address to the council, advocated the repeal of the ordinance 
by which such issue had been authorized, for the reason that 
the city of Knoxville would have no right to either issue the 
bonds or expend the monev, which recommendation was 
complied with. 

October 6, 1894. a resolution was adopted by the mayor 
and aldermen of Knoxville inviting North Knoxville and 
West Knoxville to unite with Knoxville in one corporation, 
and stating that as such consolidation could not be effected 


without the consent of the legislature, a fair and just plan 
of union should be prepared and submitted to the legislature 
for its approval; and also suggesting a consolidation com- 
mission be appointed by each of the three corporations to 
consist of seven members, two of them from each of the three 
corporations, and one to be chosen by these six from the 
ex-tenth ward. North Knoxville agreed to- this proposition, 
only modifying it in such a way as to require that one of the 
two members from each city should be the city attorney of 
said corporation, in order that the legal questions involved 
might be thoroughly understood by the consolidation com- 
mission, and named the Hon. W. L. Welcker as one of her 
commissioners. The city of Knoxville appointed Hon. Joseph 
W. Sneed and John S. Van Gilder as her two commissioners. 
All of this matter, however, had to be submitted to the people, 
and hence on July 23, 1897, an election was held in North 
Knoxville as well as in the other corporations, to determine 
whether the people were willing to consolidate their three 
cities in accordance with the provisions of the act of the 
legislature providing therefor; the result being as given on 
a preceding pag _ e. 

On July 26 the mayor and aldermen of North Knoxville 
resolved that inasmuch as the act providing for consolidation 
had in every particular been complied with that the said act 
had therefore become effective for the consolidation of the 
three corporations at the time specified therein, viz.: 

On January 18, 1898, a statement was presented to the 
board of aldermen showing that the cash receipts of the cor- 
poration from February 13, 1897, to January 1, 1898, had 
been $26,255.54. and there was on hand $732.16. The prop- 
erty of the corporation, according to the inventory presented, 
among other things of less value, consisted of one steam road 
roller, worth $1,800; school buildings and city hall, $15,000; 
lots, $6,000; school furniture, $2,750; furniture in the large 
building, $1,000, and electrical and physical apparatus, Si 50; 
total, $26,750. 



The last meeting of the board of aldermen of North Knox- 
ville was held January 21, 1898, and consisted of two sessions, 
one in the afternoon, the other in the evening. After receiv- 
ing the finance committee's report, and adopting a resolution 
approving of the official conduct of the recorder and treas- 
urer. W. E. Moses, and of the marshal, W. T. Farmer, as 
faithful, sober, energetic and efficient officers, the council 
adjourned sine die. The minutes were then signed by the 
following members, who were present: W. L. Welcker, 
mayor; W. R. Carter, James A. Hensley. David T, McMallin 
and George \V. Peters, aldermen. 


Was incorporated March 8. 1888, the territory included being 
bounded as follows: In the twenty-fourth civil district, be- 
ginning on the Tennessee river at the mouth of Second creek; 
thence up said creek with the east bank thereof to Asylum 
street; thence westward with Asylum street to the East 
Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad; thence westward 
with said railroad to where it crosses Crawford's branch; 
thence south with said branch to Third creek; thence down 
Third creek to the Tennessee river, and thence up said river 
to the place of beginning. 

The incorporation was decided on by the people at an 
election held March 3. 1888, at which there were cast 231 
votes, 165 of which were in favor of the incorporation. The 
movement for incorporation, however, began on January 21. 
1888, when notice was given that application for a charter 
would be made, those signing this notice being as follows: 
W. W. Woodruff, W. H. Simmonds, George Andrews. J. M. 
Thornburg. John Marshall, M. L. Ross, W. P. Smith. James 
M. Meek, A. G. Scott, R. F. Galyon. W. H. Collett. \V. H. 
Salmon, S. R. Ogden. W. B. Henderson. S. H. Johnson. G. 
W. Searle. and G. L. Maloney. At the election held on 
March 3. the following gentlemen were chosen as mayor 
and aldermen: J. W. Yoe, mayor; F. K. Huger, M. L. Ross. 


E. H. Flenniken, Frank Barker, W. P. Smith and R. Z. 
Roberts. The first meeting of the board of mayor and alder- 
men was held at the school house on Altavia street, March 
28, 1888. At this meeting an organization was effected, and 
on April 9, A. G. Scott was elected recorder and treasurer, 
and John M. Luttrell, marshal. April 26, the name of Kings- 
ton Pike was changed to Cumberland avenue. August 3, 
J. G. McClannahan made a report to the board that the num- 
ber of inhabitants in West Knoxville was 1 ,520, and that the 
number of school children was 532, of which number there 
were 481 white children and 51 colored. 

In December, 1888, "Payne Circle" was offered to the cor- 
poration as a public park, and after some preliminary matter 
had been satisfactorily arranged the "Circle" became the 
property of the city of West Knoxville, January 4, 1889. 

The first movement looking toward the improvement of 
the streets, alleys, etc.. was made March 23, 1889, when an 
election was ordered to> determine whether the voters would 
authorize a bond issue of $75,000 for such purpose, the elec- 
tion being held April 5 following, with the result that there 
were cast 200 votes for the issue of the bonds and none 
against such issue. On April 4, 1890, a contract was entered 
into with Thomas P. Wells for such excavation as might be 
necessary in the work of grading the streets, the several prices 
being as follows: For earth excavations, 17 cents per cubic 
yard; for loose rock, t>5 cents, and for solid rock 65 cents. 
For hauling more than 500 feet Mr. Wells was allowed 1 1-2 
cents per cubic yard for each additional 100 feet. On the 
same day the finance committee reported that the receipts 
of the city for the year ending March 15, 1890, had been 
$93,290.30, and that the expenses had been $68,035.50, leav- 
ing a balance on hand of $25,254.80. The indebtedness of 
the city was $75,000, less $500 in the hands of the sinking 
fund commission. 

The work of giving West Knoxville a sewerage system was 
one of the most important undertaken by the board of mayor 


and aldermen during the existence of the corporation. It 
was begun in 1893, and on October 5, 1894, the sewer com- 
mission made a report to the board that there had been laid 
in the streets of the corporation 20.328 feet of sewers. On 
November 5. 1894. there had been laid 33.372 feet, twenty- 
eight siphons had been put in, eighty-eight manholes built 
and 212 house connections made. December 7, 1894. the 
city engineer, J. C. Wright, reported that in West Knoxville 
there had been laid pipe of all sizes the following lengths: 
Of 12-inch sewer pipe, 855.5 feet; of 10-inch sewer pipe, 
1,581.6 feet; of 8-inch sewer pipe, 16,528.8 feet; of 6-inch 
sewer pipe, 15.493.3 feet; of 12-inch iron pipe, 204 feet, and 
of 8-inch iron pipe, 96 feet; total feet. 34.755.2. or 6.58 miles. 
He said that the sewer system was sufficient for a city of 
40.000 people. 

On October 11, 1894, an agreement was made between 
Knoxville and West Knoxville that the latter corporation 
might make connections with the Second Creek main sewer 
at Asylum street, at Clinch street and at Main street, on the 
condition that West Knoxville pay to Knoxville $3,000, 
which should become the property of the city of Knoxville 
in case the two corporations should be consolidated on or 
before January 1, 1896, otherwise the money should be ex- 
pended in the improvement of the streets of West Knoxville. 

The votes cast in the several divisions of the present city, 
Knoxville, North Knoxville and West Knoxville, have been 
given in other connections, and the date upon which the con- 
solidation took place. 

The mayors of West Knoxville were J. W. Yoe from the 
organization of the board of mayor and aldermen, March 28, 
1888, until his death, September 9, 1895; M. L. Ross from 
that time until January. 1897, and J. S. Monday from Janu- 
ary, 1897. until the consolidation. The recorder and treas- 
urers were as follows: A. G. Scott, from the time of organ- 
ization until 1891; W. B. Henderson, until 1892; W. W. 
Morrison from April 11, 1892, until June, 1893; A. G. Scott, 


from June, 1893, to 1895, aru 'l W. W. Morrison from 1895 to 
1897, and John M. Luttrell from March. 1897, until the time 
of consolidation. The marshals of the corporation were John 
M. Luttrell. J. R. Johnson, W. P. Wardrope and J. R. Curtis. 
The last meeting- of the board of mayor and aldermen of 
West Knoxville was held January 24, 1898, at which time the 
final reports of the recorder and treasurer and of the several 
standing committees were made. Mayor J S. Monday 
thanked the aldermen, who at the time were J. W. Crudging- 
ton, H. W. Hall, A. C. McNulty. A. J. Miller, Jacob Staub 
and J. C. Sterchi; recorder and treasurer, John M. Luttrell; 
marshal, J. R. Curtis; patrolman. G. W. Roberts, city phy- 
sician. Dr. J. P. Hood; members of the board of health. Dr. 
E. C. Deaderick and W. H. Salmun; and sinking fund com- 
missioner, Fred D. Griffith, for their uniform kindness, cour- 
tesy and assistance rendered him in the performance of his 
duties as mayor, and then declared the council of West Knox- 
ville adjourned sine die. 



Early Indian Wars — Col. John Williams' Regiment — The Mexican War — 
Volunteers for Both the Union and the Confederate Service — 
Sanders' Raid — Knoxville Receives Gen. Burnside — Is Besieged by 
Gen. Longstreet — A Sanguinary Battle — Fort Sanders — Knoxville 
Pension Agency — In the Spanish War — Warm Welcome to Return- 
ing Volunteer Soldiers. 

THE part played by the people of Tennessee in wars with 
Indians made necessary by the occupation of the terri- 
tory by white men and through the misinterpretation 
and misunderstanding of treaties, has been sufficiently set forth 
in earlier chapters in this work. It remains therefore necessary 
to deal with the wars that came subsequently, that is, with 
the "second war for independence," the Indian wars caused 
thereby, the war with Mexico, the war of the Rebellion and 
the war with Spain. 

No sooner had war with England become imminent in 
1812, than that country sent emissaries among the Indians 
to the south of Tennessee for the purpose of engaging them 
as allies in her cause, which was a part of her policy as to all 
the Indians on the southern, western and northwestern set- 
tlements of the United States. At length the massacre at 
Fort Mimms thoroughly aroused the people of this state, 
and they with alacrity sprang to* arms. This massacre oc- 
curred August 30, 1813, and the legislature almost imme- 
diately authorized a call for 3,500 troops to join the 1,500 
already in the field. An appropriation was also made of $300,- 
000 for defraying the expenses of the war. Governor Blount 
commissioned General Cocke to command the troops fur- 
nished by East Tennessee, and General Jackson those from 
what is now Middle Tennessee. With his accustomed energy 
General Jackson was soon in the field, and established a camp 

which he named Fort Deposit, but on account of low water 



in the upper branches of the rivers in East Tennessee the 
supplies from that part of the state, which were in great de- 
mand, were long delayed, causing some disappointment and 
bitterness. While awaiting these supplies the General wrote 
letters to Governor Blount and General White, urging the 
utmost dispatch in having them forwarded. The battle of 
Talladega was fought December 8, 18 13, without the co- 
operation of General Cocke or General White, the latter be- 
ing, however, within twenty-four miles of Jackson's camp 
at Fort Strother, resulting in great loss to the Indians. Gen- 
eral White joined General Jackson at Fort Strother on the 
13th of the month. 

After considerable severe fighting between General Jack- 
son and the Indians he was reinforced in March, 18 14, by 
2,000 men from East Tennessee under command of General 
George Doherty, and also by a regiment from the same por- 
tion of the state commanded by Colonel John Brown. A 
terrible battle was fought in a bend of the Tallapoosa river, 
called from its shape Tohopeka, meaning horseshoe, in which 
the Indians lost more than 700 men, and then, after almost 
continual wars with the Indians up to> 1836, volunteers were 
called for in June of that year, the apportionment of Tennes- 
see being 2,000 men. Of the troops from East Tennessee, 
which rendezvoused at Athens, R. G. Dunlap was elected 
brigadier-general, and the last fighting done by soldiers from 
Tennessee in these Indian wars was at the battles at the 
Wahoo Swamp, November 18 and 21, 1836, though the wars 
themselves can not be said to have come to an end before 

Of the soldiers that went from Knox county, for it would 
be impracticable to distinguish between those that went out 
from the city of Knoxville and those that went from the 
county, were those of the Thirty-ninth Regiment United 
States Volunteers, of which John Williams was the colonel; 
and which by June 18, 1813, had in its ranks about 600 men, 
Thomas H. Benton was the lieutenant-colonel, and Lemuel 


P. Montgomery, major. The captains of the several com- 
panies were as follows: Samuel Bunch, who afterward be- 
came colonel of a regiment of militia in General White's 
brigade: James Davis. John Jones, John B. Long, John 
Phagan, Thomas Stuart and William Walker. Some of the 
first lieutenants were as follows: David Lauderdale, David 
McMillen, Nathaniel Smith, Guy Smith, A. Stanfield. and J. 
O. Tate, while the second lieutenants were Andrew Greer, 
N. Dortch. M. W. McClellan, M. C. Molton, Simpson Payne. 
R. Ouarles, and J. K. Snapp. The third lieutenants were as 
follows: Dicks Alexander, A. G. Cowan. Joseph Denison, 
R. B. Harvey. Joseph S. Jackson, Ellis Thomas and T. B. 
Tunstall. One of the ensigns was Sam Houston. 

Colonel Williams, after the return of Judge Hugh L. White 
from a visit to General Jackson, decided to go at once to the 
assistance of that general, reaching him March i. 1814, and 
on the 27th of that month participated in the battle of Toho- 
peka. In this battle Major Montgomery was killed, and Sam 
Houston severely wounded. The regiment remained in the 
Creek country until after the signing of the treaty of peace 
and was mustered out June 15, 1815. 

This brings us down again to 1836, when a company was 
recruited to serve two months as militia in the Seminole war. . 
The captain of this company was Dr. James Morrow-; first 
lieutenant. Samuel B. Kennedy: and second lieutenant, 
Thomas C. Lyons. The regiment to which this company was 
assigned assisted to remove the Cherokee Indians to the west 
of the Mississippi river, and Lieutenant Lyons was promoted 
to a position on the staff of General Wood. 

In the war with Mexico Knox county bore no inconsider- 
able part. Upon the declaration of war by President Polk, 
the appointment of Tennessee was made 2,000 men, but it 
was finally decided to accept 1.600 infantry and 800 cavalry. 
The people throughout the state were exceeding anxious to 
enlist. The state was divided into four military districts: one 
in East Tennessee, two in Middle and one in West Tennessee. 


From East Tennessee went the Knoxville Dragoons, organ- 
ized June 10, 1846. with William R. Caswell, captain: Samuel 
Bell, first lieutenant; Calvin Gossett, second lieutenant, and 
James Anderson, third lieutenant. This company went to 
Memphis, and there became a part of the Second Regiment 
Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry, of which J. E. Thomas was 
colonel; R. D. Allison, lieutenant-colonel; and Richard 
U'aterhouse, major. The first and second regiments were 
with General Taylor at Matamoras, and soon afterward found 
the hot weather and general climatic conditions extremely 
prejudicial to health, and in fact they suffered much more 
from these than from the bullets of the Mexicans. The two 
regiments participated in the battle of Monterey September 
21, 1846, the city surrendering on the 25th. Of the 350 men 
in the charge, 105 were lost, the killed numbering 26, 
wounded JJ, and the missing 2. 

Both Tennessee regiments were then assigned to General 
Pillow's brigade, which on December 14 started for Tampico 
on the way to Vera Cruz, reaching the latter place on March 
9, 1847. On the 22A the siege guns opened on Vera Cruz, 
the bombardment continuing until the 27th, the city of Vera 
Cruz and the strong castle of San Juan de Ulloa surrendering 
on the 29th. The Tennessee regiments then went with Gen- 
eral Scott to the City of Mexico, fighting the battle of Cerro 
Gordo on the way, on April 18, 1847, a,lc l losing in all 79 
men, all but eight of them from the Second Cavalry. Their 
time of service having expired, they were then sent to New 
Orleans and mustered out. 

A call was then made for two additional regiments from 
Tennessee, the Third an'd Fourth, and for a battalion of six 
companies, known as the Fourteenth. Two companies of the 
Fourth regiment were raised in Knox county, one comm;,ml- 
ed by Capt. Parsons the other by Capt. Jordan T. Councih Ot 
this latter company the first lieutenant was Tazewell New- 
man; the second, Joseph H. Crockett; the third. Thomas 
McAft'ry, and the orderly sergeant, James Henderson. The 


company was ordered to Memphis, and there became com- 
pany D, Fourth Tennessee infantry, with Richard Water- 
house, of Rhea county, colonel; J. D. Swan, lieutenant- 
colonel, and McD. J. Burch, major. 

But the greatest event in the history of Tennessee, as of 
the Union at large, was the war of the Rebellion. Because 
of the peculiar condition of society in the eastern part of the 
state, only one in twenty of the population being slaves, the 
stronghold of the Unionists was in East Tennessee. And 
this was true even after the firing on Fort Sumter, this fact 
being due in large part to the attitude assumed by such 
leaders as Andrew Johnson. T. A. R. Nelson, William G. 
Brownlow, Horace Maynard, Connolly F. Trigg, Oliver P. 
Temple, and others who, though of less prominence, were yet 
of equal patriotism. These men and such men as these did 
all in their power to prevent Tennessee from seceding from 
the Union. The first great movement that distinguished 
East Tennessee from the rest of the state in this matter was 
made in May, 1861, on the 30th of which month there assem- 
bled at Knoxville five hundred delegates from all portions 
of East Tennessee, in pursuance of the following call, the 
meeting being held in Temperance Hall: 

"The undersigned, a portion of the people of East Tennes- 
see, disapproving of the hasty and inconsiderate action of our 
general assembly, and sincerely desiring to do, in the midst 
of the trouble which surrounds us. what will be the best for 
our country, and for all classes of our citizens, respectfully 
appoint a convention to be held in Knoxville on Thursday, 
the 30th of May inst.; and we urge every county in East 
Tennessee to send delegates to this convention, that the con- 
servative element of our whole section may be represented, 
and that wise and judicious councils may prevail — looking to 
peace and harmony among ourselves. 

F. S. Heiskell. John Williams. W. H. Rogers. 

John J. Craig. S. R. Rogers. John Baxter. 


Dr. W. A. Rogers. O. P. Temple. W. G. Brownlow. 

John Tunnell. C. F. Trigg. C. H. Baker. 

David Burnett. And others." 

After prayer by Rev. Thomas W. Humes, Hon. Thomas 
A. R. Nelson was made permanent chairman and John M. 
Fleming secretary; the chairman and General Thomas D. 
Arnold delivered addresses, and a general committee was 
appointed representing most of the counties in East Tennes- 
see, of which Connolly F. Trigg was chairman, and the con- 
vention adjourned until next day. At this time a report of 
the general committee was presented, debated and adopted. 
This report consisted of a long preamble and twelve reso- 
lutions, the principal ones of which were as follows: 

"First. That the evil which now afflicts our beloved coun- 
try in our opinion is the legitimate result of the ruinous and 
heretical doctrine of secession; that the people of East Ten- 
nessee have ever been and we believe still are opposed to it by 
a very large majority. 

"Second. That while the country is upon the very thresh- 
old of a ruinous and most desolating civil war, it may with 
truth be said, and we protest before God. that the people 
(so far as we can see) have done nothing to produce it. 

"Sixth. That the legislature of the state, without first 
having obtained the consent of the people, had no authority 
to enter into a 'military league,' with the 'Confederate 
States," against the general government, and by so doing 
to put the state of Tennessee in hostile array against the gov- 
ernment of which it then was and still is a member. Such 
legislation in advance of the expressed will of the people, to 
change their governmental relations, was an act of usurpa- 
tion and should be visited with the severest condemnation 
of the people. 


"Eighth. That the general assembly in passing a law au- 
thorizing the volunteers to vote wherever they may be on the 
day of election, whether in or out of the state, and in offering 
to the 'Confederate States' the capitol of Tennessee, together 
with other acts, have exercised powers and stretched their 
authority to an extent not within their constitutional limits. 
and not justified by the usages of the country. 

£ i£ % :!* % 

"Tenth. That the position the people of our sister state 
of Kentucky have assumed in this momentous crisis, com- 
mands our highest admiration. Their interests are our inter- 
ests. Their policy is the true policy, as we believe, of Ten- 
nessee and all the border states. .And in the spirit of freemen, 
with an anxious desire to avoid the waste of the blood and 
treasure of the state, we appeal to the people of the state of 
Tennessee, while it is yet in their power, to come up in the 
majesty of their strength and restore Tennessee to her true 

The convention adjourned to meet at the call of the presi- 

Andrew Johnson then followed with an able address in 
favor of the Union. A large number of these resolutions was 
printed and distributed throughout the state, but the tide of 
secession in Middle and West Tennessee was so strong that 
it was impossible to check its progress. It was so strong, in 
fact, that many ardent and able Union men were carried 
away with it, and became the most powerful advocates of the 
destruction of the Union. At the election held on June 8. 
1861, there were cast in East Tennessee against secession 
32,962 votes, while the entire number cast in the state against 
this doctrine was only 47,274. And it is somewhat remark- 
able that the number of soldiers furnished to the Union army 
by East Tennessee should be almost precisely the same, viz., 

Three days after this election was held Judge Nelson issued 
a call for the East Tennessee convention to meet on the 17th 


of the month at Greeneville. which convention was attendee! 
by delegates from all the counties in East Tennessee except 
Rhea. It remained in session four days. At this convention 
a declaration of grievances was adopted and a series of resolu- 
tions similar to those already quoted as having been adopted 
at the Knoxville convention. The third resolution entire was 
as follows: 

"Third. That in order to avert a conflict with our brethren 
in other parts of the state, and desiring that every constitu- 
tional means shall be resorted to for the preservation of peace, 
we do therefore constitute and appoint O. P. Temple of 
Knox, John Netherland of Hawkins and James P. McDowell 
of Greene, commissioners, whose duty it shall be to prepare 
a memorial and cause the same to be presented to the general 
assembly of Tennessee, now in session, asking its consent 
that the counties composing East Tennessee and such coun- 
ties in Middle Tennessee as desire to co-operate with them, 
may form and erect a separate state." 

The fourth resolution provided for an election to be held 
in the counties of East Tennessee and such adjacent counties 
of Middle Tennessee as might desire to unite with East Ten- 
nessee, at which election delegates should be chosen to meet 
in convention at Kingston at such time as the proper officer 
of the convention should select, and in the sixth resolution 
it was provided that Knox county should be represented by 
three delegates, Washington, Jefferson and Greene two each, 
and all the other counties one each. 

There were published in pamphlet form 20,000 copies of 
the proceedings of this Greeneville convention, the same 
pamphlet containing the proceedings of the Knoxville con- 
vention. Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, which had a large 
circulation in East Tennessee, was a powerful influence in 
favor of the Union cause, and taking all things into considera- 
tion, it was seen by the Confederate authorities and those 
favoring secession that nothing but military force could ac- 
complish anything in East Tennessee toward suppressing the 


Union sentiment existing there, stimulated and maintained 
as it was by such men as Judge T. A. R. Nelson, Connolly F. 
Trigg, Oliver P. Temple and William G. Brownlow. 

The unconquerable Union sentiment thus existing in the 
eastern part of the state did much to prevent and delay the 
organization of regiments to aid the Confederate cause, and 
several of the young men favoring this cause, anxious to 
enter the field, went down into Georgia and united with the 
first regiment raised in that state. But as it was seen by the 
secession leaders to be necessary to suppress the Unionists 
who would, if left to follow out their own will and policy, 
destroy communication between Virginia and the states 
southwest of Tennessee, the old fair grounds two miles west 
of Knoxville were converted into a camp for such secession 
companies and regiments as might be organized in East Ten- 
nessee. On May 29, the Third (Confederate) Tennessee 
regiment, made up mainly from citizens of Monroe county, 
which was strongly secession, was organized, and soon after- 
ward the Fourth and Nineteenth regiments were also organ- 
ized. On July 26, General Zollicoffer reached this camp and 
assumed command of the Confederate forces in East Ten- 
nessee, remaining in Knoxville until the following Septem- 
ber, when he went to Cumberland Gap, leaving Col. W. B. 
Wood in command of the camp at the fair grounds. Novem- 
ber 15, Col. Wood was succeeded by General W. H. Carroll, 
with General G. B. Crittenden as division commander, who 
also had his headquarters at Knoxville. 

The first company organized in Knox county for service 
in the Confederate army was Company E, Nineteenth Ten- 
nessee infantry, which was in May, 1861, with the following 
officers: Dr. John Paxton, captain; John Miller, first lieu- 
tenant; George Boyce, second lieutenant; L. B. Graham, 
third lieutenant; Samuel Hamilton, orderly sergeant. In 
1862 this company was reorganized and then had officers as 
follows: W. W. Lackey, captain; S. Abernethey, first lieu- 
tenant; H. A. Waller, second lieutenant; J. L. Waller, third 


lieutenant. Captain Lackey was killed at the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, September 19, 1863. and was succeeded as captain 
by Second Lieutenant H. A. Waller. The Nineteenth regi- 
ment was organized at the fair grounds near Knoxville, June 
10, 1862, by the selection of the following officers: D. H. 
Cummings, colonel; F. M. Walker, lieutenant colonel; A. 
Fulkerson, major; V. O. Johnson, adjutant; J. D. Taylor, 
quartermaster; H. M. Doak, sergeant major; J. E. Dulaney, 
surgeon, and Rev. D. Sullins, chaplain. 

While Company E, of the Nineteenth infantry mentioned 
above as the only company raised in Knox county that joined 
that regiment, yet there was a considerable number of resi- 
dents of Knox county that joined the Fourth infantry, of 
which the colonel was W. M. Churchwell, and also the Thirty- 
first, commanded by Col. William Bradford. Of this latter 
regiment James W. Humes was lieutenant colonel and James 
White, sergeant major, both of whom were from Knoxville. 

Of the Sixty-fifth Tennessee infantry. Company D was 
partially recruited at Knoxville in May, 1862, by Captain 
A. A. Blair. The remainder of the company was raised in 
Washington and Hawkins counties. The officers, aside from 
the captain, were J. R. McCallum, first lieutenant; J. W. 
Carter, second lieutenant; J. L. Wilson, third lieutenant, and 
R. N. McCallum, orderly sergeant. 

Quite a number of men went from Knoxville and Knox 
county into the First and Second Tennessee cavalry. The 
First Tennessee cavalry was organized at first at Knoxville 
in August, 1861, as "Brazleton's Battalion." and then con- 
sisted of seven companies commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
William Brazleton, with William Bradford as major. In the 
spring of 1862, when the battalion was reorganized, James 
E. Carter became lieutenant colonel and Alonzo Bean, major. 
Afterward at Murfreesboro the battalion was recruited to a 
full regiment, with James E. Carter, colonel; Alonzo Bean, 
lieutenant colonel; Alexander Goforth, major, and J. D. 
Carter, adjutant. The only company in this regiment from 


Knox county was Company E, of which the captain was 
John Jarnagin. After seeing service in various parts of the 
state, it participated in the siege of Knoxville under Gen. 
Longstreet, and remained with him during his stay in East 

In the Second Tennessee cavalry the greater portion of the 
men from Knox count)' were in Company I. of which the 
captain was N. C. Langford. 

Besides the infantry and cavalry mentioned ahove there 
were recruited in Knox county for the Confederate service 
four batteries of light artillery. One of these batteries was 
organized in the spring of 1861 by H. L. W. McClung; E. S. 
McClung was the senior first lieutenant; Alexander Allison, 
junior first lieutenant: William Lewis, senior second lieu- 
tenant. The battery of this company consisted of four 
smooth-bore six-pounders and two twelve-pounder howitzers. 

Burrough's battery was organized in June. 1861, by W. H. 
Burroughs, who was elected captain; James C. Luttrell. first 
lieutenant; G. A. Huwald, junior first lieutenant; J. E. Black- 
well, senior second lieutenant, and J. J. Burroughs, junior sec- 
end lieutenant. 

Kain's battery was organized in March, 1862, with W. C. 
Kain. captain; Thomas O'Connor, senior first lieutenant; 
Hugh L. White, junior first lieutenant; James Newman, 
senior second lieutenant, and W. C. Danner, junior second 

Huwald's battery was organized later with G. A. Huwald, 
captain; G. B. Ramsey, first lieutenant; William Martin, sec- 
ond lieutenant, and Charles McClung, third lieutenant. 

As has been stated elsewhere, most of the Union regiments 
and companies from East Tennessee were organized in Ken- 
tucky from bands of refugees who went to that state for the 
purpose of being thus organized, because they could not well 
be organized at home. And it necessarily happened that very 
few companies were organized wholly from any one county. 
Of the First Tennessee cavalry Company C was composed 


mainly of men from Knox county. This company was or- 
ganized with James P. Brownlow, captain, who, upon lie- 
coming lieutenant colonel, was succeeded by M. T. Bnrkhart; 
and upon the promotion of Capt. Burkhart to major of the 
regiment, the command of the company devolved upon Elbert 
J. Cannon. The last captain of the company was Jacob K. 
Lones, who was commissioned in December, 1863. John 
Roberts and James H. Smith were successively second and 
first lieutenants. The entire number of men in the company 
was 122, of whom forty-one were killed or died of wounds or 

There was also a considerable number of men from Knox 
county in the Second. Third. Fourth and Ninth cavalry regi- 

The First Tennessee cavalry was organized at Camp Gar- 
ber, Ky., March I, 1862, as the Fourth Tennessee infantry, 
and remained an infantry regiment until November 1, 1862, 
when it was transferred to the cavalry arm of the service. 
The first officers of this regiment were as follows: Robert 
Johnson, colonel; James P. Brownlow, lieutenant colonel; 
James O. Berry, major, and John Hall, adjutant. When it 
became a cavalry regiment, M. T. Burkhart became major 
and was succeeded in this office by William R. Tracy. In 
the summer of 1863, Russell Thomburgh and Calvin M. Dyer 
successively became majors, and both of them subsequently 
became lieutenant colonels. Henry G. Flagg and Burton 
Smith were also promoted to the rank of major, the former 
in August, 1863, and the latter in July, 1864. 

The Third and Sixth regiments of infantry were also com- 
posed largely of men from, Knox county and the county was 
well represented in the First, Second and Eighth regiments. 
The companies in the Third Tennessee infantry, organized in 
part or in whole from Knox county men, were D, F, H and I. 

Company D was organized February 10, 1862, with John 
O'Keefe, captain; W. C. Robison, first lieutenant; S. L. King, 
second lieutenant, and W. C. Brandon, orderly sergeant. 


Company F was organized with J. L. Ledgenvood, captain; 
James Clapp, first lieutenant; C. Rutherford, second lieuten- 
ant, and C. Zachary, orderly sergeant. Of company H, J. \Y. 
Adkinson was captain; J. G. Roberts, first lieutenant, and 
W. W. Adkinson, second lieutenant. Not long after the 
organization J. G. Roberts became captain and E. C. Roberts 
first lieutenant. Company I was organized with E. D. Willis, 
captain; W. L. Ledgenvood, first lieutenant; J. H. Ellis, sec- 
ond lieutenant, and R. Bince, orderly sergeant. Afterward 
by promotion W. L. Ledgerwood became captain; J. H. Ellis, 
first lieutenant, and J. C. Bayless, second lieutenant. 

The Sixth Tennessee infantry was organized almost wholly 
from Knox county, all but Companies E and F. Company 
E was from Claiborne county and Company F from Campbell 
county. Company A was organized with A. M. Gamble, 
captain; Thomas D. Edington. first lieutenant, and V. F. 
Gossett, second lieutenant. In August. 1862, Captain 
Gamble was promoted as major, the inferior officers being 
regularly advanced, W. W. Dunn becoming second lieuten- 
ant. Company B was organized with Spencer Deaton, cap- 
lain; James M. Armstrong, first lieutenant; Thomas A. Smith, 
second lieutenant, and William D. Atchely, orderly sergeant. 
In May, 1864, James M. Armstrong became captain of the 
company. Company C was organized with Rufus M. Ben- 
nett, captain; John P. Barger, first lieutenant; William L. 
Lea, second lieutenant, and Joseph A. E. Blang, orderly ser- 
geant. In March. 1863, Lieutenant Lea became captain, and 
was killed August 6, 1864, being succeeded as captain by 
Adam T. Cottrell. G. L. Maloney was made first lieutenant 
and James M. Berry, second lieutenant. Company D was 
organized with M. D. Bearden. captain: S. L. Gilson, first 
lieutenant; Thomas Parham, second lieutenant, and William 
N. Price, orderly sergeant. In January, 1863, James H. Cole- 
man became first lieutenant and was succeeded in July, 1S64, 
bv j. L. Turner. F. B. Nickell becoming second lieutenant. 
Company G was organized with Francis H. Bounds, captain; 


A. E. Murphy, first lieutenant; A. M. Cate, second lieutenant, 
and Ignaz Fanz, orderly sergeant. 

The officers of this regiment were as follows: Joseph A. 
Cooper, colonel; Edward Maynard, lieutenant colonel; Wil- 
liam C. Pickens, major; D. W. Parker, adjutant: William 
Rule, commissary sergeant, and T. T. Thornburgh, sergeant 
major. In August, 1862, A. M. Gamble became major and 
in 1863 William Rule adjutant. 

Of the Seventh Tennessee mounted infantry, one company 
was organized in Knox county with Charles W. Cross, cap- 
tain; T. L. B. Huddleston. first lieutenant; S. D. Webster, 
second lieutenant, and E. E. Longmire, orderly sergeant. 

On July 10. 1 861, Judge T. A. R. Nelson issued a procla- 
mation for an election to> be held August 31. at which dele- 
gates were to be chosen as provided by the convention which 
had met at Greeneville, but this election was not held. At an 
election held during the first week in August, Horace 
Maynard, T. A. R. Nelson, and G. W. Bridges were elected 
representatives to the congress of the United States, and 
Judge Nelson, a few days afterward, while on his way to take 
his seat in congress, was arrested in Lee county, Virginia, 
and taken to Richmond, where he was paroled and sent home. 
Mr. Bridges was also arrested, in Morgan county, but was 
released on taking the oath of allegiance to the Confederate 

Meantime, during the summer and fall of 1861. the Union- 
ists were organizing themselves into companies and regi- 
ments, and preparing for active service in defense of the gov- 
ernment to which the}' owed allegiance. In some localities 
this was done openly because of the prevailing Union senti- 
ment, but in other places this organizing and drilling had to 
be carried on in secret. Many of them then sought oppor- 
tunity to enlist in Federal regiments by making their way into 
Kentucky, where they were organized into regiments. 

On October 1 1, the Thirty-seventh (Confederate) regiment 
was organized with Moses White, colonel; H. P. Moffet, 


lieutenant colonel, and W. M. Hunt, major. But it was so 
difficult to supply this regiment with arms that on December 
9. 1 861, of the 771 men belonging thereto only 200 had 
arms of any kind, and many of these were wholly unfit for 
use. On December 10, Gen. Carroll, with his brigade, was 
ordered to join Gen. Zollicoffer, but could not move until 
the close of the month. When he did go away. Major G. H. 
Monserrat was left in command at Knoxville. In March, 

1862, Gen. E. Kirby Smith took command of the department 
of East Tennessee, with his headquarters at Knoxville for a 
short time. During the autumn of 1862 and the winter suc- 
ceeding the post at Knoxville was under the command suc- 
cessively of Gen. J. P. McCown, Gen. Sam Jones and Gen. 
Maury, partially unavailing efforts being made in the mean- 
time to enforce the conscription act. From April 27, 1863, 
to the following September, Gen. S. B. Buckner was in com- 
mand at Knoxville. 

This town, on account of its position among the moun- 
tains, was to a considerable extent inaccessible to the Federal 
forces, and it remained uninterrupted until the summer of 

1863. Gen. William P. Sanders, while serving as chief of 
cavalry, department of the Ohio, made a raid into East Ten- 
nessee, as if for the capture of Knoxville, leaving Kentucky 
June 14, with 1,500 men, composed as follows: First Ten- 
nessee mounted infantry, 700 men; Forty-fourth Ohio 
mounted infantry, 200 men; One Hundred and Twelfth Illi- 
nois mounted infantry, 200 men; Seventh Ohio cavalry, 150 
men; Second Ohio cavalry, 150 men; First Kentucky cavalry, 
100 men, and one section of Konkle's First Ohio artillery. 

This expedition entered East Tennessee at Wartburg, 
where it captured a small Confederate force and destroyed 
some supplies. Passing by Kingston and London, they being 
too strongly fortified for successful attack, it first struck the 
railroad at Lenoir's, where it captured another small force 
and began the work of destroying the railroad, tearing up 
gaps one mile apart all the way up to Knoxville. reaching the 


outskirts of this place on the 19th of the month. It drove in 
the Confederate pickets and threw the town into great con- 
sternation, as Gen. Buckner had just gone away to Big Creek 
Gap with all the available men in the city with the exception 
of the Fifty-fourth Virginia and the Sixth Florida. There 
was great hurrying to and fro to secure volunteers to man 
the small number of guns that were picked up from various 
parts of the town. But eight pieces of cannon were got ready 
for action, manned by convalescents and citizens. These guns 
were posted on College hill, on Mabry's hill and on Summit 
Hill, but the Union forces made no attack on the city, and 
there was only a little firing between the pickets of the two 
opposing detachments, this being at 2 a. m. of the 20th. At 
8 o'clock, however, Gen. Sanders' men approached the town 
from the north, as if they intended to make an attack. Col. 
Haynes, Confederate commandant of the place, in the absence 
of Gen. Buckner, with a section of Wyly's battery, opened 
fire upon the Union forces as they closed in on the town 
north of the railroad shops, the Unionists taking shelter in 
the houses and sending forward sharpshooters to pick off the 
artillerists. At the same time the Union artillery opened fire 
at a distance of 800 yards on the Confederate batteries on 
Summit hill, killing Col. Pleasant M. McClung and Lieut. 

After a- brief show of force. General Sanders withdrew 
and moved off toward Strawberry Plains. As he moved 
up the valley he laid waste the railroad, took a number 
of prisoners at New Market, destroyed the bridge at 
Mossy Creek, and then turned north to escape a superior 
force, which he had reason to> fear would cut him off. He 
reached Kentucky on the 24th of the month, having de- 
stroyed the railroad at intervals from Lenoir's to Mossy 
Creek. During his next visit to Knoxville he lost his life. 

On September 3d the advance portion of Gen. Burnside 
first entered the place, the general himself following the next 
day and establishing his headquarters in a house afterward 


occupied by the Journal newspaper, on Gay street. On Oc- 
tober 22, 1863, the rumor was in circulation that Gen. Long- 
street was on his way up the Tennessee valley from the 
vicinity of Chattanooga, and in order to meet this supposed 
movement, Gen. Burnside sent the greater part of his forces 
from Knoxville to Loudon. At Loudon he awaited the 
coming of Longstreet, who did not leave Chattanooga until 
November 4. Burnside's army consisted of the Ninth corps, 
commanded by Gen. Potter, and composed of two divisions 
commanded respectively by Gen. Hartranft and Gen. Fer- 
rero; the Twenty-third corps, composed of two divisions, 
commanded respectively by Gen. White and Gen. Hascall, 
and a body of cavalry under Gen. J. M. Shackleford. number- 
ing in all about 10,000 men. 

Upon the appearance of Gen. Longstreet, Burnside's forces 
were arranged about as follows: The Ninth corps at Lenoir's, 
where a pontoon bridge had been thrown across the river; 
'White's division was on the north side of the river at Loudon, 
and other portions of the Twenty-third corps were at Knox- 
ville under command of Gen. John G. Parke. Burnside's chief 
of staff, Gen. Sanders, was in command of a division of 
mounted infantry and cavalry south of the river, not far from 
Rockford, and there were detachments at Maryville. Kings- 
ton and other places. 

Longstreet's army consisted of Gen. Hood's, McLaws' and 
Wheeler's divisions, and two battalions of artillery com- 
manded respectively by Col. Leyden and Col. Alexander, 
the entire strength of his army being about 20,000 men. 

Gen. Wheeler, on the 13th of the month, with three brig- 
ades of cavalry, captured the detachment at Maryville and 
made an attempt on the heights south of Knoxville, but was 
here repulsed by Gen. Sanders after a fierce encounter. There- 
upon he marched down the river to reunite his forces with 
the main army, which had thrown a bridge across the river at 
Huff's Ferry. The day before this capture of Maryville, 
Charles A. Dana, assistant secretary of war. and Col. Wilson, 


of Gen. Grant's staff, paid a visit to Burnside, and upon con- 
sultation it was determined to hold Knoxville at all hazards 
and Kingston also, if it did not involve too much loss. The 
next morning Burnside began to withdraw his forces from 
their position in front of Longstreet and soon after daylight 
on the 15th had his entire army moving toward Lenoir's, 
where two days' rations were issued and the army went into 
camp for the night. On the 16th Longstreet made a savage 
attack on Burnside at Campbell's station, but although gal- 
lant charges were made, he was compelled to retire. In 
this battle the Union loss was in killed, 26; in wounded, 166, 
and in missing, 57. The loss of the Confederates was in all 
probability fully as large. 

Gen. Burnside, relieved of the pressure caused by this at- 
tack, began his retreat toward Knoxville, and although the 
night was very dark and the roads extremely heavy, he 
reached his destination by daylight next morning. Chief 
Engineer O. M. Poe had already selected the lines of fortifi- 
cation and the work of intrenching immediately began. Fer- 
rero's division was posted on the west side of the city, and 
extended from the river to where the railroad crosses Second 
creek; Hartranft's division was on the north, extending from 
Second to First creek, along Vine street; and White's division 
was on the east, from First creek to the old glass works, and 
was strengthened by a portion of Hascall's division. Artil- 
lery was placed on all the hills on and within these lines, and 
a portion of the artillery supported Cameron's brigade of the 
Twenty-third corps, occupying the hills south of the river, 
across which a bridge had been thrown. 

On the morning of the 17th, in order to delay as much as 
possible the approach of Gen. Longstreet, who was advancing 
by the Kingston pike, the cavalry of Gen. William P. Sanders 
was dismounted and sent out to meet him four or five miles 
from the city. The entire day was spent in skirmishing with 
McLaws' division, which was in the advance. Sanders slowly 
falling back and McLaws advancing until night, when San- 


ders made a determined stand about 500 yards above the 
house of R. H. Armstrong, where a line of defense, con- 
sisting - of rails and rifle pits, was constructed, extending from 
the railroad to the river. McLaws occupied a line parallel to 
this line of Gen. Sanders, and just in front of the Armstrong 

During the next day Gen. McLaws made strenuous at- 
tempts to force back the Union line, which was stub- 
bornly defended because of the necessity of gaining time to 
strengthen the works around the city, every hour, according 
to Engineer O. M. Poe, being worth the addition of 1,000 
men to the defense. But notwithstanding the resistance which 
he met, Gen. McLaws was so determined in his attack that 
about three o'clock in the afternoon he succeeded in breaking 
it down, and Gen. Sanders rode forward to direct the retreat. 
When Sanders had reached a point near the center of his 
line and immediately in its rear, he was so conspicuous an 
object on his snow-white horse that he was shot by a sharp- 
shooter concealed in the Armstrong residence, and fell to 
the ground mortally wounded. He was promptly carried 
into the city and taken to the Lamar house, where 
he died at eleven o'clock next day, having been 
baptized one hour previously by Rev. J. A. Hyden, 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, and by moon- 
light in the evening of the 19th he was buried in 
the yard of the Second Presbyterian church, in the presence 
of Gen. Burnside and officers of the Union army, the services 
being conducted by Rev. Thomas W. Humes. After the fall 
of Gen. Sanders the command devolved upon Gen. Wolford, 
who succeeded in withdrawing his forces into the city, and 
Gen. Longstreet remained satisfied with the achievement 
of the day. Next day Gen. Longstreet's command 
was disposed for a determined siege, McLaw's division 
occupying the space between the railroad and the river; 
Hood's division that between the railroad and Clinton 
pike and Hart's completing the investment by extend- 


ing frorm the Tazewell pike to the river on the east. 
During' the next five or six days Longstreet was continually 
receiving reinforcements from Gen. Sam Jones, Gen. Jackson 
and Gen. "Cerro Gordo" Williams, and from, the 18th to the 
24th nothing was done except skirmishing and the making a 
few sallies from the Union lines for the purpose of destroy- 
ing houses furnishing shelter for the sharpshooters of the Con- 
federate army. The strengthening- of the fortifications went 
steadily forward under the direction of Engineer O. M. Poe. 
First Creek was dammed at the Mabry street crossing, and 
Second creek at the railroad crossing, thus flooding the low 
ground along the railroad where "Flag Pond" had formerly 
been. And Fort Sanders, the name of which had been 
changed from Fort Buckner immediately after the killing of 
Gen. Sanders, was rendered practically impregnable by a deep 
ditch all round it, and in front of this ditch there was stretched 
a network of wires fastened to the stumps of trees which had 
been cut down for this purpose in part, these wires playing a 
very important part in the defense of the fort when the assault 
was finally made upon it. 

On the night of the 24th Longstreet sent across the rivet- 
near the Armstrong house a force of about 1,100 men, with 
the hope of carrying the heights south of the river, but this 
attempt was unsuccessful except as to the one hill below the 
university, which was captured and upon it placed a battery, 
which battery, however, was of little service in the siege. 
From this time on until the final attack was made on Fort 
Sanders but little was done except to make an occasional 
sortie for the possession of rifle-pits in front of the fort. 

As is well known, the object of Gen. Longstreet was to 
starve the Union forces into surrender, in which he would 
certainly have succeeded had he cut off all the supplies from 
reaching the fort: but large quantities of provisions were con- 
tinually brought down the Holston river from the vicinity 
of the French Broad under cover of the darkness and the 
fog, the river not being carefully guarded by the Confederate 


forces, and at the close of the siege, when the attack was made 
upon the fort, there were within the fortifications a sufficient 
supply to last the Federal army ten days. These supplies 
were freely furnished by the citizens in the immediate sections 
of the country, who were loyally disposed to the Government 
of the Lnited States. It was therefore this faithfulness on 
the part of the people of East Tennessee that saved the city 
and caused its final abandonment by the Confederate forces. 
They were sent down the Holston by Captain Doughty and 
his company, who remained on the French Broad during the 

On November 28 Gen. Longstreet heard that Gen. Sher- 
man was approaching the city for the relief of Gen. Burnside, 
and upon consultation with his officers determined that an 
immediate attack should be made upon Fort Sanders, in 
order to reduce it if possible before Sherman could reach the 
city. And on the morning of the 29th. which was Sunday, 
the attack was begun at daylight by three brigades of Gen. 
McLaws' division, composed of Mississippi, Georgia and 
South Carolina troops, a part of which force was the famous 
"Barksdale Brigade," but the obstacles in front of the fort 
were so numerous and so unexpected to the Confederate sol- 
diers, especially the network of wire, the construction of 
which was suggested to the engineer by J. B. Hoxsie of 
Knoxville, that they were thrown into confusion. But not- 
withstanding the difficulties in the way three Confederate 
flags were planted upon the parapet, but the havoc caused 
in the assaulting column by the action of Lieut. Benjamin, 
who, taking the shells in his hand, cut the fuse to five seconds, 
lighted them with his cigar which he was smoking at the 
time, and threw them over the embankment into the heroic 
men struggling to scale the fortification, and thus caused 
them to fall back. Thus while the assault was most gallantly 
made it resulted in failure and the shattered forces had to be 
withdrawn. Longstreet soon afterward began a retreat up 
the vallev to Morristown, and Gen. Burnside on the 12th of 


December, having turned over the command to Gen. Foster, 
left the city. 

Upon the arrival of Gen. Burnside in Knoxville the previ- 
ous September, he appointed Gen. S. P. Carter provost 
marshal of East Tennessee, and in this position Gen. Carter 
remained until the close of hostilities 

Lieutenant-General A. P. Stewart, in his sketch of the 
Army of Tennessee, published in the Military Annals of 
Tennessee, by Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley of Nashville, says: 

"The year 1863 had been a very eventful one. Vicksburg 
and Port Hudson had fallen, and the enemy were in posses- 
sion of the Mississippi river. Gettysburg, perhaps the decisive 
battle of the war, had been fought and lost. The Army of 
Tennessee had retreated across the Cumberland mountains, 
had fought and gained the great battle of Chickamauga, and, 
as at Shiloh and Murfreesboro, had lost the fruits of victory 
and suffered the disaster of Missionary Ridge." In fact so 
full of events of great "pith and moment" was the year 1863, 
so actively engaged were the contending- armies, and so poor 
were the means of communication, that little was known at 
the time, to the outside world, of the military movements 
and the great events that were transpiring in the Valley of 
East Tennessee. On September 3. 1863, Gen. Burnside 
reached Knoxville from Richmond. Ky.. with an army of 
20.000 men. Gen. Buckner, evacuating Knoxville, fell back 
to Loudon, and finally united with the Army of Tennessee, 
thus leaving upper East Tennessee virtually in possession of 
the Federal army. 

"And after the signal but fruitless victory to the Confed- 
erates at Chickamauga. Gen. Rosecrans was relieved, and 
the Federal army at Chattanooga reorganized under Gen. 
Grant. On the 4th of November a council of war was called 
by Gen. Bragg, at which Generals Hardee, Breckenridge and 
Longstreet were present. Longstreet's campaign into East 
Tennessee was settled upon, and he received orders to begin 
his preparations, and on the same night the division of Gen. 


McLaws was on the march. Part of Gen. Wheeler's cavalry 
corps, consisting of Armstrong's and Martin's divisions, ac- 
companied the expedition. On the night of the 13th and 
14th of November, Longstreet's corps crossed the Tennessee 
river at Huff's ferry, near Loudon, while Wheeler was sent 
with three brigades of cavalry to surprise a Federal cavalry 
force at Maryville, capture it. and then move to the rear of 
Knoxville and endeavor to gain possession of some of the 
heights on the south side, and hold until the arrival of the 
infantry; or, failing in this, to threaten the force at Knoxville. 
so as to prevent Burnside concentrating his forces against 
Longstreet before he reached Knoxville. Gen. Wheeler suc- 
ceeded in surprising the force at Maryville; captured a part 
of it and dispersed the balance. He then moved on to Knox- 
ville. and though he failed to get possession of any of the 
heights which commanded the town, created the diversion 
in Longstreet's favor. Longstreet moved slowly and cau- 
tiously but steadily forward. On the 1 6th he encountered 
the Federal force entrenched at Campbell's Station, and a 
severe fight ensued; the Federal loss being about three hun- 
dred and the Confederate loss one hundred and ninety-eight. 
During the night the main Federal forces were withdrawn 
into Knoxville and preparations for defense were pushed 
actively forward under the able direction of Capt. O. M. Poe, 
of the engineer corps. Longstreet closed in to the investment 
of Knoxville, but not without severe fighting. The Federal 
cavalry disputed every inch of ground. In a charge on the 
Federal lines on the 18th, the Confederates lost one hundred 
and forty men, and among the Federal slain was their gallant 
cavalry leader. Gen. Sanders. In his honor the name of Fort 
Loudon, which was built and named by Gen. Buckner during 
his occupancy of Knoxville. was immediately changed to 
"Fort Sanders," under which name it has gone into history. 
While Sanders on the Kingston road and Pennebaker on 
the Clinton road were disputing the advance of Longstreet, 
everv available man in Knoxville was at work on the fortifi- 


cations. Capt. Poe, in his report, says: "The citizens of the 
town and all contrabands within reach were pressed into 
service and relieved the almost exhausted soldiers, who had 
seen no rest for more than one hundred hours. Many of the 
citizens were rebels and worked with very poor grace, which 
blistered hands did not tend to improve." But as Capt. Poe 
says: "The hours in which to work, that the gallant conduct 
of our cavalry gave us, were worth to us 1,000 men each." 
Capt. Poe continues: "At daylight on the morning of No- 
vember 19, our position had been much strengthened and 
we began to feel secure and confident." From this time 
until the final assault on Fort Sanders on the 29th, frequent, 
in fact almost constant skirmishes occurred; and as Gen. Mc- 
Laws, in his report, says: "Sharpshooters, occupying rifle- 
pits between the main lines, were constantly exchanging shots 
whenever the slightest opportunity was offered by either 
party for even a chance hit ; and they were in easy rifle range 
of each other." Artillery practice was kept up with more or 
less regularity from various points around the town. By the 
28th there had been completed a continuous line of rifle-pits, 
connecting a series of strong earthwork forts. The forts 
were surrounded by deep, wide ditches. First and Second 
creeks were dammed so as to cover a mile or more of the 
valleys with water; and in front of Fort Sanders the saplings 
were cut down and the sharpened stumps converted into a 
veritable death trap. Telegraph wires were woven in and 
around the stumps, stretched tight and firmly fastened. 

"On account of reports of a battle at Chattanooga there 
was a serious difference of opinion between Gen. Longstreet 
and Gen. McLaws as to the advisability of assaulting Fort 
Sanders. Gen. Longstreet, however, in his letter of Novem- 
ber 28, settled the matter by saying: 'The assault must be 
made at the time appointed, and must be made with a deter- 
mination which will insure success.' 

"Gen. McLaws thereupon informed his brigadiers that the 
assault would be made at daylight the next morning, Sunday, 


the 29th of November, and the following orders were given 
for the assault: 

" '1. A regiment from Humphreys' (Mississippi) brigade 
and one from Wofford's (Georgia) should be selected to lead 
in the assault. Wofford's regiment to- lead the column com- 
posed of Wofford's brigade assaulting from the left, and 
Humphreys' regiment the column assaulting from the right, 
composed of two regiments of Humphreys' brigade, and 
three of Bryan's, following close on Humphreys as a reserve. 

" '2. The brigades to be formed for the assault in columns 
of regiments. 

" '3. The assault to be made with fixed bayonets and with- 
out firing a gun. 

" '4. The assault should be made against the northwest 
angle of Fort Loudon. 

" '5. The men should be urged to the assault with a deter- 
mination to succeed, and should rush to it without halting, 
and. mounting the parapet, take possession of the work and 
hold it against all attempts to recover it. 

" '6. That the sharpshooters should keep up a continuous 
fire into the embrasures of the enemy's works and along the 
fort, so as to prevent the use of their cannon, and distract, if 
not prevent, the fire from all arms. 

" '7. Gen. Kershaw to advance to the assault on the right 
of the fort so soon as the fort was taken.' 

"The commands selected for this terrible assault were 
made up of 'true and tried' soldiers. 'Theirs not to reason 
why, theirs but to do and die.' At 4 o'clock on the morning 
of the 29th, Gen. McLaws saw in the person to the formation 
of the assaulting column. The weather was bad. misty and 
freezing. A large number of the Confederates were bare- 
footed and thinly clad. At last, as the first gray streaks of 
dawn announced the coming of the Sabbath morn, the boom- 
ing of Confederate artillery gave the signal for the assault. 
Though 'cannon to the right of them, cannon to the left of 
them, cannon in front of them volleyed and thundered,' calm- 


/ j 

lv but quickly with fixed bayonets and with the precision of 
dress parade, the assaulting columns moved through the 
mists of the early morning toward the bastions of the dimly 
outlined fort. The distance was short. The garrison was 
fully aware that the assault was to be made at daylight and 
every man was at his post. The embrasures of the fort 
bristled with twenty-pound Parrotts and twelve-pound Napo- 
lean guns, which had been double and triple shotted with 
shot and shell; and which, almost from the moment the col- 
umns moved, had full play upon them. Yet proudly, con- 
fidently, heroically and defiantly the gray, grim and grizzled 
veterans moved into the 'jaws of death.' Suddenly the head 
of the assaulting column was broken, the men pitching for- 
ward and falling over each other. They had struck the 
invisible telegraph wires stretched from stump to stump. The 
guns of the fort belched forth thunder and lightning into the 
disordered ranks. Quickly reforming under the galling fire, 
the Confederates rushed for the fort, when once again they 
halted. They had reached the deep, wide ditch about which 
they were misinformed, and over which they had no way to 
cross. Only for a moment they paused. Apparently endued 
with superhuman activity and determination they crossed 
the ditch, while volley after volley of artillery and musketry 
was poured into them from above, and while 'twenty-pound 
shells with fuses cut to explode them at twenty seconds were 
hurled from the fort into the living mass below." Still onward 
was borne the cross of St. Andrews. The parapet was 
reached only to find it covered with ice. Undismayed the 
boys in gray attempted to scale the slippery sides. A few 
reached the top only to meet instant death or capture. Three 
times the cross-barred battle flag of the Confederates was 
planted on the parapet to float only for a moment. Col. 
Ruff, commanding Wofford's brigade, and Col. Thomas, his 
next in command, had been killed and the next in command 
wounded, and the brigade forced to retire. The assault had 
failed. Gen. McLaws. in his report, says: 'When it was 


seen that Wofford's brigade could not mount the parapet, 
Gen. G. T. Anderson's brigade of Hood's division came rush- 
ing to the assault in the same place where my command had 
attempted it. but was repelled at once and retired.' E. A. 
Pollard, the Southern historian, writing of the assault, says: 
'Never, except at Gettysburg, was there in the history of the 
war a disaster adorned with the glory of such devout courage 
as seen at Longstreet's repulse at Knoxville." The engage- 
ment lasted about twenty minutes. The Confederate loss, 
according to their official reports, was 129 killed. 458 
wounded. 226 missing; total, 813. Georgia, Mississippi and 
South Carolina suffered most. Col. McElroy, of the Thir- 
teenth Mississippi, was killed while leading the assault on 
the right. A few days afterward a Federal courier was cap- 
tured, bearing an autograph letter from Gen. Grant to Gen. 
Burnside, informing him that three columns were advancing 
to his relief; one by the south side, under Gen. Sherman; one 
by Decherd under Gen. Elliott, and one by Cumberland Gap 
under Gen. Foster, and about the same time Wheeler's cav- 
alry was ordered to rejoin Gen. Bragg's arm}', which had 
fallen back into Georgia, and Gen. Ransom had ordered two 
brigades of his cavalry, which had been operating around 
Knoxville, to rejoin him. Under these circumstances, be- 
lieving it to be impossible to make a junction with Gen. 
Bragg, Gen. Longstreet concluded to withdraw in the direc- 
tion of Virginia, and his orders to move were issued on 
December 2. On the night of the 4th the troops were with- 
drawn and the memorable siege of Knoxville was raised. 

"In this short sketch it is impossible to mention, much less 
do justice, to the various commands engaged. While Knox- 
ville was being besieged by Longstreet, the cavalry of Gen. 
Wheeler's and Gen. Ransom's commands were by no means 
idle. Almost daily encounters were had with the Federal 
troops in their efforts to prevent reinforcements or commis- 
sary stores from reaching Burnside's army, and the soil of 
East Tennessee drank deep of the blood of the brave and 


chivalrous troopers. The facts given in this sketch are taken 
mainly from official reports to be published in Vol. XXXI., 
Part 1, of the 'Records of the War of the Rebellion.' ' 

With reference to the number of Confederate soldiers killed 
in the attack on Fort Sanders, it is altogether probable that 
the number given above (129) is considerably too low. Some 
time after the battle occurred Mr. S. T. Atkin went over the 
ground where these soldiers had been hurriedly buried, and 
seeing their bodies protruding from the ground, being rooted 
out and eaten by hogs, he suggested to a wealthy friend, 
whose name he prefers not to divulge, that they should be 
taken up and decently buried. This friend said to him that if 
he would have the work done, he (the friend) would pay the 
expense incurred. Mr. Atkin thereupon made a contract 
with James H. Renshaw, an undertaker, to make neat pine 
boxes to serve as coffins, and bury the dead in Bethel ceme- 
terv. and in clue time Mr. Renshaw brought in his bill for 
$368, the price agreed upon having been $4 per corpse, 
which would make ninety-two buried in this way. 

Besides these ninety-two there were buried immediately 
after the battle dead bodies to the number of 300, according 
10 the present sexton of the Bethel or Confederate cemetery, 
thus making in all 392 that were killed in storming the 

Fort Sanders was a bastioned earthwork, built upon an 
irregular quadrilateral, the sides of which respectively, south- 
ern front, 125 yards; western front. 95 yards; northern front, 
125 yards, and eastern front, 85 yards. The eastern front 
at the time of the attack was entirely open, the southern front 
was about one-half done, the western front was finished ex- 
cept cutting the embrasures, and the northern front was 
nearly finished. The bastion attacked was the only one com- 
pletely finished. The fort was so constructed that apparently 
none of its guns protected this northwest corner, and Gen. 
Longstreet, noticing this fact, ordered the assault to be made 
upon it. No sooner, however, had he done this than the 


temporary embankments were removed and the guns inside 
the fort brought to bear with deadly effect upon the brave 
and determined men making the charge. 

At the time of this assault there were within the fort 
Benjamin's battery, a part of Buckley's battery, a part of the 
Seventy-ninth New York infantry, four companies of the 
Second Michigan infantry, two companies of the Twentieth 
Michigan infantry, and one company of the One Hundredth 
Pennsylvania infantry, in the aggregate from 220 to 300 
men. As to the losses sustained by each side, there are dif- 
ferences of statement, even in the official reports. Gen. Burn- 
side on November 30, in his report, said that after the failure 
of the attack "we sent out a detachment to whom the rebels 
in the ditch surrendered, about 300 men and three stands 
of colors. Their killed and wounded amount to about 500, 
and our entire loss was about 20." Lieut. Benjamin, in com- 
mand of a battery in the fort, in his report says: "We took 
about 250 prisoners. 17 of them commissioned officers, and 
over 200 dead and wounded lay in the ditch, among them 
three colonels." These were Col. Ruff, commanding Wof- 
ford's brigade which led the assault; Col. McElroy and Lieut. - 
Col. Thomas. Lieut. Benjamin also says that in the fort the 
loss was eight killed and five wounded. 

According to Lieut. -Col. G. Moxley Sorrel, of Longstreet's 
army, the losses in that army on the 29th of November, in the 
assault on the fort, were as follows. 

Brigade. Killed. Wounded. Missing. Total. 

Anderson's 33 129 25 187 

Wofford's 48 121 81 250 

Bryan's 27 121 64 212 

Humphrey's 21 87 56 164 

Totals 129 458 226 813 

One remarkable thing about this assault was that both 
Gen. Alexander and Gen. Longstreet thought there was no 
ditch in front of the fort, or at least no ditch that would inter- 


fere with the attack. Gen. Longstreet testified before the 
court martial that he had seen a man walk down the parapet 
across the ditch and up on the outside without jumping and 
without apparent difficulty, and some of the officers stated 
that they had seen dogs passing over the same ditch on the 
west side, hence the inference that even if there were a ditch 
in front of the fort it would in reality be no obstacle to an 

The spot where Gen. Sanders fell from his horse was 
marked by a common rough stone, and there was a solitary 
cedar tree standing near. This tree is still standing, about 
one-half mile east of the Armstrong residence. 

For nearly twenty-five years the battlements of Fort 
Sanders stood out boldly against the sky. a monument to the 
bravery of the men in both armies: but by 1887 streets were 
run through the fortifications in both directions and beautiful 
homes began to be erected on either side of these streets. The 
same thing was then occurring or hail occurred all over the 
South, and the old soldiers by this time began to remember 
the various battlefields on which they had struggled to the 
death with each other as only places where they had displayed 
their fortitude, heroism and genius, the fierce passions of the 
conflict disappearing even as did the forts ami embankments 
temporarily thrown up to give a temporary advantage to the 
army acting on the defensive. 

It is asserted by some people that Fort Sanders should be 
converted into a government park or fort. Its condition at 
the present time (December. 1808) is as follows: A street 
runs through the center of the fort, with three or four resi- 
dences upon it. which would be available as quarters for 
officers. The long slope to the west and north, up which the 
Confederates made such a gallant charge, is still open country 
and the line of the fort is well preserved. By the natural 
growth of the city of Knoxville all of this long slope, con- 
taining nearly eighty acres of land, will be covered with resi- 
dences should not the government of the United States soon 


take action. It would be eminently appropriate for the gov- 
ernment to commemorate the storming and defense of Fort 
Sanders, for here was fought one of the most determined and 
important battles of the war, and East Tennessee should 
have a monument which should speak for all time of a com- 
pletely reunited country. 

General William P. Sanders, killed in this attempt to retard 
the progress of Gen. Longstreet toward Knoxville, was the 
only Union general from any of the southern states killed 
during the Civil war. He fell mortally wounded November 
18, 1863, about one mile below or west of Knoxville. He 
was born in Kentucky and entered West Point from Missis- 
sippi in 1852, graduating from that institution in 1856. At 
San Diego, Cal., during 1856-57, he was lieutenant of 
dragoons and served in the Utah campaign from 1857 to 
1861, in the latter year becoming captain in the United States 
cavalry in the defense of Washington, D. C. From August, 
1861, to March, 1862, he was thus engaged, and from the 
latter date to the fall of 1862 he saw active service in the 
Peninsular campaign under Gen. McClellan. He was en- 
gaged in the Maryland campaign from September to Novem- 
ber, 1862. On March 4, 1863, he became colonel of the Fifth 
Kentucky cavalry and joined in the chase after Gen. John 
Morgan during his famous raid. During September and 
October, 1863, he served as chief of the cavalry department 
of Ohio and was in command of a division of cavalry, Twenty- 
third army corps, from October 23 to November 18, 1863, 
the latter day being that on which he fell a victim to the 
enemy's bullets. On the day before he had been charged 
with the duty of delaying Longstreet's advance upon the city 
while the intrenchments about the city were being strength- 
ened, and during the 17th and 18th his division held the 
enemy in check though hard pressed, but was driven in to- 
ward the close of the second clay. 

The battle thus fought in which General Sanders lost his 
life was fought almost entirely between southern troops, it 


being- a clash between General Sanders' Kentucky division 
and Kershaw's South Carolina troops. Sanders' division 
was composed of the following brigades: 

First brigade — First, Eleventh and Twelfth Kentucky cav- 

Second brigade — Eighth Michigan cavalry and Forty-fifth 
Ohio mounted infantry. 

Third brigade — Eleventh and Twenty-seventh Kentucky 
mounted infantry. Laws' howitzer battery and the Fifteenth 
batten' Indiana light artillery'. 

Kershaw's command contained the Second, Third, Sev- 
enth, Eighth and Fifteenth South Carolina regiments and 
the Third battalion, all infantry. 

Sanders' division was dismounted and posted in a trans- 
verse line across the hills from the railroad to the river im- 
mediately east of the Armstrong residence and one mile to 
the west of Knoxville. Sanders' men were not accustomed 
to fighting, but were well armed, some of them with the 
best rifles then known. Their stand was so stubborn that it 
required a strong display of force in infantry and artillery to 
drive them back. 

General Longstreet in his official report says: 

"The next day (18th) in riding to Gen. McLaws' front I 
found that the enemy's pickets occupied the same ground 
they had held the day before. Col. Alexander was ordered 
to use his guns against this defense. I finally ordered Gen. 
McLaws to order his troops to take this position." 

The fighting was very sharp and well sustained on both 
sides. At 2 p. m. the Confederate forces moved their battery 
clown to within 600 yards, but nevertheless the Union forces 
lield their ground. The Confederates charged four lines deeo 
to within twenty-five yards of the Union line, but were met 
with such a terrible shower of Minie bullets that it was impos- 
sible for them to make further headway. Four charges of 
this kind were made, each being repulsed. Longstreet says: 

"Part of the troops moved up handsomely and got partial 


possession; others faltered and sought shelter under a rise 
of ground. When Capt. Winthrop of Col. Alexander's staff 
approached the enemy and coming up in front of the line 
led the troops over the works, he had the misfortune to 
receive a severe wound." 

The Forty-fifth Ohio was overpowered and driven from 
the field, perceiving which Capt. B. T. Thompson of the One 
Hundred and Twelfth Illinois ordered his men to fall back, 
that part of the Confederate line which had confronted the 
Forty-fifth Ohio passed around his right flank and came up 
in the rear of his position. After this there was sharp fight- 
ing in the vicinity of the Armstrong residence, and Capt. 
Thompson captured a colonel and a part of a regiment of 

One of the pleasant incidents in the history of Knoxville 
was the reunion of the veteran soldiers of both armies, which 
occurred on October 7. 8 and 9, 1890. Many were present 
from both North and South, and there were about 10,000 
people in the city from Tennessee and Georgia. The Seventy- 
ninth New York volunteer infantry, otherwise known as the 
Highlander regiment, was represented by a large number of 
its survivors, and on account of its having borne a conspicu- 
ous part in the defense of Fort Sanders on that memorable 
November 23,1863, was equally conspicuous on this re-union 
occasion. A welcoming address was delivered by Gen. R. N. 
Hood, which was happily responded to by Gen. William H. 
Gibson of Ohio. On the second day Hon. J. W '. Caldwell 
delivered an address, as also did Mr. W. A. Henderson. An 
address prepared for the occasion by Gen. Longstreet was 
read by Hon. E. A. Angier, of Atlanta, Ga., Gen. Longstreet 
being unable to deliver it on account of a wound in the 
neck which he received during the war. A poem was read by 
Mr. J. R. McCallum, which was well received. 

By an act of congress approved March 3, 1819, the secre- 
tary of war of the United States, under whose jurisdiction 
the payment of pensions was at that time, was authorized 


to appoint an agent, in addition to the one already appointed 
in Tennessee, for the purpose of paying such pensioners of 
the United States as resided in Eastern Tennessee. The 
precise date of the appointment of this additional agent can 
not be ascertained, but the records show that he began the 
payment of pensions September 4, 1819, and that he rendered 
his first account current, through the secretary of war, to the 
treasury department, December 31, 1819. The first pension 
agent was Mr. Luke Lea, who was then cashier of the bank 
of Tennessee at Knoxville. His successors have been as 
follows: Robert King, John T. King, William Lyon. John 
Cocke. Jr.. David A. Deaderick, Isaac Lewis, Samuel .Mor- 
row, James E. Armstrong, John Caldwell, Daniel T. Boynton, 
Henry R. Gibson, Robert L. Taylor, Joseph H. Wagner, 
Daniel A. Carpenter, William Rule, Daniel A. Carpenter, 
and John T. Wilder, the latter of whom was appointed De- 
cember 10, 1897. and is at present in office. 

In connection with the statement which will be found in 
this chapter as to the amount of money disbursed from Knox- 
ville to the pensioners of the various wars, the following in- 
formation as to the numbers of these pensioners, classified in 
accordance with the wars on account of which the}' draw 
their pensions, will be found of interest: 

Under the general law there were at the close of the 
fiscal year 1897-98, 9,599 invalids: 2,7 nurses, and 3,908 wid- 
ows; under the law of June 27, 1890, 25,248 invalids, and 
8,103 widows; on account of the war of 1812, 589 widows; 
war with Mexico, 2,881 survivors, and 2,850 widows; Indian 
wars of 1832-42, 1,624 survivors and 3,248 widows. On June 
30, 1897, there were on the pension rolls in Knoxville 57,592 
pensioners, and on June 30, 1898, 58,087. 

The following statement of the disbursements by fiscal 
years from the Knoxville pension agency, was furnished by 
request to the writer of this chapter by the Hon. William 
Youngblood, Auditor for the Interior Department. Treasury 
Department, at Washington, D. C: 


"Statement showing the amount of money paid on account 
of pensions at the Knoxville, Term., Agency, during the 
fiscal years 1869 to 1898, inclusive. 

Fiscal Years. 


Fiscal Years. 



$ 326.355.53 














































7,647,58 l 7.oo 






2 -5°7<93 2 -86 










The pension office at Knoxville pays out money to pen- 
sioners in the following states and territories: Tennessee, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas, and Oklahoma 
and the Indian Territory. There is paid to the employes 
in this pension office about $25,000, and supplies cost $2,000, 
thus $27,000 is spent in Knoxville on account of the office. 

The primary cause of the war with Spain was her treatment 
of the Cubans, concentrating them in cities and towns and 
starving them into submission to tyrannical methods of gov- 
ernment. The incentive cause was the blowing up of the 
United States battleship, Maine, in the harbor of Havana, 
February 15, 1898, the explosion causing the disaster being 
so tremendous as to shake the very city of Havana, and 
besides destroying the ship, killing 266 American sailors and 
marines. For while there were a few people in the United 


States who actually believed that the explosion was the 
result of an accident interior to the Maine herself, yet the 
great majority quickly came to the conclusion, to which 
they still rigidly adhere, that the explosion came from the 
outside. A court of inquiry consisting of Captain Sampson, 
Captain Chadwick and Lieutenant Marix was appointed by 
Captain Sigsbee of the battleship Maine, and the people of 
the United States were requested by Captain Sigsbee to sus- 
pend judgment as to the origin of the disaster until this 
court of inquiry should have time to thoroughly investigate 
and make its report. The popular belief, however, was 
strengthened and intensified by the report of Diver J. W. 
Bonner, who went to Havana harbor February 23. worked on 
the wreck until February 28, and found that the forward 
turret of the ship had been thrown from the port side of the 
vessel backward a distance of seventy feet into the starboard 
superstructure, and that the ship's bottom on the starboard 
side had been thrown up and that it projected four feet above 
the surface of the water, which would have been impossible 
from an interior explosion. 

A great tidal wave of patriotism swept over the country, 
which so acted on congress that on March 7 that body 
appropriated $50,000,000 to be used by the President of the 
United States at his discretion for the public defense, and 
while it was thought for a time that foreign nations would 
array themselves in support of Spain in case of war between 
that country and the United States, yet that fear soon van- 
ished, especially when it became evident that England would 
remain steadfastly the friend of the latter country. 

That war was inevitable became evident within one month 
from the blowing up of the Maine; but there was much dis- 
appointment upon the receipt of the report of the court of 
inquiry, for although it confirmed the popular belief in the 
exterior origin of the explosion yet it utterly failed to fix 
the responsibility therefor. 

March 29 resolutions were introduced into congress pro- 


viding for the recognition of the independence of Cuba, and 
there was much impatience manifested throughout the coun- 
try because the President appeared to be opposed to warlike 
measures, but the people did not so fully understand the true 
condition of the army and navy as did the President. As in 
other states of the Union active preparations for war began 
in Tennessee in advance of the declaration of war by con- 
gress. In the month of March it was decided bv the state 
authorities to increase the number of men in each company 
of militia to ioo, and the militia was ready before April i 
to respond to any call that might be made upon them by 
President McKinley. In order to accommodate all such as 
might desire to enter the service of the state the Legion arm- 
ory in Knoxville was kept open on Tuesdays. Wednesdays 
and Fridays of each week, and Major Ramage of the First 
battalion was anxious to enlist men enough to fill his com- 
panies, A and B, as soon as possible. March 31 an election 
of officers for company B was held, resulting in the election 
of \Y. H. Purple, captain; C. M. Dyer, first lieutenant; J. X. 
Day, second lieutenant. On April 11 President McKinley, 
by a message to congress, asked for the use of the army and 
navy to secure the termination of hostilities in Cuba, between 
Spain and the insurgents, which caused varied opinion and 
comment. April 19 both houses of congress passed resolutions 
demanding that Spain withdraw her land and naval forces 
from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing and empowering 
the President to use the entire land and naval forces of the 
United States, and to call out the militia of the several states 
to such extent as might be necessary to carry these resolu- 
tions into effect. On April 18, the local troops of Knoxville 
and vicinity were in readiness to move, both those of the 
First battalion and of company C, unattached. The captains 
of these three companies were as follows: Company A, Mel. 
Brandon; company B, W. H. Purple, and company C, W. H. 
Brown. Rev. John H. Frazee was chaplain of the First 
battalion and Rev. M. D. Jeffries of company C. 


Battery D of the Fifth United States artillery were the 
first troops seen in Knoxville after the trouble with Spain 
began. This was April 21, 1898, the battery consisting of 
seventy-five men and being on its way to Chickamauga. Bat- 
tery F came next day, and afterward followed troops C, E, F, 
and G of the Third United States cavalry. The passing of 
these soldiers through the city raised the enthusiasm of the 
people to the highest state. April 21 came an order for 
the organization of a regiment in East Tennessee, and on the 
same day twenty young men from Carson-Newman college 
at Mossy Creek were admitted to company C. At this time 
came the news of the firing of the first gun of the war by 
Captain Washburn Maynard, second son of Hon. Horace 
Maynard. Captain Maynard being a Knoxville boy, born in 
that city in 1846, and entering the academy at Annapolis in 
1865, graduating there in 1869. He made the first capture 
of the war, of the steamer Buena Ventura, with a cargo of 
875,000 feet of lumber worth $10,000. 

President McKinley issued his call for volunteers April 23, 
1898, for 125,000 men, to serve for two years or during the 
war, unless sooner discharged. On the same day Adjutant 
General Sykes called nut the entire national guard of the 
state of Tennessee, numbering 3,800 infantry and 200 artil- 
lery. The First battalion assembled at Pilgrim Congrega- 
tional church Sunday, April 24, to listen to a sermon from 
their chaplain. Rev. John H. Frazee, and on the next day 
Captains Brandon and Purple were detailed as recruiting 
officers in order to fill up their respective commands. Finally 
on April 25 war was declared against Spain, by which the 
public mind was greatly relieved and satisfied that something 
was to be done that would redound to the honor of the 
country. On the same day an order was issued by Secretary 
of War Alger calling upon the several states for troops. 
Tennessee being required to furnish three regiments, and 
Nashville being designated as the rendezvous. 

Recruiting troops in Knoxville was an easy matter, there 


being more men applying for position in the several com- 
panies organized than they could hold. On the day of the 
declaration of war the two companies of the First battalion 
were filled, and there were men enough over to fill another 
company. A Legion Flag fund, started by Mrs. Mary Burns, 
was quickly raised to $87.50. and a committee appointed to 
oversee the matter of the presentation of the flag, which took 
place Wednesday morning, April 2j. On the day previous 
company D from Elizabethtown and company K from 
Greeneville arrived in Knoxville, a large number coming in 
from Mossy Creek to join with company C. A meeting was 
held for the purpose of raising money with which to purchase 
blankets for the boys, $192.69 being quickly raised, and 160 
men being supplied in this way. April 2j the inspection and 
examination of the recruits was begun in Knoxville, a corps 
of physicians volunteering for the puq^ose. consisting of Drs. 
William Bowen, J. F. Scott. John W. Carmichael, S. R. Mil- 
ler and S. M. Miller. From the membership of company C, 
numbering 108 men. eighteen were rejected. The require- 
ments were that each man must stand at least five feet four 
inches in height, weigh 128 pounds, have good eyes, good 
hearing, be temperate, have a minimum chest measure of 
thirty-four inches and a minimum chest expansion of one and 
a half inches. On April 28 a fund was raised quickly run- 
ning up to $573.74 for the purchase of supplies for the 
soldiers, and on May 3 the companies of Major Ramage's 
command left Knoxville for Nashville. A war committee 
was selected, consisting of H. M. Branson, Jesse L. Rogers, 
Peter Kern, Daniel Briscoe, W. E. Gibbins, S. N. Littleton, 
N. B. Morrell, Edward Maynard and R. W. Austin, which 
did much and very efficient work during the continuance 
of the war. 

Major Weeks, formerly Captain Weeks, of company D. 
which came in from Elizabethton, arrived in Knoxville May 
12 to take charge of the recruiting and to raise if possible 
100 men, as so many of those who had enlisted at first failed 


to pass the examination. The three companies that left 
Knoxville as above related became companies A, B and C of 
the Third Tennessee, and before the examination occurred 
this regiment contained 1 .1 34 men. On the 17th of the 
month Major Weeks sent forward to Nashville fifty-three 
men, forty-seven others being sent from other portions of 
East Tennessee. Dr. William Bowen was appointed surgeon 
of this regiment, with Drs. G. C. Givens of Harriman and 
G. Manning Ellis of Chattanooga as assistant surgeons. This 
regiment was the first in the Southern States mustered into 
the service of the United States for the war. The regiment 
reached Chickamauga Park May 24th. 1898. The field and 
staff officers were J. P. Fyffe, of Chattanooga, colonel; D. M. 
Coffman, of Rockwood. lieutenant colonel; W. H. Brown 
and E. C. Ramage, of Knoxville, and Weeks, of Elizabethton, 
majors; E. A. Turner, Chattanooga, adjutant; Hart Reeves, 
of Huntsville. quartermaster; Rev. J. C. Wright, of Harri- 
man, chaplain, and Dr. William Bowen. of Knoxville, major 
surgeon. The number of men in the regiment at that time 
was 1,005. Together with the First Vermont and Eighth 
New York, it was assigned to the Third brigade of the First 
division of the Third army corps. When the regiment was 
ready to be mustered it was found there were too many 
companies, and company E, recruited by Capt. S. E. Beyland, 
was disbanded, the men being assigned to fill out the quota 
of other companies. When company G was about to be mus- 
tered it was found one man short, when Beyland quietly took 
off his shoulder straps and took his place in the ranks as a 
private soldier. The next day he was appointed ordnance ser- 
geant of the regiment. 

The Fourth Tennessee volunteers was mobilized at Knox- 
ville and was the first regiment mustered under the Presi- 
dent's second call for volunteers in the Spanish war. Its 
colonel was George Leroy Brown, a regular army officer who 
for some time had been engaged as commandant of cadets 
at the Universitv of Tennessee. Harvev H. Hannah, of 


Oliver Springs, was lieutenant colonel and W. C. Tatom 
major of the Second battalion. Rev. R. N. Price, of Morris- 
town, afterwards became chaplain. Company A was com- 
manded by Capt. Walter M. Fitzgerald, and was made up in 
Knox and adjacent counties, bis lieutenants being Thos. E. 
Matson. of Johnson City, and J. E. Stokely, of Jefferson 
county. Wm. A. Knabe, of Knoxville, was chief musician 
and Wm. H. Sanders first principal. The regiment was mus- 
tered July 13th, 1898, remained in camps here until Novem- 
ber 28th, on which date it left Knoxville for Cuba, sailing 
from Savannah December 1st, landing at the port of Trinidad 
December 6th. It remained here, the regiment being divided 
and battalions being on duty at different points, until March 
28th. 1899, when it sailed for Savannah on April 1st. The 
regiment was kept in quarantine until April 8th, and was 
mustered out at Savannah on the nth day of May, 1899. A 
reception was tendered the regiment at Chilhowee Park, 
soon after its arrival, at which words of welcome were spoken, 
followed by refreshments prepared for the occasion by Knox- 
ville ladies. 

The Sixth U. S. volunteers, a magnificent regiment, was 
mobilized at Knoxville, and was largely a Knoxville regi- 
ment. Its commander. Col. Laurence D. Tyson, was a Knox- 
ville man and had been a regular army officer. Andrew S. 
Rowan, the lieutenant colonel, was also a regular army officer. 
Paul E. Divine, of Tazewell, and Spears Whitaker. of North 
Carolina, were majors. Cary F. Spence was adjutant and 
Horace Yandeventer quartermaster, both Knoxville men. 
Among the other officers of the regiment were First Lieu- 
tenants Thos. A. Davis, Frank Maloney, J. Baird French, 
George F. Milton, E. R. Carter, Frank E. Murphy, and Sec- 
ond Lieutenants J. Welcker Park, Cornelius Williams and E. 
E. Houk. Cary F. Spence, Horace Vandeventer, Thos. 
A. Davis and Frank Maloney were each afterwards promoted 
to the rank of captain. A. M. Hall was promoted from quar- 
termaster sergeant to second lieutenant, Shirley E. Spence 


from sergeant major to second lieutenant, and Alvin Barton 
from first sergeant company C to second lieutenant. Frank E. 
Murphy was made adjutant and afterwards quartermaster of 
the regiment. J. Baird French was commissioned adjutant and 
held that position when the regiment was mustered out. The 
regiment was mustered at Camp Wilder on the 15th day of 
July, 1898, by Lieutenant Vestal, of the 7th U. S. cavalry. July 
30th it was ordered to Chickamauga Park, where it became a 
part of the Second brigade, first division, Third army corps. It 
left Chickamauga Park October 6th, 1898, for New York 
and sailed from there for Porto Rico on the 9th of October, 
arriving at San Juan October 15th. The regiment was then 
divided and was on garrison duty at various points in the 
northern half of the island, with headquarters at Arecibo. 
This duty was performed until February 12th, 1899, when 
the regiment was ordered to Savannah to be mustered out. 
The muster-out occurred at Savannah March 15th, 1899. 

Gen. John T. Wilder, on a visit to Secretary of War Alger, 
June 20th, 1898, secured assurances that Knoxville would 
be made a camp site in the location of the camps for soldiers 
that were not sent forward to Cuba, or while they might be 
in waiting. Sites for the Fourth and Sixth regiments were 
selected June 22, that for the Sixth being on what was for- 
merly Elmwood Park, two miles east of the city on the Park 
street short line, and consisting of seventy acres of land sur- 
rounded on three sides by woodland, and about fifty yards 
to the eastward was the site of the camp of the Fourth regi- 
ment, nearly south of the residence of N. S. Woodward, 
seventy acres of grass land anil well drained. About 5,000 
acres of land, partly covered with timber, was there available 
for a drill and parade ground. A pipe line was laid to the 
Knoxville water works through the camp, and there were 
pipes, four inches in diameter, from this main pipe through 
the center of the camp with hydrants where needed. The 
name given to this camp was Camp Bob Taylor, in honor 
of the governor of Tennessee. 


June 29. the camp of the Sixth regiment was removed to 
the Lonsdale addition to the city, near the Southern railway 
shops, the new camp being named Camp Wilder, the Fourth 
regiment remaining at Camp Bob Taylor. 

Brigadier General J. S. Poland of the Second division of 
the First army corps died at Chickamauga August 7, 1898. 
He was born at Princeton, Ind., October 14, 1836, and was 
a brave soldier of the Civil war. August 12, an armistice 
was declared between Spain and the United States, and on 
the same day Brigadier General McKee. accompanied by his 
staff officers. Major W. P. Kendall and Captain Alexander 
M. Davis, arrived in Knoxville for the purpose of looking 
over the ground at Cam]) Wilder and other places, with the 
view of finding a more healthful location for his command 
than that at Chickamauga. He visited Fountain City and 
Camp Bob Taylor, finally selecting Camp Wilder, and nam- 
ing it Camp Poland, in honor of General Poland, who had 
died as related above. Lincoln Park was selected for a por- 
tion of his camp. August 23 the First Georgia regiment and 
the Thirty-first Michigan were in camp near the Brookside 
cotton mills. August 26 the One Hundred and Fifty-eighth 
Indiana came into this camp; August 2j, the First West 
Virginia; August 28, the Sixth Ohio, and the Four- 
teenth Minnesota arrived; August 29, the First Penn- 
sylvania, so that on September 1 there were in Camp 
Poland the Second Ohio, the Fourteenth Minnesota, 
the Thirty-first Michigan, the First Georgia, the One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-eighth Indiana, the Fourth Tennessee, the 
First Pennsylvania, the Sixth Ohio, and the First West 
Virginia, in all nine regiments, or nearly 9,000 men in camp 
in the immediate vicinity of Knoxville. All of the Second 
division of the First army corps were here, besides the 
Fourth Tennessee. 

September 2 orders were received for mustering out the 
One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Indiana and the First Penn- 
sylvania, the former regiment leaving for home on September 


12 and the latter on the 15th. On this day arrived the 
Third North Carolina colored troops and the Sixth Virginia, 
also colored troops, arrived about the same time. The 
Fourteenth Minnesota left for home September 20. Septem- 
ber 21 Secretary of War Alger reviewed the troops at Camp 
Poland, and on the 23rd the First Georgia left for Macon, Ga. 
Brigadier General G. M. Randall arrived in Knoxville 
October 5 to take command of Camp Poland. October 6 
Col. Tyson's regiment, the Sixth U. S. volunteers, passed 
through Knoxville on their way to New York, where they 
took passage on the 9th for Porto Rico. October 19 General 
Randall left for Athens, Ga., being succeeded in the com- 
mand of Camp Poland by General McKee, who remained 
until October 2j, when Colonel Kuert of the Second Ohio 
became commandant of the camp. On October 31 the board 
of commissioners appointed by the President to investigate 
the conduct' of the war, arrived in Knoxville and began the 
inspection of the camps, leaving in the evening for Washing- 
ton, having found the camps in first class condition. Those 
who took part in this inspection were Col. Charles Denby, 
Capt. E. P. Howell, ex-Governor E. P. Woodbury. Brigadier 
General John M. Wilson, General James A. Beaver, Major 
General Alexander McD. McCook, Richard Weightman, 
Lieut. Col. F. B. Jones, and Major Stephen C. Mills. General 
Simon Snyder took charge of Caihp Poland November 5, 
relieving Colonel Kuert, of the Second Ohio, which regiment 
left for Macon, Ga., November 15. November 20 the Sixth 
Ohio was armed with the Krag-Jorgensen rifles. The Third 
North Carolina regiment left for Macon, Ga., November 22 
and on the 30th of that month division headquarters were 
removed to Macon, together with company C of the Second 
Ohio. The Sixth Ohio left Camp Poland December 27, and 
the Thirty-first Michigan left on Monday, January 9, 1899, 
for Savannah, Ga.. there taking passage for Cuba, and was 
the last regiment in Camp Poland to get away, thus leaving 
that camp entirely vacant, and wholly a matter of history. 


Lieutenant-colonel Andrew S. Rowan of the Sixth United 
States Volunteers, Col. Tyson's regiment, joined his regiment 
in Porto Rico about the 20th of December, 1898. having 
previously been on detached duty. 

The Division hospital, established early in the existence 
of Camp Poland, at Turner Park, was maintained until about 
February 10, 1899. It was of great benefit to the soldiers in 
the camp, an absolute necessity. Fifty of the sick soldiers in 
the camp were on November 21, 1898. taken to Fort Meyer, 
near Washington, D. C, the intention being then to discon- 
tinue the hospital as soon as possible. The number of deaths 
in this hospital between September 8, 1898, and January 17. 
1899, so far as could be ascertained, was fifty-six, of whom 
there were twelve, six white and six colored soldiers, whose 
names do not appear on any record. Besides these there 
were two others, not enlisted men, that died, and one nurse, 
Sister Mary Elizabeth Flanagan, who belonged at Mt. Wash- 
ington, Mo. On February 1, 1899, there were left but few 
patients in the hospital, all rapidly convalescing. Upon the 
closing of the hospital Major Kendall, surgeon in charge, 
reported to Macon, Ga., and Lieutenant King reported to his 
regiment in Cuba. The property was sold at public auction 
February 15, 1899. 

By the 16th of January, 1899, it was known that the Third 
Tennessee was to be mustered out of the service, and prepar- 
ations began to be made for giving the members thereof 
that belonged to Knoxville and vicinity a warm and appro- 
priate reception. On the morning of the next day the com- 
mittee appointed to make arrangements for such a reception, 
consisting of J. E. Chapman, W. R. Cooper, W. E. Gibbins, 
C. C. Howell and Rev. John H. Frazee, met in A. J. Albers' 
office and extended an invitation to the Daughters of the 
Revolution, Daughters of the Confederacy, Woman's Relief 
Corps and the Girls' Relief society to assist in preparing the 
reception and the banquet. The committee held meetings on 
the 19th and on the 20th. at the latter meeting deciding that 


every returning soldier should be presented with a badge, 
the badges to be procured and printed under the supervision 
of Dr. Frazee. All necessary committees were selected, the 
reception committee being composed of F. K. Huger, James 
Maynard, Peter Kern, Frank A. Moses, E. W. Crozier, S. G. 
Heiskell, J. W. S. Frierson, Gen. J. T. Wilder. Will D. 
Wright, Judge O. P. Temple and Dr. Charles W. Dabney. 
The mustering out of the regiment began at Anniston, Ala., 
January 30, and in the evening most of the men in companies 
A. D and F reached Knoxville. companies A and F being 
made up mostly of Knoxville Legion men, company D being 
from Elizabethton. 

The reception took place Friday evening at 7:30 o'clock, 
in Market Hall, nearly 200 members of the regiment being 
present who belonged to Knox county. Lieutenant-Colonel 
D. M. Coffman and Chaplain J. C. Wright were also present, 
and notwithstanding a heavy rain w : as falling the hall was 
well filled. Music was furnished by Legion band and ad- 
dresses were made by Major William Rule, Captain H. H. 
Taylor, Mrs. Charles A. Perkins, Hon. J. W. Caldwell, Lieut. 
Col. Coffman and others. The supper prepared by the ladies 
was well served, and taken all in all few if any happier events 
have occurred in Knoxville, it being an honor to the return- 
ing Third Tennessee and to all taking part in its preparation 
and conduct. 



Some of the Earlier Industries — Cotton Once a Staple Crop — S. T. Atkin, 
One of the Pioneers in Manufacturing — Growth and Multiplication 
of Industries — Extensive Marble Industries — Iron Mills — Brook- 
side Cotton Mills — Knoxville Woolen Mills — Furniture — Telephone 

THE manufacturing interests of Knoxville are of late 
years becoming more important. This indicates a 
prosperous agricultural community in the immediate 
vicinity, widely extended exportations of manufactured goods 
and the growth of towns and cities, for it is only in a country 
where civilization is or is becoming complex that manufac- 
tures can nourish to any great extent. 

Various industries were started as soon as Knoxville be- 
came a town. There were soon several blacksmith shops 
and there was also a goldsmith and jeweler, who in addition 
to what such a tradesman would carry on at the present day, 
advertised that he made "rifle guns in the neatest and most 
approved fashion." 

One of the early industries of Knoxville was a tanyard, 
established in 1793, on Second creek by Lord & McCoy, and 
in 1795 a saddler's shop was established by John and Robert 
Hunter. In 1796 John Lavender opened a second shop of 
this kind. The number of tanyards gradually increased until 
in 1830 there were five: One owned by William Morrow on 
First creek where it is crossed by Cumberland street; one 
almost directly across the street, owned by John Webb: one 
owned by Robert Lindsey at the east end of Clinch street, 
and there was one on Second creek operated by Rutherford 
& White. 

As it is perfectly natural to suppose, during the early his- 
tory of the county and the city the early industrial establish- 



ments would be such as were needed to supply the means of 
existence and comfort, as the people had to live and to clothe 
and protect themselves from the elements. Grist and saw 
mills were much in demand, and during the first eighteen 
months after the county court was organized, permits for the 
erection of these kinds of mills were numerous. They were 
in all cases run by water power, which was then more com- 
monly employed than now, when steam has taken possession 
of almost all kinds of industries and methods of locomotion, 
either directly or indirectly. Domestic manufactures were 
then numerous, though carried on on a much smaller scale 
than afterward; but now almost wholly superseded by much 
larger concerns. 

In 1830, besides the five tanyards above mentioned, there 
were two spinning factories, ten wool carding machines, three 
saw mills, one brass foundry, six blacksmith shops, two cab- 
inet makers, three hatters, six saddlers, eight shoemakers, 
one tinner, two coach makers and two wagon makers. The 
brass foundry was operated by William Morse, the foundry 
standing on Second creek near Churchwell street, and Mr. 
Morse also operated a spinning factory and a blacksmith 
shop. The other spinning factory was operated by Nathaniel 
Bosworth, a little higher up the creek, and here there were 
employed from fifteen to twenty hands. It remained in oper- 
ation until 1838. William Oldham in 1833 built a cotton 
spinning factory, which was located on First creek between 
Church and Cumberland streets, the machinery for which 
Mr. Oldham hauled across the Cumberland mountains from 
Lexington. Ky. This mill was operated exclusively by 
water power. In 1838 the mill dams were destroyed by a 
freshet, and Mr. Oldham removed his machinery to Blount 

It may be well to> state that during the first twenty-five 
or thirty years of the history of Knox county, cotton was 
therein a staple crop. But it began to decline about 1820 and 
had entirely ceased by 1830. The first cotton gin about 


which anything is still remembered was erected by Calvin 
.Morgan on Gay street near where the Insurance building 
now stands, and the second was built and operated on Second 
creek by Mr. McCulloch. The earliest wool carding machine 
in this vicinity was located on First creek about two miles 
above its mouth, set up by James Scott, and operated by him 
until the coming on of the Civil war. Another was run for a 
time near the site of Bosworth's factory, mentioned above. 

In this connection it may be well to explain the decline of 
the water power, which up to 1838 was unusually abundant. 
Previous to that time the town was confined almost exclu- 
sively to the territory between First and Second creeks and 
the Flag pond and Holston river, and was almost entirely sur- 
rounded by water. Flag pond occupied the depression now 
occupied by the tracks of the East Tennessee, Virginia and 
Georgia railroad, now the Southern railway, and in 1838 the 
cutting down of the dams drained the ponds, and thus de- 
stroyed to a considerable extent the water power. Flag pond 
was looked upon for a number of years as a menace to the 
health of the town, and was frequently under the considera- 
tion of the board of health. On First creek, prior to the 
cutting down of the dams, there were three mill ponds within 
the space of half a mile, the upper one, known as White's 
pond, extending north and northeast for more than a mile. 
On Second creek there were two large ponds of this kind, 
and while the dams were afterward to some extent restored, 
yet there has not since 1838 been anywhere near as much 
water power. Since steam has been generally introduced 
water power is not so popular. 

In 1838 a paper mill was erected at Middlebrook by Gideon 
M. Hazen and M. D. Bearden. It was about three and a 
half miles above the town, and was run about seven months 
in the year by water power, and the rest of the year by water 
and steam power combined. It was continued in operation 
until 1886, when the breaking of the dam caused its sus- 


In 1850 a small oil mill was built on Second creek by F. A. 
R. Scott. In 185 1 Mr. Scott opened a tannery in connection 
therewith, and in 1853 so 'd the entire establishment to M. B. 
McMahan, who operated the tannery until i860, when he 
was succeeded by an incorporated company. During the 
Civil war John S. Van Gilder, who was then largely engaged 
in the manufacture of boots and shoes, obtained control of 
the tannery, and was joined in 1865 by Mr. Scott. These 
two gentlemen continued to run it under the name of the 
Knoxville Leather company until 1890. 

In 1853 the first large manufacturing establishment ever 
seen in Knoxville was started. It was a machine shop located 
at the corner of Broad street and the railroad and was erected 
by A. L. Maxwell, who came here from New York in 1852. 
This machine shop was erected for the purpose of supplying 
the iron work for bridges, which the firm of Maxwell, Briggs 
& Co., of which Mr. A. L. Maxwell was the senior member, 
was then erecting largely throughout the Southern states. 
The shop under consideration went into operation in 1853 
with somewhat more than 200 hands. In 1855, finding that 
the bridge material could be more advantageously handled 
from Richmond, Va., an interest in the establishment was 
sold to some Vermont parties, and the Knoxville Manufactur- 
ing company was formed for the purpose of building engines, 
boilers, etc., which business was carried on until near the 
beginning of the war. 

In 1852 a foundry and stove factory was erected on Second 
creek by Williams. Moffett & Co., near the site of the Knox- 
ville Leather company's works, and this foundry carried on 
quite an extensive business for some time. In 1856 the estab- 
lishment was transferred to Shepard, Leeds & Hoyt, who in 
J 854 had built a foundry and car works where the railroad 
shops now stand. The capital of this firm was about $20,000 
and they employed some twenty hands. They were engaged 
in the manufacture of cars, car wheels, plows and agricultural 
implements generally. Later Mr. A. L. Maxwell purchased 


the interests of these gentlemen, and by 1861 had become 
the sole proprietor of the business, which he carried on until 
the siege of 1863, when the entire plant was destroyed by 
fire, yf 

Clark, Ouaife & Co. in 1867 erected a small foundry for the 
manufacture of stoves, hollow ware, etc., and later added 
thereto the manufacture of car wheels, becoming in 1873 the 
Knoxville Car Wheel company, with a capital stock of 
$57,000, and having as officers A. L. Maxwell, president, 
and Harvey Clark, secretary and treasurer. This company" 
was located on Jacksboro street, and the manufacture of car 
wheels was for quite a number of years the exclusive business 
of the works. They purchased 30,000 acres of land in Carter 
county, which contained large quantities of brown hematite 
iron ore. known as among the best ores anywhere to be 
found. For the first eight or ten years of this company's 
existence the wheels turned out by them bore a reputation 
for excellence second to none made elsewhere in this country. 
In June, 1881, Charles H. Brown became secretary and treas- 
urer, and in July, 1881. D. A. Carpenter became president, 
succeeding Mr. Maxwell, and being himself succeeded in the 
later eighties by Charles H. Brown, who remained president 
then during the company's existence. In 1883 a machine 
shop was added to the plant in Knoxville. and in 1886 the 
company making at this factory soft castings for cars, en- 
gines, gearing, pulleys, etc., with the view of enlarging and 
diversifying their product as much as possible, and of making 
the Knoxville Car Wheel works one of the leading industries 
in the land; but as additional money was needed to carry 
out this plan, a heavy mortgage was placed upon the prop- 
erty, and as it was at length found impracticable to manage 
the business, owing in part, perhaps, to the increasing strin- 
gencies of the times, the works ceased to operate, and the 
property was sold in the winter of 1898-99 in chancery court. 
Since then the buildings have been leased to and occupied 
by the Clark Foundry company, formerly located on Hardee 


street, the property of the latter being now occupied by the 
Knoxville foundry. 

The Clark Foundry and Machine company was organized 
in 1 88 1, with H. W. Clark president and Simpson Cornick 
secretary and treasurer. The works are located at the corner 
of Hardee and Hume streets, and make a specialty of mill 
machinery, though all kinds of machines and castings are 
made. The company employs about sixty hands and turns 
out about ten tons of finished product per day. At these 
works nearly all the work of the Knoxville division of the 
East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad is done. Mr. 
Clark has had many years of experience in his particular 
line, having learned his trade in his youth in one of the North- 
ern states. 

W. J. Savage began business in Knoxville in 1885 as a 
manufacturer of roller flouring mill machinery and marble 
mill machinery, on the Knoxville and Ohio railroad near the 
Knoxville Car Wheel works, but only in a small way, employ- 
ing only six men. In 1889 he was succeeded by the Knox- 
ville Supply company, composed of himself, Samuel Marfield 
and Henry Brandau, this company continuing the manufac- 
ture of the same line until 1892, in which year they were suc- 
ceeded by the present firm. Savage & Tyler, composed of 
W. J. Savage and J. C. Tyler, the business being removed in 
1893 to its present location on Cumberland street and Second 
creek. The company here continue to build roller mill ma- 
chinery, setting up mills complete in several of the Southern 

The Southern Car company was organized in 1881 with a 
capital stock of $50,000 for the purpose of manufacturing 
freight and mining cars of all kinds. The works were located 
on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad, just 
west of the city limits, and there were employed from 125 
to 150 men. They manufactured from eight to ten cars per 
day, continuing the work in Knoxville until 1893. when they 
removed to Lenoir City, the name of the company at the 


same time being changed to the Lenoir City Car com- 

S. T. Atkin, one of the earlier manufacturers of Knoxville, 
began business here as a tinner and stove man in 1844. and in 
i860 purchased a saw mill which had been erected by Church- 
well & Harris in 1854 or 1855. This mill he kept until 1867, 
having in the meantime bought other saw mills, being en- 
gaged in the meantime in the manufacture of sash, doors and 
blinds, and all kinds of woodwork. In the year 1862 he made 
a contract with the Confederate government to supply that 
government with all the iron he could make for two years; 
and as there were so many people dying and being killed 
he turned his sash, door and blinds establishment into a coffin 
factory, in this line having as a partner L. C. Shepard for 
about a year. 

In 1863 the Federal army took possession of Knoxville, 
and his contract with the Confederate government became 
valueless, but upon the request of the Federal authorities 
Mr. Atkin made iron of various kinds, such as bar iron, horse 
shoes and wagon tires for them until 1865, when the war 
closed, and he sold his factory in 1866 to L. C. Shepard, H. S. 
Chamberlain, David Richards and others, and it became the 
property in 1868 of the Knoxville Iron company, a history of 
which is elsewhere printed in this chapter. 

In the wood working department which was located on 
First creek, Mr. Atkin went on manufacturing lumber into 
various forms and also engaged in building houses, putting 
up more of this kind of buildings in the city than bad any 
man up to that time, the houses built by him being both 
frame and brick. For the manufacture of brick Mr. Atkin 
had two or three brick yards, located at various points both 
inside and outside of the city limits. In the meantime, having 
a large amount of lumber on band. Mr. Atkin engaged in 
the manufacture of furniture, lumber being quite low in price, 
and furniture being in demand. His furniture factory was 
located on Gay street between Main and Cumberland streets, 


extending back from Gay to State street. This line of manu- 
facture he continued to carry on until 1887. when he turned 
the business over to his sons. F. S. and C. B. Atkin, each of 
whom is now engaged in a separate and distinct line of the 
business. Mr. Atkin himself then retired altogether from 
active business, except so far as the management of his own 
private affairs is concerned, with which he is still engaged. 

S. T. Atkin sold his business to his sons March 3, 1886, 
they continuing the business under the name of S. T. Atkin & 
Co. about one year. From this time on until 1889 the two 
sons conducted the retail part of the business at the present 
location of Hall & Hawkins under the firm name of C. B. 
Atkin & Co., and the manufacturing portion of it under the 
name of F. S. Atkin & Co. In 1889 the brothers dissolved 
partnership, Frank S. Atkin taking the retail part and con- 
ducting it under his own name, C. B. Atkin taking the factory, 
continuing on in the manufacture of furniture but gradually 
changing - to the manufacture of mantels. At first he was 
making about five per cent of his material into mantels, and 
the rest into furniture, while now the proportions are almost 
precisely reversed, the product of the factory consisting of 
five per cent furniture and ninety-five per cent mantels. 

Mr. Atkin's factory consists of two three-story and base- 
ment buildings, and he has a large lumber yard, all on the 
old site, between Main and Cumberland streets, and extend- 
ing from Gay to State. Here he employs about ninety hands, 
and the manufactured goods are sold in every state in the 
Union and are shipped to some foreign countries. The 
buildings now occupied are comparatively new, having been 
erected since the fire of 1893, which destroyed the old ones, 
and which was probably the largest fire in the history of 
Knoxville up to that time. 

Frank S. Atkin & Co. established their present business 
in 1896, at the northeast corner of Gay and Church streets, 
the business consisting of the manufacture of hat racks, and 
the partner of Mr. Atkin being Samuel McKinney. Hat 


racks of all styles and sizes are made, and about thirty-five 
hands are employed, the products turned out being shipped 
to every state in the Union and to several foreign coun- 

Frank H. Post & Co. The wagon and carriage works now 
owned and controlled by this firm were established in 1870 
by S. T. Post, father of Frank H. Post, with only one em- 
ploye, Mr. Post himself working at the forge. He afterward 
admitted his son to partnership under the name of S. T. Post 
& Son. A few years later they took in Mr. C. N. Simmons, 
and the firm name became Post. Simmons & Co., under which 
the business was carried on until 1886, when Frank H. Post 
bought the interest of Mr. Simmons and also that of his 
father, continuing the business in his own name until i88g. 
when he admitted Mr. R. A. Keller, the name of the firm for 
the next two years being Post & Keller. At the end of this 
time Mr. Post bought out Mr. Keller, and soon afterward 
admitted R. \Y. Barton, since which time the name of the 
firm has been Frank H. Post & Co. 

The business carried on by this firm is that of manufactur- 
ing wagons, carriages and other vehicles, and has grown from 
the making of from two to three wagons and a small repair 
business until at the present time they are doing an annual 
business of about $10,000 in repair work and $20,000 in new 
work. They are doing a very wide range of work, consisting 
of farm and log wagons, moving cars, side seated passenger 
hacks, large and small transfer wagons, grocery and laundry 
wagons, delivery wagons, oil tank wagons, market garden 
wagons, spring wagons, buckboards, buggies, phaetons, and 
carriages. From thirty to thirty-five men are employed. 

Sheridan & Quincy began the manufacture of wagons in 
Knoxville in 1885. Their shop at that time was on State 
street and was from the first well equipped with all necessary 
machinery. They made carriages as well as wagons, to the 
aggregate number of about 500 per year. In farm wagons 
their specialty was the "Dixie," very popular throughout the 


state and adjoining states. Both gentlemen were experienced 
workmen, learning their respective trades in Rochester, N. 
Y., Mr. Sheridan having charge of the wood and iron depart- 
ment and Mr. Quincy of the paint shop. Mr. Quincy retired 
from the business in the year 1892, since which time Mr. 
Sheridan has conducted the establishment himself. It was 
formerly located at 707 and 709 Central avenue, but now, 
as the Quincy Carriage Company, is located on Vine street. 

The Knoxville Buggy Works were established in March, 
1885, by C. Geiger and were managed by James A. Nisonger. 
The company was engaged in the manufacture of light wag- 
ons, buggies and carriages for the local trade. Later the pro- 
prietors of these works were T. T. Goodall & Co., who made 
an extension to the business, erected new shops and employed 
from twenty-five to thirty hands. 

The Knoxville Ice Company's business was started in 
1876 by J. C. Mustard, but only on a small scale and as an 
experiment. Mr. Mustard was so successful, however, that 
in 1 88 1 the company above named was organized with a 
capital of $40,000. New buildings were erected, the most im- 
proved machinery obtainable was put in and other improve- 
ments made, with the view of making the business extensive 
as well as successful. The factory of this company is located at 
No. 204 Cumberland street, the works having a capacity of 
thirty tons per day, and the product being sold not only in 
Knoxville, but largely throughout East Tennessee. The 
water used in the manufacture of ice by this company is ob- 
tained from a large spring and is distilled before being frozen. 
The officers of the company at the present time are Peter 
Kern, president; Ignaz Fanz, secretary and treasurer, and 
Jackson L. Stewart, general manager. 

The Crystal Ice company was organized in 1887 by Knox- 
ville capitalists, and with a capital of $40,000. The works 
are located in North Knoxville and have a capacity of thirty- 
two tons per day. The water used by this company is 
obtained from the celebrated Moses spring, and the machin- 


ery is of the Columbus Iron works pattern. The officers are 
G. M. Harrill, president, and H. W. Lynn, secretary and 
treasurer. The works are located at the corner of Sixth 
avenue and Grainger street, and the office is at No. 315 
Clinch street. 

As has been elsewhere stated the marbles of Tennessee 
are remarkable for the fineness of their quality, and they are 
well known all over the United States. They are useful 
mainly for building purposes, for monuments and interior 
decorations. The marble business began in Hawkins county, 
extended thence into Blount county, then into adjoining 
counties, and finally to Knox county. The business so rapidly 
increased that in 1890 there were twenty-two quarries in 
operation and three large mills engaged in sawing and polish- 
ing the marble taken out. In 1892 the amount of business 
in this article reached nearly if not quite $1,000,000, the 
number of hands employed by the various firms was nearly 
1,000, and the wages paid to them being about $375,000 per 
year. Marble is found along all the railroads running into 
Knoxville, and sales are held even' year by the leading dealers, 
train loads being frequently made up for the larger centers 
of distribution. 

The Knoxville Marble company was organized July II, 
1873, the members of the company at the time being William 
Patrick, president; George W. Ross, secretary and treasurer; 
James Patrick and J. H. Holman. This company purchased 
the old government quarry at the junction of the Holston 
and French Broad rivers, which they have operated ever 
since, where they now have three quarries on their sixty-five 
acres of land, where they employ regularly about seventy-five 
hands and take out each year about $100,000 worth of marble, 
which is of the finest quality. When polished it presents a 
most beautiful appearance and is used mainly for mantels 
and decorating purposes generally. The company runs four 
steam drills and two saw mills, each having two gangs of saws. 
The marble from these quarries is shipped to all parts of the 


country. In January, 1886. John M. Ross became president 
of the company. 

J. J. Craig & Co. operate four marble quarries about five 
miles to the northwest of Knoxville, the business being 
established in 1886 by John J. Craig, the present senior 
member of the firm. Mr. Craig has been one of the most 
active in the development of the marble business of the city 
of Knoxville. This company organized the Great Southern 
Marble company, with officers as follows: John J. Craig, 
president; John J. Craig, Jr., secretary and treasurer; W. B. 
McMullen, general manager, and J. M. Edington, superin- 
tendent of quarries. This company was succeeded by the 
John J. Craig Company, of which John J. Craig. Jr., is 
president, and J. B. Jones, secretary and treasurer. The 
office of the company is at Xo. 47 Deaderick building. 

The Phoenix Marble company was established in 1885 and 
incorporated with a capital stock of $20,000. This company 
operates quarries in Hawkins county, and a mill in Knoxville 
with three gangs of saws. At first the officers were John P. 
Beach, president, and Charles Pitman, secretary and treas- 

W. H. Evans & Son established themselves in business in 
Baltimore, Md.. in 1867, and built the Knoxville mill in 1886, 
the mill being 480x60 feet in size and three stories high. It 
is located on the Knoxville and Ohio railroad and just north 
of Munson street. It is equipped with twenty gangs of 
saws, turning lathes, and machinery complete for handling 
Tennessee marble for all purposes for which it is used and is 
considered the best equipped mill in the United States. This 
firm also operates two mills in Baltimore and are the largest 
importers of foreign marble in this country. They are pre- 
pared to make estimates and to contract for any known 
marble product, and all the three mills of the company are 
well equipped with the machinery needed in the business. 
This firm has furnished and set in place the interior marble 
work for most of the largest building's in the country, for 


example the Italian marble in the new Congressional Library 
building in the city of Washington, the Tennessee and Italian 
marble in the Masonic Temple in Chicago, and in the Public 
Library in the same city, and also in any number of other 
buildings, public and private, throughout every state in the 

The mill in the city of Knoxville is under the management 
of J. E. Willard as superintendent, and there are here em- 
ployed about 350 men the year round, the}- being engaged in 
quarrying the raw material and in finishing it and in many 
cases setting it in the buildings complete. The officers of this 
company are W. H. Evans, president: C. R. Evans, vice-pres- 
ident, and S. M. Wellner, secretary and treasurer. 

The East Tennessee Stone and Marble company was incor- 
porated in 1889, with the following incorporators: J. E. Hart, 
R. Z. Roberts, C. M. Funck and C. T. Stephenson, and was 
organized in 1890 with the following officers: J. E. Hart, 
president, treasurer and general manager; C. M. Funck, 
secretary. The mill is located at the junction of the K. C. G. 
& L. railroad and the E. T. V. it G. railroad, and it is here 
that the manufacture of marble and its finishing for interior 
decoration is carried on. There are two large buildings fully 
equipped with machinery of every description needed in the 
business, such as six gangs of saws, lathes, planers, and air 
tools. One hundred men are employed on the average, the 
marble being shipped to every state in the Union. Contracts 
are taken by this company for the finishing of buildings any- 
where in the country, and their workmanship may be seen 
in some of the finest buildings in the land, notably in the 
Blackstone Memorial Library building in Branford, Conn., 
the third largest and finest library building in the United 
States, being surpassed only by the Congressional Library 
building at Washington, and the Public Library building at 
Chicago. Among the numerous buildings for which this 
company supplied the marble are the following: St. Nicholas 
Hotel in St. Louis, and the Chicago Historical Society's 


library building in Chicago. The officers at the present time 
are the same as at the beginning. 

The Tennessee Producers Marble company lias for several 
vears been engaged in the production of marble of Tennessee. 
About Sen years ago Mr. \V. B. McMullen. who had for years 
been actively engaged in quarrying marble and in selling it, 
interested other parties and organized a stock company. The 
success resulting led to the re-organization of the company in 
1894, Eastern capitalists becoming interested, and quickly 
perceiving the desirability of investment in the marble indus- 
try in Tennessee. A large factory and mill for sawing and 
finishing the product of the company's quarries were built, 
am 1 now this is the largest in Knoxville of its kind, and the 
firm is engaged in shipping its marble in its rough and also 
in its finished state to all parts of the country. This marble 
is used for finishing the interior as well as the exterior of 
buildings and is now being shipped even to foreign countries. 

This company has furnished the marble for the interior of 
the post office building in Washington, D. C, and several 
large buildings in the West. Their large plant was constantly 
bus}- during the years of the panic from 1893 to 1897, and it 
is equipped for a large increase in business, which the com- 
pany believes is fast approaching. This company handles 
Tennessee marble exclusively, their quarries being situated in 
Knox, Blount and Hawkins counties, and they ha^e such 
strong faith in the future of Tennessee marble that they urge 
its use in all cases in preference to foreign marble. In addition 
to their other lines they do a large business in cemetery lines. 
The mill is located on the Middlebrook street car line at the 
junction of University avenue and Seventeenth street. The 
present officers of the company are as follows: W. B. Mc- 
Mullen, president; E. R. Morse, treasurer, and B. L. Pease, 

The first attempt to manufacture iron and rolling mill 
products in Knoxville was made by the Confederate authori- 
ties during the Civil war. but from lack of skilled workmen 


this attempt was a failure. The machinery used in this 
attempt was confiscated at Loudon, Tenn., and moved to 
Knoxville. Soon after the occupation of the city by the 
Union army an attempt to operate this mill was made by H. 
S. Chamberlain, a quartermaster in the army, but his attempt 
was likewise a failure. After the close of hostilities John 
H. Jones, one of the owners of the mill, came to Knoxville 
and then a company was formed, composed of himself, S. T. 
Atkin, L. C. Shepherd and H. S. Chamberlain, the mill being 
put in operation by them. Soon afterward Air. Jones sold his 
interest to D. and J. Richards and T. D. Lewis, men of exten- 
sive experience in the iron business, and a company was 
organized under the name of Chamberlain, Richards & Co. 
At first this company had considerable difficulty in carrying 
on their business, raw material costing a great deal and being 
hard to obtain. Coal was brought by them to Knoxville by 
boat in the winter season, and in the summer season by wag- 
ons, at a cost of fifty cents per bushel, that brought in the 
winter coming from Emory Gap, that brought in the summer 
from Winter's Gap. In 1867 a mine of coal was opened at Coal 
creek under the direction of D. Thomas, and in the fall of 
that year the first car load of coal was brought into Knoxville 
over the Knoxville and Ohio railroad. 

The Knoxville Iron company was incorporated in 1868 
with an authorized capital of $150,000, and was organized 
February 1 that year with the following board of directors 
and officers: H. S. Chamberlain, president; \Y. R. Tuttle, 
secretary; H. S. Chamberlain, treasurer, and Joseph Richards, 
general manager, the other directors being Daniel Thomas, 
David Richards, Thomas D. Lewis and William Richards. 
February 27, 1871, Mr. Chamberlain resigned as president 
of this companv to accept a similar position with the Roane 
Iron company of Chattanooga, and on March 20 following 
the capital stock of the Knoxville Iron company was increased 
to $200,000. LTp to this time the old buildings formerly 
in use by Mr. S. T. Atkin. elsewhere referred to as an iron 


manufacturer during - the war of the Rebellion, were in use, 
but now a new building was erected, and in 1873 still another 
mill was erected to accommodate the growing business of the 
company. A nail factor}- was added in 1875, which was oper- 
ated for several years, but is not now in use. 

At the beginning of the company's existence the works 
were operated to manufacture finished bar iron, muck iron 
and a few sizes of round and square iron, only one train of rolls 
being in use. When the new mill was erected it included an 
eighteen-inch nail plate train, a sixteen-inch bar mill, and an 
eight-inch band mill. The nail factory contained forty-two nail 
machines and had an output of 70,000 to 75,000 kegs of nails 
per year. This factory was closed in 1890, and has not since 
been in use. A foundry and machine shop was decided upon in 
1 89 1. Within the last two years the mill has been limited 
to the production of bar iron of all kinds, from one-fourth inch 
to four and a half inch round and square; flats from five- 
eighths, No. 16, to 6xi|, graduating by -J of an inch, light 
channel iron, other shapes and small "T" rails, for use in 

The mill is now equipped throughout with modern machin- 
ery, such as gas furnaces, gas producers, etc., by which the 
output of the works has since 1895 been increased about fifty 
per cent, and they now have a capacity of from 15,000 to 
18,000 tons per year, of finished material. About 200 men 
are employed in the mill. 

This company began mining coal in Anderson county in 
1868, and continued operations at Coal creek until Januarv 1. 
1897. The mines were operated with free labor until Julv, 
1878, when in consequence of strikes and other labor disturb- 
ances it was found necessary to employ labor that could be 
relied upon, hence the employment of convict labor in the 
mines, which was continued from July, 1878, to Julv. 1896. 
During this time the miners took exception to- the use of con- 
vict labor and by force they were liberated twice, and it was 
necessary to station a military force at the mines to protect 


the company in the use of the state convicts, this standing 
army being present at the mines for eighteen months. 

Since July, 1896, the company has again been employing 
free labor, and they are now the largest shippers of bitum- 
inous coal in this section of the country, their coal being 
shipped to all parts of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, 
Georgia. Virginia and Alabama, to an aggregate amount of 
from 200,000 to 250,000 tons. This company is the only 
one in the state using electricity in the mining of coal. 

The officers of the company have been as follows: 

Presidents — H. S. Chamberlain, elected in 1868; David 
Richards, in 1871; H. S. Chamberlain, in 1872; William S. 
Mead, in 1874; W. R. Tuttle, in 1875; James R. Ogden. in 
1888, serving until his death in 1891; O. A. Brown in 1892, 
and the present incumbent of the office, W. P. Chamberlain, 
in 1895. 

Vice-presidents — W. R. Tuttle, elected in 1872; W. S. 
Mead, in 1874; John B. Johnson, 1874; W. S. Mead, 1875; 
O. A. Brown, 1891; E. J. Sanford, 1892; T. I. Stephenson, 
in 1895. 

Secretaries — W. R. Tuttle, elected in 1868; James B. John- 
son, in 1872; W. S. Mead. 1873; James B. Johnson. 1874: 
W. H. Van Benschoten. 1874; W. S. Mead, 1880; O. A. 
Brown, 1886; T. I. Stephenson, 1891; O. A. Brown, 1895. 

Treasurers — H. S. Chamberlain, elected in 1868; W. R. 
Tuttle, in 1871; W. S. Mead, 1874; O. A. Brown, 1886. 

General Managers — Joseph Richards, elected in 1868; 
David Richards, in 1870, serving until 1875, when a com- 
mittee was appointed to select the heads of the several 
departments. In 1895 T. I. Stephenson became general 
manager, and still holds the position. 

This company has recently made a rich discovery in the 
coal field in the shape of a vein of coal of superior quality 
five ami a half feet thick, a solid vein with rock above and 
below. Here there is no mining seam composed of slate, 
dirt, etc.. but instead seams of cannel coal of such thickness 


as to amount to about one-third of the thickness of the entire 
vein, which renders the Cross Mountain coal particularly 
desirous for domestic purposes. 

H. O. Nelsen manufactures iron and steel fences of all 
kinds, his works being- located on the Maryville railroad track 
near Asylum street. Formerly they located at "Valley 
Forge," and are still known as the Valley Forge Fence 
works. In 1873 Mr. Nelsen moved to his present location, 
where he set up new machinery of a larger pattern-, and 
increased the number of hands employed and the output from 
his works, which now amounts to about $60,000 per year. 
He is now devoting his energies to the production of wrought 
steel fences of various patterns and for all purposes, and has 
recently adopted new names for several of his leading styles 
of fence, as "Taylor," "Shatter," "Grant." "Sampson," "Lee," 
"Dewey," "Schley." "Hobson." etc. 

Dempsters Machine shop is located at No. 1 14 East Main 
street, and was established in 1886 by James Dempster, who 
has manufactured a few engines, but found that manufactur- 
ing engines on a small scale did not prove profitable. He 
also in the past carried on the manufacture of machinery, 
steam pumps, etc.. on a small scale, but has abandoned all 
kinds of manufacturing, and devotes his works and energies 
now exclusively to repairs. On the average he employs about 
four men in doing such repair work as comes to his shop 
His is the old McClannahan mill, established many vears ago, 
and which later became the property of Major R. R.'Swepson! 
who owned it for some time and then sold it to the Cham- 
pion Manufacturing company, which sold out to Mr. Demp- 
sey in 1889, who. from the time he began in business in 1886, 
to 1889, was located near Nelsen's Valley Forge Fence works' 
Fair, Day & DeKlyne's Foundry and Pattern shop, which 
is located on Jacksboro street beyond the Brookside milk 
and close to the Knoxville and Ohio railroad, were estab- 
lished in ,880 by Fair & Day. In 1890 the works occupied 
about one and a half acres of ground on Second creek which 


creek furnished them water power. Generally speaking Ten- 
nessee iron is used by these works, and about twenty-five 
men are employed. The product is principally house work, 
machine castings, hardware findings, fronts and grates. 
Sash weights are also made at these works. At present the 
name of the company is the Fair-Day Foundry company, 
the officers of which are David C. Richards, president; A. B. 
Day, vice-president and superintendent, and J. B. Fair, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The annual output of the works is about 

The Enterprise Machine works, situated on Chamberlain 
street near the brewery, were established in 1886 by D. C. 
Richards and Sons (W. P., A. T. and Roger P., the latter of 
whom died February 23, 1898). At these works are manu- 
factured engines of all sizes from six up to 500 horse power, 
and both stationary and portable, heavy castings, hoisting 
machinery and derricks. Repairs of all kinds are made in 
these works, including the repair of locomotives, a new build- 
ing having been erected for this special work during 1898. 
A new fourteen-foot boring machine was also put in during 
this year, which weighs twenty-eight tons, the cost of this 
machine being $4,000. Mr. Richards has been a resident of 
Knoxville since 1869, and is considered one of the most skill- 
ful and practical machinists in the place. 

The Enterprise Foundry company was formed March 1, 
1897, b>' R- R- Shipman, Calvin George and Len George, 
each of whom had at the time $33. They began in a small 
way in Skate's Furnace buildings, with the three men besides 
themselves, they being practical workmen and all taking hold 
with a determination to succeed. Their business grew so 
rapidly that it became necessary in April. 1898. to move to 
their present location, on the Knoxville and Ohio railroad, 
and nearly opposite the Brookside cotton mills. These build- 
ings had been occupied by Roy & Armstrong. Here the 
business has grown far more rapidly than they at first dared 
to anticipate, and they now employ on the average twentv- 


four men, and are turning out about $2,000 worth of work 
per month. At first they made all kinds of shop castings, 
but have recently added a full line of stoves, five different 
kinds, the "Knoxville Dixie," every part of which is made 
in Knoxville, even to the nickel plating; the "Marble City," 
and three kinds of heating stoves, called the "Big Seven." 
They also make fire fronts and grate baskets. The machin- 
ery in this foundry is propelled by a twenty-five horse-power 

There have always been grist mills in Knoxville and its 
vicinity since Gen. James White erected his "tub mill" near 
the town. After his son, Moses White, built a mill on First 
creek near the crossing of Mabry street. John Craighead 
built a mill at the crossing of Main street, and about 1820 
Rufus Morgan built one on the same creek. In 1830 there 
were three grist mills in Knoxville, all owned and operated by 
James and William Kennedy. And James Scott had a grist 
mill about two miles up the creek. 

In 1855 a large steam flouring mill was erected on the site 
of the Knoxville rolling mill by M. N. Williams, but it was 
soon afterward burned down. It was succeeded by the Knox- 
ville City mills, located on Broad street, and abandoned in 
1880. In 1858 F. A. R. Scott and J. C. Deaderick erected on 
First creek what was for many years throughout this part of 
the South known as the "Trio Mill," which has been since 
then in continuous operation, and has for many years been 
as widely and well known for the many excellent brands of 
flour produced. The mill was remodeled in '1884, and fully 
equipped with the then latest roller process machinery. The 
most noted brands of flour manufactured at this mill are the 
"Magnolia," "Silver Leaf," "Choice," "Famous" and "Little 
Valley Family." One of the specialties of this mill is water 
ground corn meal, and other products used as feed, all of 
which are extensively sold throughout East Tennessee and 
surrounding states. 

From 1877 to 1893 this mill was conducted by Scott, 


Dempster & Co.. but in the year last named Mr. Dempster 
retired, and from that time to 1895 it was conducted by 
Scott Bros. & Co., the firm consisting of James, David D., 
and F. A. R. Scott. Since 1895 it has been conducted by 
J. A. Scott under the name of the Scott Mill company. 

The Peters-Bradley Mill company was incorporated in 
1891 with a capital stock of $20,000, and the following offi- 
cers: G. W. Peters, president; T. J. Bradley, secretary and 
treasurer. The business conducted by this company was 
started in 1867 by Mr. Peters, on First creek, at the old 
Scott mill, about one-fourth of a mile above the location of 
the present mill, which is on First creek just below Broad 
avenue, and Mr. Peters continued to run it alone until 1879, 
when the business was removed to its present location, and 
took into partnership with himself in 1885. Mr. Bradley, 
who remained in the business until 1894. The officers of 
the company at the present time are G. W. Peters, president 
and general manager; L. J. Reams, secretary, and D. L. Ross, 
treasurer. The roller process was put into these mills in 1884, 
and they now have a capacity of seventy-five barrels of flour 
per day, besides grinding meal and feed. Both water and 
steam power are used to an aggregate of sixty horse-power. 
Twelve hands are given employment, and the company is 
one of the solid concerns of Knoxville. 

The Lonsdale Mill company was incorporated May 28. 
1890, the incorporators being W. B. Ragsdale, Leon Jourol- 
mon, J. F. Ragsdale and E. L. Ragsdale. The purpose for 
which this company was incorporated was the manufacture 
of flour and other mill products. It was organized in 1890 
with the following officers: President, Leon Jourolmon, and 
secretary. E. L. Ragsdale. The mill owned by this company 
is located two miles north of Knoxville on the Clinton pike, 
and is a four-story frame building above a basement, well- 
equipped with the latest roller machinery, with a capacity of 
200 barrels of flour every twenty-four hours. The proprietors 
of the mill at the present time are T. S. Webb, Jr., and John 


Dempster. The principal brands of flour made at these mills 
are the "Sunrise," and "White Rose." 

The Knoxville City Mills company was incorporated in 
1884 with a capital stock of $30,000, which was afterward 
increased to $100,000. The company erected a large flouring 
mill in 1885, having a capacity of 150 barrels of flour per day, 
which was increased in 1893 to 800 barrels per day. It is 
equipped with the most modern and finest machinery to be 
found in the country, and its products find sale throughout 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida and Alabama. An elevator with a capacity 
of 50,000 bushels of grain was erected in connection with 
the mill, but it was destroyed by fire in June, 1886. Later 
another elevator having a capacity of 75,000 bushels was 
erected, and in 1898 three steel elevators with an aggregate 
capacity of 100.000 bushels were built, so that at the present 
time the aggregate capacity of the four elevators is 175,000 
bushels. The officers of this company are as follows: J. Allen 
Smith, president, and H. R. Goforth, secretary and treasurer. 

The Brookside Cotton mills were incorporated in Novem- 
ber. 1885. and the mills were put in operation in 1886. The 
capital of the company at first was $150,000, and it was in- 
creased in 1895 to $500,000. The building first erected was 
two stories high and 78x210 feet in size. This building 
was enlarged in 1895 to a length of 350 feet, the width 
remaining the same. Another building was also added which 
is one story high and 400x175 feet in size, which is devoted 
exclusively to weaving. At first there were 6,000 spindles, 
but in 1895, when the enlargement of the plant took place 
the number of spindles was increased to 21,000, and the 
number of looms was increased at the same time from 176 
to 650. The products of these mills consist entirely of brown 
sheetings of a grade suitable for domestic and foreign trade, 
and the annual amount has increased from 3,000,000 yards 
per annum in 1886 and up to 1895, to 12,000.000 yards, the 
latter quantity being worth about $750,000. The officers 


of this company have been as follows: W. R. Tuttle, presi- 
dent and treasurer up to 1895, and president to 1898, in which 
year James Maynard w'as chosen president ; treasurer since 
1895. Justin E. Gale; secretary from the beginning. W. S. 
Mead. A fine stone office building was erected in 1890. 

The Knoxville Woolen mills, one of the most substantial 
institutions of Knoxville, is the direct outgrowth of a single 
carding machine started twenty years ago in McMinn county, 
Tenn., by the present vice-president and general manager 
of the company, Mr. R. P. Gettys. From that small begin- 
ning the present Knoxville Woolen mills is indebted for its 
existence. At the time stated Mr. Gettys added first two 
looms, and finding that the product of his small establishment 
was easily disposed of, he added fifteen more looms and still 
later added other looms to the aggregate number of sixty- 
five, the location of this mill being at Sanford, McMinn 
county. It was then determined to remove to Knoxville, 
that being thought a better place for a mill, and in 1884. April 
14. the Knoxville Woolen mills was incorporated by R. P. 
Gettys, E. J. Sanford, James D. Cowan, Charles J. McClung 
and C. M. McGhee, the purpose of the incorporation, as 
expressed in their application for a charter, being to manu- 
facture raw material by the aid of machinery into woolen 
goods and fabrics at their mills, which they located in Knox- 
ville at the intersection of the East Tennessee, Virginia and 
Georgia railroad and York street, the first mill of the present 
mammoth plant being erected in 1885. Additional capital 
was raised and the building up of the plant began and con- 
tinued until at the present time the mills have a floor space 
of about four and a half acres, and in them about 600 hands 
find employment. The entire plant is alive with machinery 
and work connected with the enterprise, many thousands 
of yards of cassimeres and jeans being made daily, about one- 
half of the mills being occupied in producing each fabric. 
While Mr. E. J. Sanford is president of the institution the 
immediate management and operation of the mills is under 


the direct charge of Mr. R. P. Gettys, vice-president and 
general manager, and Mr. J. A. McKeldin, secretary and 
treasurer. These gentlemen have proved themselves to he 
the right men in the right places, and under them the institu- 
tion is greatly prosperous. 

The Knoxville Coffin company began business in a small 
way in 1884, and was incorporated in 1885 with the following 
officers: I. B. Ziegler, president; A. G. Mann, vice-president, 
and R. A. Keller, secretary and treasurer. Their factory 
was built on the Southern railroad near Sixth avenue. Here 
they have four buildings, two of them two stories high, the 
others one story high, and one of them being a steam dry 
kiln. The products of the factory, consisting of coffins, 
caskets and fine excelsior, are shipped to nearly every South- 
ern state. The officers of the company at the present time 
are A. G. Mann, president; T. W. Keller, vice-president, and 
R. A. Keller, secretary and treasurer. 

The Unaka Soap Company was incorporated in 1888 with a 
capital stock of $50,000 in shares of $100. S. B. Luttrell was 
president of the company, and W. H. Simmonds, secretary 
and treasurer. The factory is located near the Knoxville 
and Ohio railroad, opposite the Brookside Cotton mills. This 
company operated the factory until 1890, and from that time 
until 1894 it was idle. In this year Mr. J. A. H. Bell came into 
possession of the property, and has since operated the factory. 
There are two buildings here, one of brick, sixty feet square 
and two stories high, and the other a frame building 40x120 
feet. The kinds of soap manufactured by this company are 
the "Red Cross," a fine grade of laundry soap ; the "Best Yet," 
a cheaper grade of laundry soap; laundry chips, and a fine 
quality of toilet soap, called "Cocoa Castile." Of the laundry 
soaps the company makes about 1,200 boxes per month, and 
of the others a somewhat smaller quantity. S. A. Kidd has 
been foreman of this factory for the past two years. 

The Southern Trunk company was incorporated under the 
laws of the state of Tennessee with a capital of $10,000, and 


organized November I, 1897, with the following- officers: 
W. C. Ingles, president; George M. White, secretary; D. \Y. 
White, treasurer, and Dr. A. P. White and S. H. McNutt the 
other directors. The company began business in East Knox- 
ville on the day of organization, remaining there until July 
;. 1898, when they removed to their present location on the 
southeast corner of Gay and Church streets. Here the}' man- 
ufacture trunks of various sizes, suit cases and traveling bags, 
employing from forty to> fifty hands in the factory and three 
traveling salesmen. The business is now increasing quite 
rapidly, and the products of the factor} - find sale throughout 
all the Southern states. 

The Whittle Trunk company was established in October, 
1895, by R. D. Whittle and O. H. Whittle, and it was incor- 
porated in December, 1S96, with an authorized capital stock 
of $25,000, and with R. D. Whittle as president and Z. T. 
John as secretary and treasurer. The business consists of 
the manufacture of trunks and sample cases, and was located 
from the beginning until February 14, 1899, at 316-318 Jack- 
son street. In July, 189S. the interest of the \\ nipples was 
purchased by J. G. Kincaid, who became president and man- 
ager of the concern, and still later the interest of Mr. John 
was purchased by John Bowman, of La Follette. at which 
time Mr. Bowman and J. G. and J. W. Kincaid became the 
proprietors. The business carried on was especially prosper- 
ous during the years 1897 and 1898, and until the fire of Feb- 
ruary 14, 1890. which caused the company a net loss of S4.000. 
At the present time, March 1, 1899, the plans of the company 
for the future have not been formulated, but they have a 
temporary office at $22 Gay street. 

The Knoxville Brick company was organized August 31. 
1888, the first board of directors being D. A. Carpenter, G. J. 
Kinzel, C. E. Lucky, R. M. Rhea and W. H. Simmonds. A 
farm of 750 acres was purchased at Powell station, and a com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose purchased the necessary 
machinery for making 1 brick. During the first vear about 


8,000,000 common brick were made, but since then different 
varieties of brick have been manufactured, viz. : common brick, 
red pressed, ornamental, buff and gray front brick, and vitri- 
fied roadway and sidewalk brick. The works now have a 
capacity of 135,000 brick per day, and when times are good 
there have been manufactured by this company from 10,000,- 
000 to 12,000,000 brick per year. The officers at the present 
time are D. A. Carpenter, president; W. H. Fizer, vice-presi- 
dent; A. F. Sanford, secretary and treasurer, and the other 
members of the board of directors are E. J. Sanford, C. E. 
Luckey, R. M. Rhea and Matthew McClung. 

The Jones Brick company was organized in 1890, by Reps 
Jones, president; W. L. Russell, secretary and treasurer. J. F. 
Pate, Bartow Smith and R. N. Hood. The company pur- 
chased twenty acres of ground immediately south of the Ten- 
nessee river at Knoxville, where they began making brick 
and carried the business on largely until the coming on of the 
panic of 1893, making from 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 brick per 
year. Since then, though the business has always been suc- 
cessful, it has not yet reached its former proportions, but the 
number manufactured now is about 3,000,000 per year. Both 
common and pressed brick are made by this company, the 
officers of which at the present time are J. R. McCallum, 
president, and J- W. McCallum, secretary and treasurer. 

The New Knoxville Brewing company was organized as 
the Knoxville Brewing company in 1886, in which year their 
brewery was established with every necessary for a successful 
business. It is located at No. 613 McGhee street, at the 
corner of Chamberlain street, occupying a front on the latter 
street of 250 feet and on the former of 150 feet, and has an 
"L" extending 200 feet along Chamberlain street. The 
buildings consist of a four-story brick, comprising besides 
the brewery proper, a malt and bottling department, refriger- 
ator cellars, stables, etc. Its refrigerator apparatus is of the 
largest pattern in the country, and the company purchases 
the finest malt and hops to be anywhere found either in this 


country or in Germany, and employs about forty hands, pro- 
ducing some 25,000 barrels of beer per year. The capital of 
the company is $50,000, and the officers are Mathew Senn, 
president ; William Meyer, vice-president, and H. S. Mizner, 
treasurer, and A. A. Rothmann, secretary. The products of 
this brewery are shipped to all parts of East Tennessee, 
Southern Kentucky, North Georgia. North Carolina, South 
Carolina and Virginia. Two different brands of bottled beer 
are made here, viz.: "XX pale" and Export Lager. In 1896 
an artesian well was drilled on the premises. 2,100 feet deep, 
with a capacity of 360 gallons per minute and a temperature 
of 58 degrees. The machinery is all of the most modern 
styles and patterns, the best that could be purchased, and is 
propelled by steam engines aggregating two hundred horse- 

D. M. Rose & Co.. wdio own one of the largest sawmills 
in operation in the vicinity of Knoxville, established them- 
selves in this business in 1876. in Sevier county. In 1880 
they removed to Knoxville, erecting a small mill on the south 
side of the Tennessee river, near the bridge. Since then their 
business has become very extensive and they now have a 
capacity of 50,000 feet of lumber per day. They are also 
engaged in the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds. The 
members of the company at the present time are Daniel M. 
Rose, Thomas H. Rose, John M. Pitner and William A. 

The Scottish Carolina Timber and Land Company was or- 
ganized in 1888, with a capital stock of $1,000,000, and in 
1889 completed a mill having a capacity of 50.000 feet of 
lumber per day. This mill was set up on the Tennessee river, 
a short distance below the Knoxville & Augusta railroad 
bridge, now the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern. This com- 
pany owned large tracts of timber in East Tennessee. 

In 1873 Howe Brothers began the business of manufac- 
turing furniture in Knoxville, continuing until 1876, when 
they were succeeded by William Caswell & Co. This firm 


carried on the business until 1880, when S. B. Boyd, pro- 
prietor of a carpet store, consolidated his business with that 
of the furniture manufacturing firm. Mr. Boyd's depart- 
ment became an extensive retail house furnishing establish- 
ment, and this arrangement lasted until 1886, when the 
partnership was dissolved, Mr. Caswell retaining the manu- 
facturing department and Mr. Boyd his own peculiar line. 
The latter then associated with himself John M. Allen. R. J. 
Stevenson and S. B. Boyd, Jr., and carried on the business 
under the firm name of Boyd, Allen & Co. 

The Standard Handle Company was incorporated in 1881 
with a capital stock of $60,000. All kinds of handles are 
manufactured by this firm, hickory being the kind of timber 
mainly used. Formerly the officers of this company were 
Edward Nicoll, president; F. J. Leland, vice-president, and 
C. M. Woodbury, secretary and treasurer. At the present 
time the name of the company is the American Handle Com- 
pany. F. T. Leland is president and general manager of this 

The Barker Manufacturing Company was established in 
June, 1883. by J. H. and F. Barker, and was for some years 
extensively engaged in the manufacture of woodenware and 
handles. The officers were at first F. Barker, president; H. 
N. Saxton, Jr., secretary, and J. H. Barker, treasurer. This 
company went out of business in 1897, and Mr. Saxton, in 
company with C. Gustavo Schrader, is engaged in exporting 
lumber, under the name of Saxton & Co. 

The Knoxville Box and Keg Company was established in 
1872 by D. R. Samuel, who admitted his son, W. B. Samuel, 
to partnership in 1880. They manufacture packing boxes of 
all kinds, kegs, wagon felloes and wood specialties and novel- 
ties. Their building was afterwards destroyed by fire and 
the business was not resumed. 

The Knoxville Furniture Company was incorporated in 
1882, with a capital of $50,000. and was organized Septem- 
ber 12. that year, having erected their building, a three-story 


frame, above a basement, in 1881. This building is on McGhee 
street, nearly opposite the brewery. The kinds of furniture 
made in this factory consist of bedroom suits and cabinet 
mantels, and the company employs in its factory and saw- 
mill at South Knoxville about 150 men. The furniture is 
made principally from oak timber and lumber, but some 
birch, especially curly birch, walnut and mahogany are used. 
The steam engine used in propelling the machinery is of 125 
horse power. The officers of the company remain as at the 
time of organization, viz.: Thomas R. Price, president; H. S. 
Mizner, treasurer, and Abram J. Price, superintendent. 

Cooler Bros., contractors and builders, have a planing 
mill located at Xo. 402 Chamberlain street, in which they 
employ about forty hands, including those engaged in their 
building operations, the number varying, however, accord- 
ing to the season of the year. They manufacture sash, doors, 
blinds, moldings, brackets, lath, shingle, flooring and other 
building materials, their factory being equipped with the most 
improved labor-saving devices. 

The Hanna Manufacturing Company was organized in 
May. 1897, with the following officers: R. H. Hanna, presi- 
dent: J. T. Sienknecht, vice-president: J. W. McCallum, sec- 
retary and treasurer, and W. D. Trueblood. general man- 
ager. This company began manufacturing pants, overalls, 
etc.. but in 1898 introduced the manufacture of a complete 
line of fine clothing, cassimeres and worsteds, being practi- 
cally the first manufactory of the kind in the Southern states. 
Their building, a double front brick, two stories high, is lo- 
cated at 316 and 318 Depot street. They employ about sixty 
bands, and turn out about $50,000 worth of goods each year, 
which is increasing quite rapidly, so that the output is fifty 
per cent greater each month than in the corresponding month 
of the previous year. Their goods are shipped into the fol- 
lowing states: Kentucky. Virginia. North and South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, besides all parts of 


The Marble City Fire Extinguisher Company began busi- 
ness in February. [896. The company is composed of three 
brothers, John A.. William J., and Benjamin F. Durham, and 
is a co-partnership. It is engaged in the manufacture of 
chemical rire extinguishers of different sizes, from a hand 
extinguisher, which a man can readily carry on his back, to 
a two-horse engine. The company in 1898 sold 1,850 of the 
hand extinguishers and 67 of the larger sizes. The smallest 
sized extinguisher holds twenty-six gallons and sells at retail 
for $12.50. The hand engine costs from $150 to $350; the 
one-horse engine, from $700 to $1,200, and the two-horse 
or 85-gallon double-battery chemical engine, $1,500. The 
smaller sizes are made of cold rolled copper, while the largest 
size is made of steel, except the wheels. One battery of this 
two-horse engine is charged while the other is playing on the 
fire. It carries a hose reel with seventy-five feet of hose, 
pick-ax. crow-bar, gong and ladders. This chemical engine 
is highly recommended by the chiefs of the Knoxville Fire 
Department, notwithstanding the fact that the city of Knox- 
ville has never yet invested in a chemical fire extinguisher. 

The Scates Furnace Company, as it now exists, was organ- 
ized in 1897, though the business which they are conducting 
was established in 1883 by George R. Scates. This business 
is the manufacture of the Scates steel furnace for the heating 
of buildings by means of warm air. Of this steel furnace Mr. 
Scates is the inventor. Previous to 1883 Mr. Scates had had 
many years' experience in the furnace business in several of 
the Northern states and perceiving the great necessity and 
the demand for a warm air furnace superior to anything then 
in existence produced the furnace now being manufactured 
in Knoxville. The factory is located near the Southern rail- 
way, west of the Knoxville Woolen Mills, the building being 
owned by a number of Knoxville gentlemen, among whom 
are S. B. Luttrell, W. H. Collett, and Peter Kern, and is 
leased to the company. The patterns in this factory cost 
about $9,000, and of these patterns Mr. Scates was the paten- 


tee. In 1897 gentlemen from Pennsylvania and Chicago 
became interested in the business and a new company was 
formed, the officers of which are as follows: C. F. Van De- 
water, president; J. L. Nelson, secretary; F. E. Fuller, treas- 
urer, and G. R. Scates, superintendent. The furnace was 
patented January 23, 1883, and has been largely sold through- 
out the Southern states. The fire-box is lined on all sides 
with heavy fire-brick tile made for the purpose, and to a 
heavy steel gas-tight dome is attached a double horizontal 
steel radiator extending the entire length of the furnace on 
both sides and across in the rear of the dome. So long as 
the brick lining; remains in its place it is impossible to burn 
out or even crack the steel fire-box. This furnace is manu- 
factured in four sizes, adapted to all classes of buildings. The 
company also manufactures steel ranges in large numbers. 

On February 4, 1899, a disastrous fire occurred at the fac- 
tory, by which all the patterns for both range and furnace were 
destroyed, the loss to the company in patterns and otherwise 
reaching- from $15,000 to $20,000. The foundry portion of 
the building was leased by the Scates Furnace Company to 
the Globe Foundry Company, composed of H. R. Wilhite 
and A. P. Patterson, who did all the foundry work for the 
Scates company. The loss of the Globe Foundry Company 
by this fire was about $500. The loss to the building was 
about $6,500. 

In October, 1880, a company formed in New York estab- 
lished a telephone exchange in Knoxville with thirty-three 
subscribers, the system then used being known as the Law 
system and quite different from that now in use. This Knox- 
ville exchange continued to be a small affair until it was 
purchased by the East Tennessee Telephone Company, which 
purchase was effected April 1. 1887, by O. F. Noel, of Nash- 
ville, the president of this company, which immediately began 
to make extensive improvements, the system being changed 
November 1. tSS8. to the magneto system, which is in use 
at this time. July 1. 1891, the company had 405 subscribers, 


and then the office was removed from the Sedgwick building 
to the present site on Summit Hill, No. 403 Vine street. On 
February 20, 1899, the company had 1,100 subscribers. 

The long-distance telephone was put in in 1884, at which 
time the East Tennessee Telephone Company purchased a 
telegraph line of R. N. Hood, J. M. Greer and others, extend- 
ing from Knoxville to Maryville. Since then this service 
has been largely extended, until at the present time Knox- 
ville has communication with numerous towns in East Tennes- 
see, among them being the following county seats: Athens, 
Chattanooga, Cleveland, Clinton, Dayton, Dandridge, Jallico, 
Jacksboro, Kingston, Loudon, Madisonville, Maryville, Mor- 
ristown, Newport, Rutledge, Sevierville and South Pittsburg. 

The managers of this company in Knoxville have been the 
following: Joseph C. Duncan. 1887 to 1888; Al. Cooper, 
a short time in 1888: A. P. Harrison. 1888-94: W. O. Rhode, 
1894 to the present time. 

The People's Telephone Company was established in 1894, 
with C. E. Lucky, president: W. L. Welcker, vice^resident; 
Joseph C. Duncan, general manager and Elmer D. Ross, sec- 
retary and treasurer. These gentlemen still remain in office. 
This company has 800 subscribers in Knoxville and 150 out- 
side of the city, these subscribers being located in many of 
the towns throughout East Tennessee. The office and ex- 
change rooms of the company are in the Franklin building, 
at the northeast corner of Gay and Commerce streets. 




First Stores Established — Growth as a Commercial Center — Unusually 
Large Jobbing Business — Some of the Largest Establishments in 
the South— The Territory Covered — Wholesale Trade Amounting to 
More Than $50,000,000 Annually — The Coal Trade, its Growth — 
Chamber of Commerce — Great Fire. 

IT WAS not long after the establishment of a town where 
Knoxville is now situated when several stores were 
started. The merchants obtained their goods in the great 
trade centers in the North and East, as in Baltimore and Phil- 
adelphia. These goods were transported in wagons to all the 
frontier towns. There was but little coin in the country and 
but few bank notes. Often the advertisements of these fron- 
tier merchants specified the kind of goods that would be taken 
for their merchandise, and also the different values at which 
these goods would be received. For instance, at the salt 
works located at Washington, Ya.. salt was sold at seven 
shillings six pence per bushel if paid for in cash or prime 
furs; at ten shillings per bushel if paid for in bear or deer 
skins, beeswax, hemp, bacon, butter or beef cattle; and at 
twelve shillings per bushel if paid for in country trade or in 
produce, as was usually the case. Stores advertised that they 
would take for such articles as were theirs for sale — cash, 
beeswax and country produce, tallow, hogs' lard, butter, pork, 
new feathers, corn, rye. oats, good horses, flax and "old Conti- 
nental money." that issued by the Continental Congress, 
which had by that time depreciated wonderfully in value, and 
they also took certificates of indebtedness either of the state 
or the nation because of services performed against the In- 
dians, and land warrants. 

It would be impracticable to present a full list of all the 






various kinds of business men located in Knoxville, even 
down to the breaking out of the war; but a few of them, 
whose names are yet well remembered, are here given. The 
first merchants in this city were Samuel and Nathaniel Cowan, 
who were two of the five inhabitants of the place when it was 
laid out and named in 1792. Hugh Dunlap was another of 
the very early merchants, and Humes Fryar and Campbell 

In the year 1820 James H. Cowan, a nephew of Samuel 
and Nathaniel Cowan, the first merchants to do business in 
Knoxville, opened a store at the corner of Main and Gay 
streets, with a capital of $500. Mr. CoAvan had not at that 
time attained his majority. In 1825 he formed a partner- 
ship with Hugh A. M. White. This partnership continued 
for five years. From 1830 to 1832 Mr. Cowan continued the 
business until 1832. when he entered into partnership with 
Mr. Perez Dickinson, his brother-in-law, who is yet living. 
Mr. Dickinson had come to Knoxville in 1830 from Massa- 
chusetts, to take charge of Hampden-Sidney academy. 

This firm continued in business for forty-three years, until 
about the year 1875, when it sold out to Alvin Burton, who 
had been with the firm for many years. Cowan and Dickin- 
son built the two-story double brick storehouse which still 
stands at the northeast corner of Gay and Main streets. Out 
of this firm grew the large wholesale house of Cowan, Mc- 
Clung & Co.. established in 1858 by James H. Cowan, Perez 
Dickinson, Charles J. McClung and Frank H. McClung. 
This is still one of the leading wholesale houses in Tennessee, 
its members being Charles J. McClung, Matthew McClung, 
Robert M. Rhea and Jacob L. Thomas. 

The first exclusively wholesale house in Knoxville was 
that of McClung, Wallace & Co., who began here in 1837, 
and carried on a comparatively large business, selling goods 
in East Tennessee, North Georgia and North Alabama. They 
continued in business until about 1850. 

C. H. & D. L. Coffin besran business in Knoxville about 


1847, as wholesale and retail dealers and continued until 
some time previous to the war. 

C. Morgan & Son began business in Knoxville in 1818, 
continuing until about 1835, at which time Franklin Morgan 
the junior member of the firm established a wholesale busi- 
ness in Nashville, which he carried on for about eighteen 
years. C. Morgan continued his business in Knoxville for 
some years after the son removed to Nashville. 

C. J. McClung began business in Knoxville in 1849, as a 
retail dealer in merchandise, continuing until 1855. when he 
removed to St. Louis and there, with his brother, Frank H. 
McClung, became a member of the wholesale house of C. M. 
McClung & Co., remaining in St. Louis for three years, when 
he returned to Knoxville to become a member of the house 
of Cowan, McClung & Co. 

James & Wallace Park were well-known business men in 
Knoxville before the war. successful, high-toned, and honor- 
able in all respects. Their store was on the site of the present 
Flanders Hotel. 

Col. John Crozier was likewise a well-known and highly- 
esteemed business man of the days before the war. He was 
the father of John H. Crozier and the grandfather of E. W. 
Crozier, publisher of the Knoxville Directory. 

Walker, O'Keefe & Co. are also worthy of mention as 
wholesale and retail dealers in merchandise before the war. 
carrying on a profitable business for several years, closing 
out about 1855. Abner G. Jackson was also for many years 
a prominent retail merchant in the city. 

Dr. James King was a dealer in groceries early in the 
history of the place. He owned a couple of steamboats, one 
of which was named the "Guide," with which boats he 
brought groceries to Knoxville from New Orleans. The 
"Guide" is remembered as a very pretty little boat. Dr. 
King's place of business was located on the southwest cor- 
ner of Gay and Church streets, and there he built up a very 
prosperous trade. At the time of his death Henry Ault. 


father of the present cashier of the Merchants' Bank, pur- 
chased the stock of goods, and carried on the wholesale 
grocery business until his death, in 1875. 

About 1840 Matthew McClung, Hugh L. McClung and 
William B. French went to Pittsburg for the purpose of build- 
ing a steamboat, which they built at a cost of $15,000, and 
named her the "Harkaway." This boat they loaded with 
groceries, and came up the Tennessee river to the Mussel 
Shoals, where they had to wait for a rise of water, after which 
they came on up to Knoxville. Their warehouse was on the 
river bank, and they continued in business for some eight 
or ten years. 

Later came James and William Williams, mentioned in the 
chapter on "Transportation," who carried on a large whole- 
sale grocer\- business, and carried the United States mail on 
their steamboats between Knoxville and Decatur and also 
carried many passengers. 

The wholesale grocery business in Knoxville is very exten- 
sive, especially when the aggregate amount of it is taken into 
account. Among the principal firms engaged in the business 
in the past and in the present may be mentioned the following: 
Borches & Co.; Dick, McMillan & Co.; Hazen & Lotspiech; 
Kaiser Bros.; KnafH & Locke; W. B. Lockett & Co.; H. P. 
McMillan; McNulty Grocerv Company, and M. L. Ross 
& Co. 

McNulty & Borches was formerly one of the largest whole- 
sale grocery firms in Knoxville. But besides groceries thev 
carried also lines of dry goods, notions, boots and shoes, and 
carpets. The individual members of this firm were F. Mc- 
Nulty and Jacob W. Borches. They, however, at length 
dissolved partnership, and at the present time F. McNulty 
is proprietor of the McNulty Grocery Company, which car- 
ries on business at 402 Gay street, 226 Grand avenue, 801 
Central avenue, and 802 North Broad street. The manager 
of the business is Howard O'Neal. 

Jacob W. Borches & Co., the "Co." being Ben N. Donahue. 


earn.' on a large wholesale grocery business at No. 103 Jack- 
son street. 

Coffin, Martin & Co. established themselves in business 
as wholesale grocers in Knoxville in 1867, the business after- 
ward passing into the hands of Cone, Shields & Co. This 
firm carried a large stock of staple and fancy groceries and 
their trade extended to large distances in all directions from 
the city. J. S. Shields, once a member of the firm, which 
has passed out of existence, is now at the head of a firm 
which is engaged in the wholesale hat trade and is composed 
of J. S. Shields and Robert R. Swepson. This firm is located 
at 314 Gay street. 

H. B. Carhart & Co.. formerly carried on a wholesale gro- 
cer}' business which had been established in 1877 by Lewis 
& Carhart, this firm giving place in 1884 to the former firm, 
which was composed of H. B.. \Y. B. and W. E. Carhart. 
This firm has been dissolved and now none of its members 
remain in Knoxville. 

Williams & Zimmerman began business in Knoxville as 
wholesale grocers in 1870, and in 1880 were succeeded by 
Condon Bros., both of whom are still living in Knoxville — 
Michael J., who is now a railroad contractor, and Stephen P., 
who served a term as United States Marshal, under President 

W. B. Lockett & Co. established themselves in business 
in Knoxville as wholesale grocers in 1883, at which lime the 
firm consisted of W. B. Lockett, Sr.; W. B. Lockett, Jr.; 
R. S. Hazen and J. O. Lotspeich. At the present time the 
firm is composed of William B. Lockett, Edward Lockett 
and A. Percy Lockett. Their business is located at 107 Jack- 
son street. 

M. L. Ross & Co., wholesale grocers, began business as 
Carpenter, Ross & Co. in 1870. In 1879 they were succeeded 
by M. L. Ross and W. B. Lockett, the latter retiring in 
1883, and being succeeded by S. B. Dow, so that at the pres- 
ent time the firm (January, 1S99) is composed of Martin L. 


Ross* and Samuel B. Dow, under the firm name at the head 
of this paragraph. They carry- on a very large business and 
are located at No. 422 Gay street. 

Knaffl & Locke (Rudolph Knaffl and E. C. Locke) en- 
gaged in business as wholesale grocers in 1881, in which year 
they succeeded Anderson & McNulty, who began business in 
1876. Their extensive business is located at No. 125 Jackson 

The Knoxville Provision and Sugar Company was estab- 
lished January 1, 1892, by Hazen & Lotspeich, Shields Bros., 
M. L. Ross & Co.. H. B. Carhart & Co., W. B. Lockett & 
Co.. Knaffl & Locke, and Smith & Bondurant, for the pur- 
pose of selling meats, lard and sugar at wholesale. Shields 
Bros, and H. B. Carhart & Co. have since withdrawn, the 
company otherwise remaining as at first. Their goods are 
sold mainlv in Tennessee, Kentucky, North Carolina and 
Georgia, and their sales have amounted in one year to as 
much as $850,000. The location of the business is at 127-129 
Jackson street. 

Hazen & Lotspeich began business as wholesale grocers 
in 1888 and for a number of years were located at 206 Gay 
street. In 1895 they removed to their present location, 125 
Jackson street, and their business is very extensive, covering 
Tennessee and the states adjoining on all sides. The firm is 
composed of R. S. Hazen and J. O. Lotspeich. 

R. Knafrl, wholesale grocer and successor to Knaffl & 
Locke, a firm established in 1883, began by himself in June, 
1897. Knaffl & Locke succeeded McNulty & Knaffl, a firm 
which was in business from 1880 to 1883. Mr. Knaffl's busi- 
ness extends throughout East Tennessee and the surrounding 
adjacent states and is very extensive. 

The Knoxville Storage Company was established in 1895 

in a building owned by B. L. Smith, by James A. Hensley and 

Mr. Smith, Mr. Hensley being the manager of the business. 

In the basement of this building, located on Jackson street, 

* The death of Martin L. Ross occurred May ,}o. 1899. 


and in the first two stories above the basement, the company 
stores commercial goods, and in the third story furniture 
and other household goods. 

The business now conducted by the Sanford. Chamberlain 
& Albers Company was established in 1864 by E. J. Sanford 
& Co.. the firm consisting of E. J. Sanford and Dr. O. F. 
Hill, located where the gas office is at the present time, and 
the business being both wholesale and retail. In 1865 this 
firm was succeeded by that of Chamberlain Bros. & Van 
Gilder, composed of H. S. Chamberlain. W. P. Chamberlain 
and T. I. Van Gilder. In i860 this firm changed to Chamber- 
lain & Albers (A. J.), the latter succeeding to the interest of 
Mr. Van Gilder. During this same year the old firm of E. J. 
Sanford & Co. resumed business in the building now occu- 
pied by S. B. Luttrell & Co. and in 1872 the two firms con- 
solidated under the firm name of Sanford. Chamberlain & 
Albers, Dr. O. F. Hill and H. S. Chamberlain retiring. On 
January 1, 1897, tne m ' m was incorporated under the name 
of The Sanford, Chamberlain & Albers Company, with E. J. 
Sanford, president; A. J. Albers, vice-president and general 
manager, and W. P. Chamberlain, secretary and treasurer, 
the stock in the company all being held by the parties men- 
tioned. The annual amount of business, which consists in 
the wholesaling of drugs, amounts to from $200,000 to 

Chapman-White-Lyons & Company, wholesale druggists, 
were established in 1881 and incorporated under the above 
name in 1892. Mr. Chapman, the head of the company, was 
formerly in the wholesale grocery business, as a member of 
the firm of Carpenter, Ross & Co., the predecessors of M. L. 
Ross & Co.: Mr. Lyons was formerly a retail druggist, for 
several years in company with Judge D. K. Young of Clin- 
ton. Tenn.. and Mr. White was formerly for several years in 
the wholesale tin and stove business. The company was in- 
corporated with John E. Chapman, president; W. L. Lyons, 
vice-president, and W. C. Everett, secretary and treasurer. 


At the present time the officers remain the same except that 
John C. Hickman is secretary and treasurer. From four to 
six traveling- men are employed by this company. 

The house of Daniel Briscoe, Bros. & Co. was estab- 
lished in 1882 by George & Briscoe. In 1886 the firm was 
composed of Daniel and I'. J. Briscoe, R. R. Swepson, M. 
D. Arnold and S. C. Roney. At the present time the mem- 
bers of the firm are Daniel, Philip J., Philip J., Jr., and J. 
Earnest Briscoe, and Ralph H. Mountcastle. The business 
transacted by this firm aggregates about $1,000,000 per 
year, and they keep seven traveling salesmen on the road. 
Their stock is very extensive and well selected and consists 
of dry goods, boots and shoes and notions. 

W. W. Woodruff ec Co. is the oldest hardware house in 
Knoxville, the business having been established in 1865 by 
W. W. Woodruff, and on quite a small scale. At the present 
time the business aggregates about $500,000 per year. The 
firm is composed of Mr. Woodruff and William E. Gibbins, 
and the store, one of the finest in the state, is located at 424- 
426 Gay street. 

S. B. Luttrell & Co. located at 613 Gay street, began busi- 
ness in Knoxville in 1871, and is one of the most substantial 
firms in the city. Without employing traveling salesmen 
they have a trade aggregating- upward of $200,000 per year. 
The firm is now composed of Samuel B. Luttrell and James 
C. Luttrell. 

In 1880 the firm of McClung. Powell & Co. succeeded to 
the hardware line of Cowan, McClung & Co., the new firm 
being composed of Calvin McClung, C. Powell. W. J. Mc- 
Nutt and A. Gredig. In 1884 this firm was succeeded by 
C. M. McClung- & Co., consisting of C. M. McClung, W. B. 
Smith anil W. B. Keener. They largely increased the busi- 
ness in the original line and also added thereto agricultural 
implements. The firm is now composed of Cabin M. Mc- 
Clung, Bruce Keener and Charles J. McClung, Jr., their 
business being located at 503-507 Jackson street. 


The firm of McCorkle & Brown began business in 1869 and 
continued in existence about ten months, when George 
Brown become sole proprietor. The business consisted in 
wholesale dealing in hardware, seeds, implements and fertiliz- 
ers. Judge Brown carried it on alone until his death, in 1892, 
when it passed into the hands of his children, John S. Brown, 
Mrs. L. B. Prosser and Mrs. M. L. Montgomery, who still 
carry it on under the name of George Brown. 

The business now conducted by McClung, Buffat & Buck- 
well had its origin about 1875, when Mr. A. Gredig estab- 
lished a retail hardware business on Gay street. Continuing 
alone for three years he, in 1878, sold a half interest to J. H. 
Cruze, the style of the firm becoming Gredig & Cruze. as it 
remained until 1880, when Mr. Gredig sold out to Mr. Cruze, 
who carried on the business alone until 1886. At this time 
Mr. E. Buffat of Rogersville purchased half the business, the 
style of the firm then becoming Cruze & Buffat, and so 
continuing one year, when E. G. Buckwell was admitted to 
partnership and the firm became Cruze, Buffat & Buckwell. 
In 1894 Mr. Cruze sold his interest to C. M. McClung & Co., 
the firm then becoming McClung, Buffat & Buckwell, being 
incorporated under this name in 1897, with E. G. Buckwell, 
president; E. Buffat, vice-president, and J. C. Beck, secretary 
and treasurer. The present officers are E. Buffat, president: 
C. C. Cruze, vice-president, and J. C. Beck, secretary and 
treasurer. The business is now both wholesale and retail, 
hardware, agricultural implements and machinery and house 
furnishings, and amounts to about $100,000 per year. 

McMillan, Hazen & Co. are the successors of R. S. Payne 
& Co. (F. McNulty), which firm began business in 1867 as 
wholesale and retail dealers in hats, but in 1869 boots and 
shoes were added. In 1875 Mr. McNulty bought the interest 
of R. S. Payne, and in 1876 Mr. Payne opened an exclusively 
wholesale boot and shoe house and a few years later admitted 
to partnership E. E. McMillan and Asa Hazen, and in 1883 
the latter two gentlemen, together with M. S. McClellan, 


purchased the interest of Mr. Payne, the firm at this time 
becoming McMillan, Hazen & Co. Since 1897 this ^ vxn nas 
been located at 122 Gay street, employing nine traveling 
salesmen and selling goods throughout Tennessee and the 
states adjoining. The present firm consists of the gentlemen 
named above and Reuben N. Payne. 

Powers, Little & Co.. wholesale clothing, established in 
1892, are successors to Powers, Little & McCormick, who 
in 1888 succeeded Smith, Huddleston, Powers & Co., which 
latter firm succeeded Brock, Huddleston & Co., who began 
business in 1884 as retail dealers in clothing, continuing one 
year. Since January, 1896, Powers, Little & Co. have been 
located at 124 Jackson street. The business of this firm is 
very extensive, extending throughout Tennessee and the 
states adjoining and amounting to more than $250,000 per 
annum, seven traveling men being employed. 

McTeers, Hood & Co., wholesale clothing, was established 
in 1884 by J. C. and C. E. McTeer, R. S. Payne, Charles 
Berger, and W. M. Hood. The first location of this firm 
was on Gay street, but later they erected their present large 
five-story brick building on the .southwest corner of Com- 
merce and State streets, at a cost of $60,000, and have been 
carrying on their business from this location since 1889. At 
different times J. T. McTeer and W. M. Hood purchased 
the interests of the other partners, and now are the sole pro- 
prietors. They keep on the road fourteen traveling salesmen, 
covering fifteen of the states of the Union, and their average 
sales amount to $750,000. The most prosperous year they 
have had brought their aggregate sales up to nearly $900,000. 

The firm of Cullen & Newman began business in 1872. 
engaging in the wholesale china, glass and queensware busi- 
ness, and continued under this name until 1897, when they 
were incorporated under the name of Cullen & Newman Com- 
pany. Their business consists in wholesale dealing in notions, 
millinery, houseware, table and pocket cutlery, jewelry, sta- 
tionery, clocks, and all goods kept in a well stocked depart- 


ment store, no traveling salesmen being employed, but in- 
stead, catalogues to the number of 4,000 or 5,000 being sent 
out even- sixty days. 

Sterchi Bros, began business in 1889 on Vine street as 
retail dealers in furniture and carpets. In 1893 they removed 
to the Lawson-McGhee Library building, and afterward to 
the McNulty building, and in 1896 bought out the furniture 
business of King. ( >ates & Co., who were located in the Mc- 
Nulty building at Xos. 412-414 Gay street, where they are 
now located. At this time they became engaged in the whole- 
sale trade and are still so engaged, selling wholly by cata- 
logue, their trade extending throughout Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia. The firm now 
consists of J. C. and J. G. Sterchi. 

Davis, Chumbley & Co. began business in 1890, under the 
firm name of J. T. Brownlee & Co., in 1893 the firm becoming 
Brownlee, Chumbley & Co., and in 1895 the firm became as it 
is now. Davis. Chumbley & Co. They deal exclusively in 
wholesale boots and shoes. The firm consists of J. L. Davis 
and J. F. Chumbley. the "Co." being merely nominal. Mr. 
Davis had previously been for twenty-five years engaged in 
the wholesale hat trade, as the head of the firm of J. L. 
Davis & Co. 

Arnold, Henegar, Doyle & Co. began business in October, 
1896, the firm consisting of M. D. Arnold, Edward Henegar. 
Tames S. Doyle, R. R. Swepson and I. E. Dooley, all of whom 
still remain in the firm. They are wholesale dealers in boots 
and shoes, employ from ten to twelve traveling salesmen, 
and have a business of nearly half a million dollars per annum. 
Their trade extends throughout Tennessee, Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, and they are located at No. 428 Gay street. 

Brown, Payne, Deavers & Co. began business as wholesale 
dealers in dry goods, notions and furnishings. June 1. 1898, 
the members of the firm being T. G. Brown, R. S. Payne. Jr., 
J. L. Deavers, \Y. T. Kennedy, and N. W. Hale. They are 


all young men with the energy necessary to make their busi- 
ness a success, are located at Nos. 318-320 Gay street, and are 
selling goods throughout Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, 
North Carolina, Georgia and North Alabama, to the extent 
during the first year of their existence as a firm of about 
$350,000. The building in which they are located, a five-story 
structure, is exclusively occupied by them. 

Cowan, George & Co. began business December 15, 1S97, 
the members of the firm being James H. Cowan, S. H. 
George and Edgar and Albeit George. Their business con- 
sists in the manufacture and sale of clothing, their trade ex- 
tending throughout Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, North 
and South Carolina. Georgia and Alabama. They are located 
at 316 Gay street, occupying a four-story and basement build- 
ing and also a building in the rear of this, extending back to 
State street, a three-story building, the two buildings having 
a floor space of about 30,000 square feet. This firm employs 
about 100 hands and carries on a very extensive business. 

McArthur, Sons & Co., wholesale dealers in musical instru- 
ments, began business in Knoxville in 1889, Mr. F. E. Mc- 
Arthur being then the sole proprietor. He was then located 
on Gay street between Commerce and Vine streets. The 
house under its present name was incorporated July 1. 1898, 
with a capital stock of $25,000, and with F. E. McArthur. 
president; W. R. .McArthur. vice-president, and A. M. King, 
secretary and treasurer. In August, 1896, thev moved to 
their present location. 510-512 Gay street, where they have a 
fine large building, 50x150 feet in size ami two stories high. 
They employ six salesmen on the road, and cover East Ten- 
nessee and the parts of states adjoining on all sides. The in- 
struments sold by this firm are pianos and organs exclusively. 

Samuel C. Roney began the shoe business in i860, and 
for twenty years, 1866 to 1886, traveled throughout the South 
in the interest of a large shoe and leather company of New 
Vork city. In the latter year he came to Knoxville and be- 
came connected with the wholesale house of Briscoe, Swep- 


son & Co., afterward Daniel, Briscoe & Co., remaining with 
them until 1894, when he organized the firm of Roney, 
Arnold & Co. From this firm he withdrew October 1, 1896, 
and soon afterward organized the Sam C. Roney Shoe Com- 
pany, which is located on Gay street between Commerce and 
Vine streets, and which by means of about eight traveling 
salesmen covers the territory of Tennessee and states adjoin- 
ing on all sides, and West Virginia. 

Allen, Stephenson & Co. are successors to other firms in 
the same business, which has, however, been built up gradu- 
ally from the time it was established in 1876 by Samuel B. 
Boyd, who began as a retail dealer in carpets. In j88o the 
firm became Boyd & Caswell, and dealt in carpets and furni- 
ture. In 1886 it became Boyd, Allen & Co., and in 1891, 
Allen, Stephenson & Co. This firm now deals in carpets, 
furniture and house furnishing goods, their trade extending 
throughout East Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, and North 
Carolina. To the above lines they have recently added the 
manufacture and sale of the "indestructible bed springs." 

S. H. George & Co. began business as wholesale dealers 
in hats in Knoxville in 1885, the pioneer house of the kind 
in the city. After several changes in the firm as to members 
and style it became Murphy & Robinson in 1896, as it re- 
mains. This firm now deals in hats and millinery, keeps five 
traveling men on the road, and covers Tennessee and the 
surrounding states. It is composed of G. W. Murphy and 
V. B. Robinson, the house being located at No. 420 Gay 

Haynes, Henson & Co. composed of J. P. Haynes and J. 
A. Henson, established themselves in the wholesale boot and 
shoe trade in 1879. They are located at 312 Gay street, sell 
goods by means of about twelve traveling salesmen through- 
out Tennessee and the surrounding adjacent states, their 
business amounting to a little more than half a million dollars 
per annum. 

The Greer Machinery Company began business in Knox- 


ville in 1886, under the firm name of J. M. Greer & Co. 
(J. G. Duncan). Later the company was incorporated with 
a capital stock of $75,000, and with the following - officers: 
J. M. Greer, president; John G. Duncan, vice-president; \V. 
O. Greer, secretary, and O. Schmalzried, treasurer. The 
business transacted by this company is unusually extensive, 
covering East Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia and West Vir- 
ginia, and occasionalh- extending into other states. In 1898 
it amounted to somewhat more than $225,000, one item alone 
being eighty-five complete threshing outfits, some of them 
steam and others horse-power. On February 14. 1899, their 
building on Jackson street west of Gay street was consumed 
by fire, but they immediately resumed business at 1 1 1 Jack- 
son street, near Central avenue. The officers of the com- 
pany at the present time are the same as above and with 
the addition of G. R. Moore, assistant treasurer. The sur- 
plus and undivided profits of this company for 1898 amounted 
to $16,000. 

The Davies Furniture Company began business in Knox- 
ville April 2, 1898, the company being composed of D. J. 
Davies, J. O. White and J. H. Spreen. They are located at 
304 Gay street and deal in furniture, carpets, baby carriages 
and a general line of household goods, both at retail and at 
wholesale. Mr. Davies was formerly attorney-at-law, Mr. 
White connected with the Sun Life Insurance Company of 
Louisville, Ky., and Mr. Spreen a stock and grain broker of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. All are young and energetic men. 

In 1889 the firm of Hooker. Littlefield & Steere was 
formed for the manufacture of confectionery. In 1892 Mr. 
Hooker withdrew and the firm became Anderson, Littlefield 
& Steere till 1895, when the present firm of Littlefield, Steere 
& Sanders was formed. Their factory and offices are located 
at 120 Gay street. They employ about 100 hands in the fac- 
tory and keep four salesmen on the road. Their trade extends 
throughout the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, 
West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and 


Alabama, and amounts to over $1,000,000 annually. The 
members of the firm are H. E. Littlefield, A. H. Steere and 
\Y. C. Sanders, Jr. 

Knoxville is a great center for the distribution of all kinds 
of goods, its trade extending to most parts of the Southern 
states, including Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina and Mississippi and Ala- 
bama. By the year 1892 Knoxville's wholesale trade had 
reached the grand total of $50,000,000, having increased to 
this amount from about $10,000,000 in 1880. During those 
twelve years the manufacturing carried on in Knoxville had 
most rapidly increased, having been in fact almost wholly 
created during that time. At the present time both the 
wholesale trade and the manufacturing business within the 
city and its immediate suburbs are much more extensive than 
they were in 1892. But in 1892 the grocery business 
amounted to about $5,000,000. the Hour and provision busi- 
ness to- about $1,500,000 and the manufacturing business 
amounted to about $10,000,000. The trade in these lines 
had increased about in the same proportion as the coal and 
iron business. The dry goods business then amounted to 
about $4,000,000, including the millinery and notion busi- 
ness. The agricultural implement trade, the clothing, boot 
and shoe trade, live stock, liquor business, marble and other 
numerous branches all had been unusually and gratifyingly 
prosperous during the twelve years before 1892. The num- 
ber of wholesale houses in Knoxville was then about 100, 
this number including coal, marble and lumber dealers. Some 
of these also' carried on a retail trade, and the number of ex- 
clusively retail houses numbered about 200. And there were 
in the aggregate about 225 manufacturing establishments in 
the city. 

The coal business of Knoxville has become very extensive 
and important. Among the principal companies and firms 
at the present time engaged therein may lie mentioned the 
following: The Black Diamond Coal Company, The Buck 


eye Coke Company, The Coal Creek Coal Company, The 
East Tennessee Coal Company, The Jellico Coal Mining 
Company, The Middle Ridge Coal Company, The Mingo 
Coal and Coke Company, The Whistle Coal and Coke Com- 
pany, The Tennessee Coal Company and the Workingmen's 
Co-operative Coal Company. 

It is believed that the first coal mining company organized 
in this city was the Knoxville Iron Company, in 1855, the 
members of which were John S. Moffett, John Shields, M. W. 
Williams, and A. L. Maxwell. This company brought coal 
from points down the Tennessee river from Knoxville in a 
small steamboat called the "Holston," but its operations were 
on a small scale and not of long duration. 

In May, 1858, the Cumberland Mountain Coal and Land 
Company was organized with a capital stock of $1,200,000, 
the officers of which were at the time of organization G. B. 
Lamar, president; Thomas H. Calloway, treasurer; a Mr. 
Jackson, secretary, and the other members, Samuel Congdon, 
Thomas C. Lyons, C. M. McGhee, A. L. Maxwell, Robert 
Morrow, M. B. Prichard, Campbell Wallace, and Euclid Wa- 
terhouse. This company was reorganized in 1867 as the East 
Tennessee Iron and Coal Company, with C. M. McGhee, 
president. It had previously purchased large quantities of 
land in Anderson, Campbell and Scott counties, and now. 
as the East Tennessee Coal Company, the name being 
changed in 1876. owns 50,000 acres of land lying for thirteen ' 
miles along the Knoxville & Ohio railroad, containing the 
finest coal and the most accessible of any in this part of the 
state. The officers of this company at the present time are 
as follows: Evan J. Davis, president and treasurer; Frank 
C. Richmond, secretary, and W. T. Lewis, general manager. 
The office of the company is at 306 Union street, and the 
yard at the corner of Depot and Jacksboro streets, and the 
amount of coal handled each year amounts to about 100,000 

The Coal Creek Mining and Manufacturing Company was 


organized in 1868, with officers as follows: Henry H. Wiley, 
president, and Charles H. Bulkley, secretary. The capital 
stock at that time was $500,000, but before 1886 it was in- 
creased to $2,500,000, about three-fourths of which was 
owned in New York. The coal lands of this company consist of 
240.000 acres, and are some of the finest coal lands anywhere 
to be found. In 1887 the officers were: E. J. Sanford, presi- 
dent: E. R. Chapman of New York, secretary and assistant 
treasurer, and W. P. Chamberlain of Knoxville, treasurer 
and assistant secretary. At the present time (1899) the of- 
cers are: E. J. Sanford, president; C. H. Eicks of New York, 
secretary and assistant treasurer, and W. P. Chamberlain of 
Knoxville, treasurer and assistant secretary. 

The Poplar Creek Coal and Iron Company was organized 
with a capital stock of $1,000,000. It owns a large tract 
of land, which it leases on royalty to operating companies. 
In 1887 its officers were E. R. Chapman of New York, presi- 
dent, and Thomas H. Heald of Knoxville. secretary. At the 
present time its officers are as follows: E. J. Sanford, presi- 
dent, and W. P. Chamberlain, secretary and treasurer. 

The Coal Creek Coal Company was established in 1868 
by E. C. Camp, M. C. and C. C. Wilcox, E. A. Reed, P. A. 
Mannier and S. S. Tuttle. The company is capitalized at 
$200,000 and operates two mines at Coal Creek, Tenn.. from 
which it derives its name. At first the annual output of the 
company's mines was 30.000 tons of coal, but this has been 
gradually increased until at the present time it is shipping 
in the neighborhood of 200,000 tons per year. Major E. C. 
Camp, who is president of the company, has controlled its 
business since its organization, and H. N. Camp is secretary 
and treasurer of the company. 

The Black Diamond Coal Company was organized in 1873, 
with T. II. Heald. president: E. C. Locke, secretary and 
treasurer, and W. J. Hornsby. W. S. Gears, and E. F. Wiley, 
directors. This company leases its mines from the Coal Creek 
Mining and Manufacturing Company, the mines being lo- 


cated at Coal Creek, Term. They have four mines equipped 
with steam and electric machinery, and have on their prop- 
erty about 25,000,000 tons of workable coal, the annual out- 
put being about 250,000 tons. The present officers are: T. 
H. Heald, president; W. F. Searle. secretary; and directors, 
E. C. Locke. W. J. Hornsby, E. F. Wiley, J. M. Andrews and 
T. H. Heald. The office of the company is at Knoxville. 

The Proctor Coal Company was organized in 1887 by Dr. 
A. Gatliff, Hon. W. F. Finley of Williamsburg, Ky.; W. E. 
Grinstead and others, for the purpose of mining and shipping 
coal. The property of this company is in Whitley county, 
Ky.. adjacent to the town of Jellico, Tenn., and comprises 
seven thousand acres of land, upon which is mined the famous 
Red Ash Jellico coal. The capacity of the mines is 250,000 
tons per year anil the product of the mines is shipped to 
Ohio and most of the Southern states. The Red Ash Jellico 
is a semi-anthracite coal, the hardest of the bituminous coals, 
a high grade domestic fuel and well adapted to storing and 
to the export trade. The general sales office of the company 
is in the Franklin building, Knoxville, and is under the 
management of J. L. Boyd. The other officers of the com- 
pany are Dr. A. Gatliff, president and general manager; J. 
W. Siler, vice-president, and H. F. Finley, secretary and 

The Jellico Coal Alining Company was organized in 1888 
by S. B. Luttrell. E. J. Davies, F. C. Richmond, Charles 
Ducloux, David Groves. D. D. Nicholas, Hywell Davis, Mrs. 
Jennie Williams, E. P. Lyman, John Morgan, R. G. Jones, 
Mary J. Brown, Carrie Brown, J. L. Williams, Francis Philip, 
William Thomas, J. Jenkins. D. Weiley Moore, T. R. 
Thomas, L. B. Welch, John, Stone and W. L. Heath, and was 
officered by E. J. Davis, president; and F. C. Richmond, sec- 
retary and treasurer. Their object was to mine at and ship 
coal from Mountain Ash, Ky., where they purchased 2,500 
acres of land in 1892. The capacity of their mines is from 
60,000 to 100,000 tons per annum. The officers now are 



E. J. Davis, president; Arthur Grove, secretary and treasurer, 
and John L. Wilson, general manager. 

The Tennessee Coal Company was organized January 26. 
1895, and purchased the mining plant and equipment of the 
Tennessee Coal Mining Company. The officers of the new- 
company were S. P. Evans, president; D. B. Bean, vice- 
president and treasurer, and J. J. Reed, secretary, who con- 
tinued in their respective offices until after the death of Mr. 
Evans, and on July 4, 1896, Mr. Bean was elected president; 
A. H. Bowling, vice-president, and J. J. Reed secretary. The 
property consists of about 1.000 acres of land, leased from 
the Coal Creek Mining and Manufacturing Company, and 
the output of the mines now is about 100.000 tons per year. 
It is located at Briceville, Tenn.. where the plant of the com- 
pany is one of the most modern in the state. 

The Hywel-Davis Coal Company was organized in 1894. 
by Hywel Davis, B. Du Pont and Banner Coleman, and was 
incorporated in Kentucky with a capital stock of $50,000. 
The company leased the property of the Main Jellico Moun- 
tain Company, located in Whitley county, Ky., and consisting 
of 2,500 acres of land. From their mines they ship coal to 
most of the Southern states, and to Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
to Chicago, 111., the annual output of the mines being about 
85,000 tons per year. The present officers are T. C. Du Pont, 
president; Hywel Davis, general manager, and R. H. Gayle, 
secretary, treasurer and general sales agent. Their shipping 
point is' Jellico.. Tenn., and office in the Franklin building, 


The East Tennessee Coal Company was organized in 1876, 
by E. J. Davies. Thomas C. Holloway, D. C. Richards, Will- 
iam Jenkins. Job Jones and Moses Jones, the first officers 
being Thomas C. Holloway. president; Job Jones, secretary, 
and E. J. Davies, general manager and treasurer. The object 
of this company was to mine coal and ship it from Carey- 
ville. where they had leased about 4.000 acres of land. In 
1877 the company was incorporated with an authorized cap- 


ital of $15,000. In 1879 they transferred their business to- 
Coal Creek, where they had leased ten acres of good coal 
lands, and in 1882 they removed to Jellico, purchasing there 
about 2,500 acres of land, and there they are now mining 
about 75,000 tons of coal per year, the amount sometimes 
reaching 100,000 tons. Their vein of coal at this place is 
about three feet six inches thick, and the coal is considered 
as good domestic coal as there is on the market. 

The officers of the company at the present time are E. J. 
Davies, president; F. C. Richmond, secretary and W. T. 
Lewis, general manager. 

The Standard Coal and Coke Company was organized in 
1882 by W. W. Woodruff, E. E. McCroskey, Joseph Chand- 
ler, J. F. McClure, and Lewis Tillman. They purchased about 
5.000 acres of land in Campbell county, upon which they 
opened mines, which they operated until 1887. Russell A. 
Clapp at length became connected with this company in 
the capacity of secretary, treasurer and general manager, 
with office at Knoxville and in 1895 became president and 
treasurer of the company, with H. M. Wilson, secretary. On 
January 7, 1899, the property of this company was sold, the 
purchaser being James L. Breese of New York city, and on 
February 10, 1899, the Whistle Creek Coal Company was 
formed and purchased the property from Mr. Breese, who is 
now president of the company, J. G. Butterfield of New York 
city being secretary, and Russell A. Clapp, vice-president and 
treasurer, with his office in the Franklin building. Knoxville. 
The capacity of the company is 1.000 tons per day and its cap- 
ital stock is $100,000. Coal from these mines is shipped all 
over the Southern states from Louisville, Ky., to Atlanta, Ga., 
to all points reached by the Louisville & Nashville and the 
Southern railway. 

In February or March. 1870, a meeting of business men 
of Knoxville was held with the view of organizing a Board 
of Trade, at which a committee was appointed to report to 
a future meeting as to the practicability of organizing a board 


of trade. March i, 1870, this special committee reported 
favorably to the project to a meeting' held in Hoxie's hall, 
at which meeting a constitution and by-laws were adopted in 
which the organization was named the Knoxville board of 
trade, the object to be aimed at being the collection and re- 
cording of local and general statistical information relating to 
manufactures, trade, etc., that might promote the business 
prosperity of the city. About seventy members joined this 
board of trade, and on March 21 effected an organization by 
the election of Perez Dickinson as president; H. S. Chamber- 
lain and S. B. Boyd, vice-presidents, and J. W. Gaut, secre- 
tary, and Henry Ault, treasurer. Among the first objects 
sought by this board of trade was the establishment of a cus- 
tom house in Knoxville, and lower rates for the transporta- 
tion of freight on the railroads. To secure better facilities 
for the bringing in and taking out of all kinds of goods, and 
passenger travel, has constantly been an object with the. 

In October, 1871, there was a reorganization of the board, 
forty-one members determining to be members of the new 
organization. November 2 officers were elected as follows: 
W. W. Woodruff, president; first vice-president, Henry Ault; 
second vice-president. J. W. Gaut; secretary, E. P. Bailey, 
and treasurer, Adrian Terry. September 10, 1872. W. W. 
Woodruff was re-elected president; Adrian Terry, first vice- 
president; Harvey Clark, second vice-president; W. P. Cham- 
berlain, secretary, and Spencer Munson, treasurer. In. 1873 
J. W. Gaut was chosen president; W. O. White, first vice- 
president: R. P. Gettys, second vice-president; T. H. Heald, 
secretary, and A. J. Albers, treasurer. September 15. 1875, 
John S. Van Gilder was chosen president: L. C. Sheppard, 
first vice-president: J. D. Cowan, second vice-president; R. 
P. Gettys, secretary,' and A. J. Albers. treasurer. In 1876 
J. W. Gaut was elected president; W. J. Ramage. secretary, 
and A. J. Albers. treasurer. 

From November 17, 1877. to January 2, 1883. no meet- 


ings were held by the board. On the latter date, a reorgani- 
zation being determined upon, a new constitution was adopted 
and the following officers elected: W. W. Woodruff, presi- 
dent; S. B. Luttrell, first vice-president; M. J. Condon, sec- 
ond vice-president; N. S. Woodward, secretary, and W. P. 
Chamberlain, treasurer. In January, 1884, S. B. Luttrell was 
elected president; W. P. Chamberlain, first vice-president; 
J. Allen Smith, second vice-president; M. J. Condon, secre- 
tary, and Frank A. Moses, treasurer. 

The Chamber of Commerce of Knoxville was incorporated 
April 21, 1887, the incorporators being Adrian Terry, W. R. 
Turtle, M. L. Ross, J. W '. Fletcher, and H. T. Ault. The ob- 
jects for which this incorporation was effected were the same 
as those of similar bodies throughout the country, viz.: 
the promotion of the general material interests of the city, in 
the extension of its commerce, the encouragement of its man- 
ufacturers, the increase of transportation facilities, etc., these 
being within the purview of subsection 3 of section 7 of an act 
of the general assembly of the state of Tennessee, entitled an 
act to provide for the organization of corporations, passed 
March 19, 1875, and approved March 23, 1875, the said sub- 
section in part reading: "The support of boards of trade 
or chambers of commerce and other objects of like 

Since this incorporation the officers of the chamber of com- 
merce have been as follows: Presidents — Adrian Terry, 
1887-1888; M. L. Ross, 1889-189? ; A. J. Albers, 1895-96; 
M. L. Ross, 1897-99. (Note. — Mr. Ross died in May, 1899, 
and W. B. Lockett was chosen as his successor.) 

First Vice-Presidents— W. R. Tuttle. 1887-90; J. C. Lutt- 
rell. 1891-94; T. H. Heald, 1895-96; E. C. Camp, 1897-98; 
B. R. Strong. 1898-99. 

Second Vice-Presidents— .M. L. Ross, 1887- 1889; R. L. 
Teasdale, 1891-94; M. L. Ross, 1895-96; J. B. Pound. 1897: 
W. L. Trent, 1898-99. 

Secretaries — J. W. Fletcher, 1887-89; J. W. S. Frlerson. 


1889-1891; W. J. Ramage, 1892-95; W. H. Kephart. 1896-97; 
H. M. Branson. 1897-99. 

Treasurers — Frank A. Moses, 1889-94; D. B. Bean, 1895- 
96; John Rotach, 1897-99. 

An event long to be remembered in the history of Knox- 
ville was the "Big Fire" of April 8, 1897. in which property 
to the value of $1,152,250 was consumed and at least three 
persons lost their lives. The location of this fire was on the 
east side of Gay street between Commerce and Union streets. 
Not only were several business houses destroyed, but also 
the Hotel Knox, the names of three guests of this hotel 
who lost their lives being S. E. Williams of Springfield, 
Mass.; A. E. Weeks of Rochester, N, Y.; and G. W. 
Roberts of Pulaski, Tenn. Richard Hopkins of St. 
Louis, Mo., died of injuries received in jumping from the 

The business houses destroyed were the Briscoe block, 
wholesale dry goods and notions; Sterchi Bros.' block, whole- 
sale dealers in furniture and carpets; that of A. P. Lahr, re- 
tail dealer in dry goods ; Marble City Hat Company, retail 
hatters; Murphy & Robinson, wholesale hatters; S. B. New- 
man & Co., printers and binders; Cullen & Newman, queens- 
ware; M. L. Ross & Co., wholesale grocers; W. W. Woodruff 
& Co., wholesale hardware, and Arnold, Hennegar, Doyle & 
Co., wholesale boots and shoes. 

Within three days after the fire was extinguished most of 
these houses had secured temporary locations, and their rep- 
resentatives in the South and East were buying new goods, 
and within a year every building that was burned down, with 
one exception, was rebuilt. This exception was the building 
owned by Cullen & Newman and M. L. Ross. The new 
buildings thus erected on the site of the fire were all hand- 
some ones except the McNulty building, which stands on 
the site of the Hotel Knox, in which the fire originated. The 
finest building of the whole is the Phoenix building, designed 
at first as a seven-story structure, but finally carried up only 


six stories. This is the highest building on Gay street, and, 
in fact, in the city of Knoxville. 

For some time after the advent of railroads in the city its 
growth went on slowly. At the time when they appeared the 
principal busniess houses were on Gay street between Main and 
Church, and most of the dwellings were between the same two 
streets and the two creeks. First and Second. Coal has for 
many years been the base of business and industrial civiliza- 
tion, and when the coal mines were opened up by means of the 
railroads reaching to Knoxville then business began to improve 
and to expand ; but when the railroad was carried through the 
Cumberland mountains, and thus through a number of coal 
fields, the business interests of Knoxville, feeling the impulse, 
began to show signs of an activity theretofore unknown to 
them. Manufacturing establishments then in existence became 
enlarged, and new establishments came in, and the area cov- 
ered by the wholesale trade of the city was very greatly ex- 
tended. Not only the whole of East Tennessee was reached, 
but also many of the surrounding states, especially those imme- 
diately adjoining the state of Tennessee, and even many of the 
Western and Southern states farther away. 



First Bank Established 1811 — State Bank Organized — Some of the Pri- 
vate Banks — The First National Bank in 1S64 — Other National 
Banks — Clearing House Association — Building and Loan Associa- 
tions in the Hands of Receivers — Insurance Companies. 

THE history of banking in Knoxville is unusually inter- 
esting. The first bank established in the city was 
popularly known as the Bank of Tennessee, but its 
corporate name, the act of incorporation being passed No- 
vember 20, 181 1. was the- "President. Directors and Company 
of the Bank of the State of Tennessee." This act of in- 
corporation or charter provided that the capital stock 
should not exceed $400,000. the shares to be $50 each. 
Subscriptions were opened January 1. 181 2, in Knoxville, 
and also in the following-named counties: Anderson, 
Blount. Carter, Campbell, Claiborne, Cooke, Bledsoe, 
Grainger, Hawkins, Jefferson, Greene, Rhea, Roane, Sullivan 
and Washington. To each of these counties 440 shares were 
assigned, and the state became a stockholder to the extent of 
$20,000, reserving the right to withdraw at the end of ten 
years. The subscriptions were payable in either silver or gold, 
and were divided into eight annual installments. As soon as 
$25,000 was paid in the stockholders met in Knoxville and 
organized, electing all of the officers, except one director, who 
was appointed by the governor to look after the interests of the 

At this first election of officers Hugh L. White was chosen 
president, and Luke Lea, cashier. The first board of directors 
was composed of the following-named gentlemen : John 
Crozier, James Park, David Campbell, Calvin Morgan, John 
Hillsman, Robert King and James Dardis. The bank building 



stood on the northwest corner of Gay and Main streets, and 
there were branches of this bank in Clarksville, Jonesboro and 
Columbia. The smallest denomination of note from the estab- 
lishment of the bank until 1815 was $5. but after that date 
bills of $1 could be issued. The charter of this bank extended 
for thirty years, but it continued in existence only until 1828. 
when it began to close up its affairs, which process continued 
for three years. 

The next bank established in Knoxville was a branch of a 
bank established by an act of the legislature passed July 26, 
1820. the act having been passed "to establish a bank of the 
State of Tennessee for the purpose of relieving the distresses 
of the community and improving the revenues of the state." 
The capital of this state bank was fixed at $1,000,000, in bills 
payable to order or bearer, to be issued on the credit and secur- 
ity of the borrower, the whole to be warranted by the state on 
the proceeds of the sales of public lands. To the branch of this 
bank established at Knoxville four-tenths of the capital stock 
was allowed, and there was an agency established in each 
county in the state which was formed prior to 181 9. The prin- 
cipal reason for the establishment of this bank was the financial 
panic which occurred about that time, the first felt in the state, 
and the legislature was convened in extra session by Gov. 
McMinn for the purpose of providing some measure of relief. 
The president and the ten directors of this bank were elected 
by the legislature on joint ballot, and were instructed to put the 
bank into operation by October 15 of that year. They were 
to issue $500,000 in bills of denominations not less than $5 nor 
greater than $100. and afterward provision was made for the 
issuance of fractional notes to the amount of $75,000. Accord- 
ing to the charter of this bank either the bank at Nashville or 
the bank at Knoxville, or both, together with their branches, 
could consolidate and incorporate themselves with the State 
bank, but this consolidation was never effected, the two banks 
mentioned being satisfied to remain independent of the State 


This State bank began business on the day fixed by the 
statute, and for a time was successful : but as it had so many 
agencies scattered throughout the State large amounts were lost 
through the defalcations of the county agents. Besides all 
this, the cashier of the main bank in Xashville in 1832 was 
found to have permitted overdrafts to friends and others to the 
extent of $80,000, the greater part of this being also lost, and 
on account of these various and extensive losses the governor 
of the state, William Carroll, in his message to the legislature 
in 1833. advised the closing of the bank, and in conformity 
with this recommendation the legislature at that session passed 
an act abolishing the bank and providing that its funds should 
be deposited in the Union bank, which had then recently been 
incorporated with a capital of $3,000,000. but which had no 
branch in Knoxville. Thus ended the second financial institu- 
tion established in Knoxville. It was located at the corner of 
Crozier and Cumberland streets. James Campliell, or "Scotch 
Jimmy." as he was familiarly called, was its cashier. Its busi- 
ness was at all times quite limited. 

Between 1850 and i860 there was great activity in Knox- 
ville in all departments of commercial and financial enterprise. 
The Bank of East Tennessee was chartered, this charter being 
obtained by Cowan & Dickinson, and sold by them to a Mr. 
Fiske of New Orleans. William M. Churchwell became the 
president of this bank in 1852, and under his management a 
system of wild speculation and over-issues was indulged in, and 
the bank ceased to exist in 1856. Samuel Morrow was cashier 
of this bank, and he, in connection with John Baxter, after- 
ward established the Exchange and Deposit bank. 

The Bank of Knoxville was organized in 1854 by John L. 
Moses, Joseph H. Walker and A. L. Maxwell. They in 1855 
sold it to Hugh A. M. White and George M. White, who con- 
tinued its business until near the beginning of the war. when 
they wound up its affairs. 

The Farmers' bank was established in 1854 by Hugh L. Mc- 
Clung, who sold it to Shepherd & Wireless of Nashville. They 


continued it for a few years and then consolidated it with the 
Ocoee bank of Cleveland, Term., which in 1859 was purchased 
by John R., William A., George M., Joseph and Benjamin 
Branner, who removed it to Knoxville. Here they opened it 
in the building afterward occupied by the People's bank. Of 
the Farmers' bank John R. Branner was president and Joseph 
R. Mitchell, cashier. It continued in business until the break- 
ing out of the war, and even afterward, but was wound up in 
the years immediately following. 

The People's bank was established in 1865 by C. M. Mc- 
Ghee, John R. Branner, Thomas H. Calloway and Joseph R. 
Mitchell, the firm name under which the business was carried 
on being J. R. Mitchell & Co. In May, 1866, this bank was 
incorporated with a capital stock of $35,000, and with officers 
as follows : C. M. McGhee, president, and Joseph R. Mitchell, 
cashier. Later Mr. Mitchell became president and F. A. 
Moses, cashier. This bank had a prosperous career for some 
years, but at length, through misfortunes, its business had to 
be discontinued, and its affairs were wound up in 1892. 

The First National bank was established in 1864, the prin- 
cipal movers in this enterprise being W. T. Perkins and Mr. 
Patterson of Cincinnati, and Perez Dickinson, Horace 
Maynard, William Heiskell andWilliamG. Brownlow of Knox- 
ville. It was organized by the election of Mr. Dickinson, presi- 
dent; Mr. Perkins, vice-president, and Mr. Patterson, cashier. 
The capital was $50,000, and it l>egan business in the building 
which had been used by the old Bank of Tennessee, and which 
is now occupied by the Mechanics' National bank. Its business 
was always well managed, and its credit stood high all over 
the United States. One incident in connection with the history 
of this bank is especially worthy of note, that being the pay- 
ment to the stockholders of their dividends in gold, while Mr. 
Dickinson was president. R. R. Swepson, who came to 
Knoxville from North Carolina, became president of this bank 
in 1868, succeeding Mr. Dickinson, and remained president 
during the remainder of the period of the bank's existence. 


Mr. Patterson was succeeded as cashier by Rufus M. McClung, 
who continued in that position until the affairs of the bank 
were closed in 1872. it being in a certain measure then suc- 
ceeded by the East Tennessee National bank. 

The East Tennessee National bank was organized in July, 

1872, and authorized to transact business under the National 
Banking law by John J. Knox, Comptroller of the Currency, 
in September following. The first board of directors was com- 
posed of the following gentlemen : Joseph R. Anderson, R. 
Love, Joseph H. Earnest. F. W. Taylor, William Brazelton, 
Joseph Jaques, .Richard C. Jackson, J. A. Rayl, Samuel Mc~ 
Kinney, F. H. McClung, J. W. Lillard. S. B. Boyd and J. E. 
Raht. The first officers elected were R. C. Jackson, president ; 
F. H. McClung, vice-president ; and William B. French, cash- 
ier. The bank began business in January, 1873, in the old First 
National Bank building, and was in a certain sense the suc- 
cessor of that bank, although its management was composed of 
entirely different men. Remaining in that building until 1885, 
it then removed to its present location at the southwest corner 
of Gay and Union streets. The presidents of this bank, suc- 
ceeding Mr. Jackson, have been Joseph Jaques, from January, 
1879, until December zy. 1882, R. S. Payne, until June 1, 
1892; B. R. Strong, until June 1, 1894; and F. L. Fisher, from 
that date until the present time. The vice-presidents have 
been, besides Mr. McClung, W. W. Woodruff, from January, 
1882, until 1884: R. S. Payne, January, 1884, to April. 1884; 
E. J. Sanford, April. 1884, to the present time. The cashiers, 
in addition to Mr. French, have been J. W. Lillard, June 18, 

1873, to February 8, 1878; R. C. Jackson, from 1878 to 1883; 
J. L. Glover, from March, 1883, to August. 1883 : F. L. Fisher, 
August. 1883, to June 1, 1894, and S. V. Carter, June 1, 1894, 
to the present time. The capital of this bank is $175,000: its 
surplus, $200,000; deposits, $1,000,000; and loans and dis- 
counts, $900,000. The directors o'f this bank elected for the 
year 1899 are as follows: E. J. Sanford, W. W. Woodruff, 
Daniel Briscoe, C. M. McClung, John McCoy, Adrian Terry, 


H. S. Harris, Peter Kern, F. L. Fisher, C. M. McGhee and C. 
R. Love. 

The Merchants' bank began business in July. 1881, under a 
charter granted to a corporation in 1869, which was never used 
and which this bank purchased. The officers elected were as 
follows : John S. Van Gilder, president ; H. T. Ault, cashier, 
and Albert Van Gilder, assistant cashier, each of whom still 
retains his position. The paid-up capital of the bank is $100,- 
000, and the business conducted is of a conservative character 
and at the same time as liberal as the rules of good banking 
will permit. In connection with the business of this bank are 
three striking features, viz. : It has never paid interest on de- 
posits, has never re-discounted any paper, and has never bor- 
rowed any money. The bank is located at No. 516 Gay street, 

The Mechanics' National bank was organized in 1882 with 
Thomas O'Conner, president; Sam House, cashier, and F. W. 
Armstrong, assistant cashier. It began business in the build- 
ing then recently vacated by the East Tennessee National bank. 
September 15, 1882, E. J. Sanford was elected vice-president. 
The directors at this time were Thomas O'Conner, S. B. Lut- 
trell, A. J. Albers. R. N. Hood, S. P. Evans. J. T. McTeer, 
M. L. Ross, B. R. Strong. J. \Y. Lillard. James M. Meek and 
Frank McNulty. The president, Thomas O'Conner, \vas 
killed October 19. 1882, and for a short time E. J. Sanford 
acted as president, being elected to that position October 2$ 
and serving until 1883, when S. B. Luttrell became presi- 
dent, and has filled the office ever since. M. L. Ross became 
vice-president in 1883. and still remained in office until his 
death, May 30, 1899. Sam House was cashier until December 
12. 1889, being then succeeded by the present cashier, E. G. 
Oates. W. B. Sullivan is assistant cashier. The capital of this 
bank is $100,000, the surplus $1 10,000. the deposits $500,000, 
and the loans and discounts $425,000. The bank is located at 
No. 612 Gay street, in the building formerly occupied by the 
old Bank of Tennessee and later by the East Tennessee Na- 


tional bank. During the war this building was occupied as an 
office by the provost marshal. 

The Knoxville Banking Company was incorporated March 
4, 1887, the incorporators being J. W. Hope, T. H. Heald, H. 
W. Lynn, R. Knaffle and Peter Kern. The object of the in- 
corporators was the organization of a bank, and they were in- 
vested with the authority to couple with a general banking 
business a safe deposit trust company, by virtue of an act of the 
legislature passed March 19, 1875, and approved March 23, 
1875, entitled an act to provide for the organization of corpora- 
tions, and an act of the general assembly passed March 23, 
1883, and approved March 28, 1883, entitled an act to amend 
an act entitled an act to provide for the organization of cor- 
porations, passed March 19, 1875. The organization of this 
bank was effected in January. 1888, the capital at the time 
being $25,000, and was opened for business in the February 
following. At the expiration of the first year of the bank's 
existence the capital was increased to $50,000, and in 1892 it 
had a surplus of $15,000. At the present time the capital is 
$50,000, the surplus and undivided profits $15,000. deposits 
$135,000, and loans and discounts $133,000. The officers of 
this company elected January 14, 1899, are as follows: W. 
H. Gass, president; J. W. Hope, vice-president; H. M. John- 
ston, cashier, and W. O. Whittle, assistant cashier. The direc- 
tors are : C. R. McCormick, R. Knaffle, J. W. Hope. John W. 
Green, J. G. Hellner. H. M. Johnston and W. H. Gass. 

This bank receives deposits of one dollar or more in its sav- 
ings department, on which interest at the rate of three per cent 
per annum is allowed on sums not withdrawn, the interest 
being credited and becoming part of the principal at the end of 
each June and December. 

Another feature of the business of this bank is this: In 
the savings department it makes loans on real estate at six per 
cent per annum, thus enabling those who desire to borrow 
small sums on good real estate security to do so, something 
which they have not heretofore been able to do. 


The City National bank was chartered in 1888, the first 
board of directors being M. P. Jarnagin, James G. Rose, J. P. 
Haynes, John E. Chapman, J. T. Shields, Jr., James A. Ander- 
son, R. F. Gaut, A. N. Strong and S. H. George. On January 
1 j, 1888, an organization was effected with the following re- 
sult: M. P. Jarnagin, president; James G. Rose, vice-presi- 
dent ; and W. S. Shields, cashier. W. S. Shields became presi- 
dent in 1 89 1, and still remains in that position. J. P. Haynes 
became vice-president in 1892. Edward Henegar became 
cashier in January. 1891, and was succeeded by the present 
cashier, William T. Marfiekl, in January, 1897. The bank 
began business with a capital of $100,000, paying no dividends 
for five years, at the end of which period the surplus of $100,- 
000 was added to the capital, making it what it is at present, 
$200,000. Since that time fair dividends have been paid. The 
bank has always been a safe and conservative institution, has 
now a surplus of $30,000, carries deposits to the amount of 
$1,200,000, and is one of the strongest of the financial institu- 
tions of Knoxville. Its present board of directors is as follows : 
William S. Shields, S. H. George, D. K. Young, Edward 
Henegar, J. P. Haynes, J. T. Shields. Jr., John E. Chapman, 
J. A. Anderson and J. P. Powers The officers are as 
follows : William S. Shields, president ; J. P. Haynes, vice- 
president, and William T. Marfield, cashier. 

The Holston Banking and Trust Company was chartered 
January 17, 1890. by H. M. Aiken, R. M. Rhea, Anton Loben- 
stein, James L. Cooley and S. H. McNutt for the purpose of 
organizing and operating a bank in Knoxville. The capital 
was paid in instalments, the intention being that when $100,- 
000 had been paid in the organization should be converted into 
a national bank. On October 26, 1891, this amount of capital 
had been paid and considerably more, the surplus being re- 
turned to the subscribers, and the Holston National bank was 
then organized with H. M. Aiken, president ; H. S. Mizner, 
vice-president ; and W. H. Geers, cashier. Mr. Aiken served 
as president until August 8, 1893, the vice-president then act- 


ing as president until January 9. 1894. when he was elected 
president, serving in that capacity until January 12, 1897, 
when Hu. L. McClung was elected and still remains in office. 
When Mr. Mizner was elected president. Jackson Smith be- 
came vice-president, and served until Mr. McClung was elected 
president, when he was succeeded by S. H. McNutt, who still 
fills the office of vice-president. Mr. Geers was cashier until 
April 8, 1892. and then after an interim of about six weeks 
Joseph P. Gaut was elected cashier on June 1. 1892. and still 
remains in office. This bank is located at No. 524 Gay street. 
Its capital remains at $100,000. its surplus is $20,000, deposits 
$250,000. and loans and discounts of $260,000. The present 
lx>ard of directors consists of Hu. L. McClung. John J. Craig, 
S. H. McNutt, James H. Cowan, A. D. Scruggs. D. A. Rosen- 
thal. H. S. Mizner, John M. Allen and Jesse L. Rogers. 

The Knox County Bank and Trust Company was incor- 
porated August 25. 1890. the incorporators being J. C. Karnes, 
W. C. Karnes, C. Rutherford, J. E. Martin and J. C. Cawood, 
the purpose of the incorporation being the organization of a 
bank in the city of Knoxville. which was effected September 
11, 1890. with A. Chavennes. president: C. Rutherford, vice- 
president ; and Charles Karns. cashier. The bank opened for 
business October 7. 1890. in the Patterson block, at the junc- 
tion of Central avenue and Broad street, remaining there until 
the expiration of a three years' lease, and then removed to its 
present location. No. 318 North Gay street. The only changes 
in the officers of this bank have been that James C. Karns be- 
came president in 1892 and E. H. De Pue vice-president in 
1895. the cashier remaining the same. The capital of the bank 
at the beginning was $20,000. and at the present time it is 
$40,000 ; the deposits amount to $40,000 and the loans and dis- 
counts to $60,000. 

The Third National bank was organized early in 1887 with 
the following officers: Gen. R. N. Hood, president: R. P. 
Gettys. vice-president : John A. McKeldin. cashier, and H. B. 
Branner. assistant cashier. It opened for business on Wednes- 


day, July 6, 1887, in a building erected by Frank McNulty and 
Col. C. M. McGhee, on the east side of Gay street nearly oppo- 
site its present location. This first building was designed by 
Bauman Bros., architects, and the interior was furnished by 
Andrews & Co. of Chicago. It was destroyed by the great fire 
of April, 1897, the bank, however, having in the meantime 
erected for its own use the building now occupied on the west 
side of Gay street. No. 413, at a cost of $30,000. This also is 
a fine building, two> stories high, though all in one story in the 
interior, and has marble counters, marble wainscoting, etc., 
and taken all in all is one of the finest buildings erected for 
banking purposes in the Southern states. 

Gen. Hood served as president until January 1, 1889, when 
he resigned and was succeeded by F. W. Armstrong, Gen. 
Hood taking the vice-presidency, and F. W. Armstrong being 
also cashier. This arrangement lasted until September 1, 
1889, when Gen. Hood again became president; H. B. Carhart, 
vice-president ; H. B. Branner, cashier, and F. W. Armstrong, 
assistant cashier. Upon the death of Gen. Hood, in February, 
1892, H. B. Carhart became president; H. B. Branner, vice- 
president; and F. W. Armstrong, cashier. In January, 1893, 
H. B. Branner became president ; E. E. McMillan, vice-presi- 
dent, and F. W. Armstrong, cashier, which arrangement con- 
tinued until the death of Mr. Armstrong in March. 1896, and 
in January. 1898, C. M. Cooley became cashier, the officers re- 
maining as thus given. 

The capital stock of this bank is $200,000; circulation, 
$45,000; surplus, $45,000; deposits, $609,000; and loans and 
discounts, $595,000. 

The directors of this bank for the year 1899 are as follows: 
D. A. Mims, E. E. McMillan, J. Van Deventer, H. B. Lindsay, 
B. L. Smith, E. C. Camp, J. L~ Thomas. W. R. Tuttle. Charles 
T. Cates, Jr., William S. Mead, W. P. Hood and Joseph 

The Farmers and Traders' Bank, Safe Deposit and Trust 
Company was chartered March 6, 1891, by C. R. Love, George 


M. Burdett, T. W. Keller. James F. Beals. M. A. M. Arm- 
strong, C. W. Steele, J. L. Maxwell, Jr., and D. R. Samuel. 
In 1895 the officers of this bank were C. R. Love, president ; D. 
R. Samuel, vice-president; and J. L. Maxwell. Jr., cashier. 
The Associated Banking and Trust Company was chartered 
August 3, 1892, by W. H. Geers, George W. McCally, William 
P. Hoskins, Tully R. Cornick and Charles Dawes, for the pur- 
pose of conducting a banking business in Knoxville. This lat- 
ter bank was located at No. 313 Union street. By a consoli- 
dation of these two banks, the Union bank was organized No- 
vember 1. 1895. the first officers of this bank being C. R. Love, 
president ; W. H. Geers. vice-president : J. L. Maxwell. Jr., 
cashier, and the capital of the institution was $92,450. At the 
election held in October, 1896. W. L. Welcker was made presi- 
dent ; C. R. Love, vice-president; W. H. Geers, cashier, and at 
the election in October, 1897, the only change made was in the 
office of vice-president. W. P. Flenniken being elected to that 
office. In October, 1898, W. H. Geers was elected president; 
Henry Hudson, vice-president, and Oscar M. Tate, cashier, 
being promoted from the position of assistant cashier and 
teller. The Union bank is located at No. 313 Wall street, and 
pays interest on time deposits. 

The Market bank was organized in 1S93. with George W. 
Albers, president ; T. B. Cox, vice-president, and W. J. Carty, 
cashier. The authorized capital was $50,000, at which it still 
remains. The first directors were George W. Albers, T. B. 
Cox. W. J. Carty. L. W. Davis. John B. Carty. John W. How- 
ell and Thomas L. Carty. This bank was located at No. 313 
Union street. 

The Clearing House Association of Knoxville was organ- 
ized August 7, 1895, with Henry T. Ault, president; William 
S. Shields, vice-president, and E. G. Oates, cashier. The exec- 
utive committee was composed of H. B. Branner, Frank L. 
Fisher and E. G. Oates. The business of the association is 
transacted at eleven o'clock, a. m., and its effect has been to aid 
in establishing Knoxville in the eyes of the country as a mone- 


tary center. For the first year of the existence of the clearing 
house the clearings amounted to $21,421,570.01 ; for the sec- 
ond year, $21,612,543.19, and for the third year, $24,887,- 
786.91, the year ending August 31. 

The Mechanics' Association was organized in 1870 for the 
benefit of the mechanics of the city, who were then compara- 
tively few in numbers. In May, 1871, they gave an industrial 
exhibition lasting several days, which attracted considerable 
attention. On the 20th of that month Mr. W. H. Browning, 
architect of the Government building then being erected in 
Knuxville, delivered an address to the association, in which he 
ably presented to the members the benefits of co-operative 
building associations, and urged that as the mechanics were the 
bone and sinew of the country it was only proper that they 
should take their proper place in society, which they could best 
do through providing themselves with homes, and thus be in- 
dependent of landlords. Associations of the kind had been 
successful in England and in the Northern states for years, he 
said, and there could be no reason why they should not succeed 
in the South. The association fixed the price of shares of stock 
and allowed their members to take out as many shares as they 
could pay for, the payments being made monthly. When $500 
or $1,000 had been accumulated the money was sold at auction 
to the highest bidder, who would sometimes pay as high as 
twenty-five per cent for the money, this twenty-five per cent 
being called the premium, and being altogether distinct from 
the interest the borrower would pay- The premium was re- 
tained out of the sum for which the borrower gave bis note, 
and formed a nucleus for a second loan. In this way the asso- 
ciation sometimes made as high as twenty-five per cent, and 
even fifty per cent, if money was greatly in demand, and the 
borrower was enabled to build a house, and at the same time at 
a less cost to him than the payment of ordinary rents. Such 
was the argument used by Mr. Browning in 187 1. 

Influenced by such considerations as these thus set forth 
with such clearness and ability by Mr. Browning, a building 


and loan association, named the Knoxville Building and Loan 
Association, was organized in 1872, with W. P. Washburn, 
president, and John M. Brooks, secretary. After some time 
C. Aebli became treasurer, serving for a number of years, and 
J. N. Benziger was secretary for some years. 

This association was successful and had a long career, but 
its business is now in process of liquidation and in the hands of 
Peter Staub. 

The Savings, Building and Loan Association was the next 
organized, April 23, 1880, and was like the Knoxville, a suc- 
cessful institution. In 1890 its officers were W. W. Woodruff, 
president ; J. W. Fletcher, first vice-president ; Peter Kern, sec- 
ond vice-president; H. M. Wilson, secretary: and James E. 
Hickman, treasurer. Ten series had then been paid in full, and 
more than five hundred houses built in Knoxville by money 
borrowed of this association. The business of this association 
is now in the hands of A. J. Douglas, receiver. 

The Covenant Building and Loan Association began busi- 
ness in December, 1889, with an authorized capital of $25,000,- 
000. The shares of stock were $100, and during the first three 
years of its existence it sold to the people of Knoxville more 
than $500,000 worth of its stock. It was managed solely by 
Odd Fellows, but its membership was not limited to them. It 
loaned to the full face value of the stock, at a premium of six 
per cent payable monthly. M. P. Hammack was general man- 
ager, and W. Boright, manager of the local department. Its 
affairs are now in the hands of William M. Ashmore and C. R. 
Mclhvaine, receivers. 

The Southern Building and Loan Association was organ- 
ized in Knoxville. January 15, 1889, its charter members being 
S. B. Luttrell, M. L. Ross, W. H. Collett, S. M. Johnson and 
Charles Dawes. On October 3 1 of that year it had outstanding 
35,000 shares of stock, each share being $100, and its assets 
amounted then to $176,020.73. Of this amount $160,624 was 
in first mortgages on real estate. The association had 188 
branches and was selling new stock at the rate of 6,000 shares 


per month. Its operations extended from Philadelphia, where 
was located its eastern department, to San Antonio, Texas, 
and from Louisville, Ky.. to Savannah, Ga. It was buying or 
building for its members an average of forty houses per month, 
and within the first ten months of its existence it had built 
thirty houses for its members in Knoxville, and more than 
4,000 shares of its stock were held in this city. The profits on 
its loans had been thirty per cent per annum. S. B. Luttrell 
was president; Charles Dawes, vice-president; W. H. Collett. 
secretary ; M. L. Ross, treasurer, and S. M. Johnson, general 
manager. In Jul}-, 1890, it had $30,000 income per month and 
$5,000,000 of its stock subscribed. This was the largest asso- 
ciation of the kind in the Southern states, and one of the larg- 
est in the entire country. The largest monthly income this 
company ever had was $92,000. Its affairs are now in the 
hands of D. A. Carpenter, receiver. 

The Citizen's Building and Loan Association began business 
with an authorized capital of $50,000,000 at 3 1 1 Wall street. 
Its securities were held by the State National bank, the City 
National bank and the Third National bank. Like all the other 
associations of this kind it enjoyed a prosperous career until 
the decision of the supreme court of the state rendered in 1896. 
which was to the effect that premiums on loans, such as were 
paid by borrowers from building and loan associations, were 
usurious and therefore contrary to the laws of the state. Its 
affairs are now in the hands of A. Y. Burrows, receiver. 

Mechanics' Building and Loan Association was organized 
March 13, 1886, those immediately interested in the organiza- 
tion being R. A. Kellar, C. R. Love. J. W. Caldwell. Frank A. 
Moses. \Y. K. Mitchell. W. H. Simmonds and William Epps. 
This association is not now in existence. 

The Equitable Building and Loan Association was organ- 
ized February 15, 1888. by Frank A. Moses, Petter Ritter, 
Tully R. Cornick, Jr.. John M. Brooks and W. F. Sawyer. 
This association is now out of existence. 

The Perpetual Building and Loan Association was organ- 


ized in June. 1889. But when it realized that there was a law 
in the state imposing double taxation on associations of this 
kind it concluded to disband and went out of existence July 18, 

The Home Building and Loan Association was organized in 
1889. It was strictly a home institution. Shares in this ass 
ciation were Si 00. and the payments sixty cents per month. 
The first officers were W. H. Simmonds. president : J. H. Scar- 
borough, vice-president : E. H. Scharringhaus. secretary, and 
the Central Savings bank, treasurer. The affairs of this com- 
pany have entirely wound up. which is also the case with the 
Franklin Savings and Loan Company. 

The Star Savings and Loan Company was established in 
1889 and is now in the hands of William S. Shields, receiver. 

The above were all practically home associations, though 
some of them had. as has been seen, branches in other cities 
and towns. Besides them there were branches of building and 
loan associations in Knoxville. the headquarters of which were 
in other cities, as for example the Southern Home Building 
and Loan Association of Atlanta. Ga.. on January 15. 1890. 
opened a branch in Knoxville. of which Gaut & Phinney were 
the managers. But perhaps the most important association 
of the kind that opened a branch in Knoxville was the Inter- 
state Building and Loan Association of Bloomfield, 111., with 
a maximum capital of $20,000,000, which began operations 
here in October. 1889. On October 14 a meeting of local 
stockholders was held at the Mechanics' bank, at which a board 
of directors was elected, consisting of W. H. Simmonds. W. 
E. Gibbins. Sam House. S. B. Boyd. E. M. Kennedy. W. W. 
Lee. E. Dean Dow. T. L. Williams and William Rule. W. H. 
Simmonds was elected president: \\ . E. Gibbins. vice-presi- 
dent: Sam House, treasurer, and T. L. Williams, secretary. 
This association claimed to present advantages to its members 
above any others in operation here, that if a person borrowed 
money on say ten shares of stock he received Si, 000, instead of 
Si. 000 less the premium he gave, the payments being $10.83 


per month for 96 months, until the stock matured. The com- 
pany had no expense fund which required one-sixth of the 
monthly dues to keep intact. The following illustration was 
given to the public in order to show the working of this com- 
pany's plan : 

96 months' dues at S6 per month, amounted to. . . . $576.00 
90 months' interest at 6 per cent. $5 per month. 

amounted to 450.00 

90 months' premium at 7 per cent. $5.83 per month. 

amounted to 524. 70 

Si. 5 50. 70 
Example for Borrower. 

Face value of ten shares at maturity Si. 000. 00 

96 payments at $6 per month 576.00 

Xet profit $424.00 

Thus it will be seen that the premium was paid back 
monthly, instead of being all taken out at the beginning, as was 
the custom in most of the other building and loan associations. 
This company, however, did not remain in business long in 
Knoxville. in 1892 transferring its interests to the Citizens' 
Building and Loan Association. 

Building and loan associations had been in successful oper- 
ation in Knoxville. as in other cities of the state, for several 
years before any adverse court decisions were obtained against 
them. The first came in 1887. by the chancery court in Nash- 
ville, which attracted much attention here, as it was seen that 
if it should be carried to and sustained by the supreme court 
of the state it would sound the death knell of such associations 
in the state of Tennessee. This decision was to the effect 
that the premium paid for the loan, which was altogether sep- 
arate and distinct from the interest paid by the borrower, was 
largely in excess of six per cent, the legal rate of interest, and 
that the device of accepting subscriptions to shares of stock 
in such associations and making payment in advance was a 


mere resort to the avoiding of usury laws. "That therefore 
it is considered by the court that the complainants recover of 
defendants all sums paid defendants in their two transactions 
above set out, as dues, principal and interest, in excess of 6 
per cent per annum, for the amounts actually borrowed and 
for the time the loan ran." 

At the time this decision was rendered there had been erected 
several hundred houses in Knoxville by means of money ad- 
vanced by these associations and there were then several in 
course of construction. In defense of the association it was said 
that they were better than anything ever before devised to aid 
the poor man to acquire a home of his own, for not only did it 
accomplish this, but it at the same time developed in him a 
habit of saving a small sum each month, and after his house 
was paid for he would be likely to continue saving his money 
for future contingencies. 

But the climax came in 1896, in connection with a suit by 
Mrs. Jane McCauley against the Workingmen's Building and 
Loan association, the original bill being filed to enjoin the 
sale of a house and lot under a trust deed executed by the com- 
plainant to her husband to secure a debt to the building and 
loan association. The chancellor refused the injunction and 
the property was sold to the City National Bank, which held 
a second mortgage, subordinate to that of the association. The 
case then went to the court of chancery appeals, which reversed 
the holding of the chancellor and granted the complainant 
the relief asked for. The defendants then appealed to the Su- 
preme Court of the state, which sustained the court of chancery 
appeals. Quoting from the by-laws of the Workingmen's 
Building and Loan Association the supreme court said : 

"The funds of the association as they accumulate in the 
treasury shall be offered and loaned by the board of directors 
to the best use and application among the stockholders entitled 
to borrow the same. The number of shares shall be regulated 
by the board of directors. * * * No money shall be 
loaned at a greater premium than thirty per cent nor less than 


twenty-nine and seven-eighths per cent. The successful appli- 
cant at the time of receiving the amount loaned shall pay a 
premium of thirty per cent on the amount bid for and shall 
secure the repayment of said loan with legal interest by satis- 
factory bond or mortgage upon real estate and interest on all 
loans taken by stockholders, and shall pay from the time of 
bidding for the same." 

The bank paid to the association for the lot $1,258. 

The question in this case was as to whether the premium 
was a fixed premium, and if so whether it made the contract 
unlawful. The court of chancery appeals had held that the 
margin of one-eighth of one per cent between the lowest and 
highest rate was a mere device to avoid trouble that might 
arise out of an apparently fixed premium, and was too small to 
be considered except as an attempt at an evasion of the usury 

The supreme court therefore held that the by-laws of the 
association did fix a premium on all loans. The opinion of 
the court was that competition in bidding for loans was an 
essential feature of the management of the business of a 
building and loan association and that this feature was not 
present in the working of the Workingmen's Building and 
Loan Association. 

When the effect of this decision by the supreme court became 
fully known and realized there quickly sprang up a general 
desire on the part of the patrons of building and loan asso- 
ciations to repudiate all excessive forms of interest, and a 
number of bills looking to that end were filed in the chancery 
court. Association after association gradually decided to wind 
up its affairs, each one. however, protecting its interests as 
well as it could against suits by individual stockholders, each 
one who had borrowed money seeming to desire to be 
the first to secure his own individual interests. The Work- 
ingmen's Building and Loan Association held a meeting Janu- 
ary 8, 1897, at which it was unanimously decided by the hoard 
of directors that under the then recent decision of the supreme 


court it was impossible longer to transact a profitable busi- 
ness, and all the assets of the association were turned over to 
the secretary with instructions to wind up its affairs, a bill was 
filed in chancery court under which these instructions could 
be carried out. and an injunction secured preventing all suits 
against the association, thus compelling all parties to come in 
by petition, and be placed on an equal footing. The affairs of 
the Workingmen's Building and Loan Association are in the 
hands of Charles M. Funck, receiver. 

The Home Building Association was chartered March 17, 
1897, with J. E. Willard, president. This association was 
designed to succeed the Workingmen's Building and Loan 
Association, and offered to accept the stock of that association. 
The design in establishing this association was that it should 
be strictly a home or local concern, and small salaries were to 
be paid its officers and the by-laws were so arranged as to 
prevent any difficulty with regard to invalidity or usury. Mr. 
Willard remained president one year and then was succeeded 
by Thomas Price. But it appeared that the people had by this 
time lost confidence in building associations, the business was 
not profitable, and the association settled up all of its accounts 
toward the latter part of the year 1898. 

The Knoxville Fire Insurance Company was organized in 
1879 with a capital of $100,000. On January 1, 1886, it had a 
surplus of $26,993.10 and a reserve fund of $26,674.98. It 
carried on a fire insurance business successfully for about fif- 
teen years and throughout the state of Tennessee, having 
agents in the principal financial centers, and its managers being 
among the most prominent and successful business men of the 
city of Knoxville. Cpon going out of business it reinsured 
its patrons in strong Eastern companies. 

The Protection Fire Insurance Company was incorporated 
in 1885, and was under the same management as the Knox- 
ville Fire Insurance Company. In 1887 its assets amounted 
to $108,093.84, and it continued in business until about 1895, 
when its business was transferred to Eastern companies. 


The East Tennessee Insurance Company was incorporated 
March 5. 1885, the incorporators being Columbus Powell, 
Matthew McClung, E. S. Sheppard, C. E. Lucky and R. M. 
Rhea. Its capital stock was $150,000 and in 1887 it had a 
surplus of $25,000. This company has also gone out of 

The Island Home Insurance Company was organized in 
1887. with the same officers and directors as the East Tennes- 
see Insurance Company. Its capital stock was $200,000, and 
it remained in business a few years, when, like the other com- 
panies mentioned above, it wound up its affairs and went out 
of business, the reason for this course in each case being the 
same, that larger companies in the Northern and Eastern 
states, having more capital, could secure a large proportion of 
the patronage that the Knoxville companies naturally sought 
and depended upon. 

The Republic Life Insurance Company of East Tennessee 
was organized in the rooms of the board of trade, January 21, 
1872. The board of directors elected at first was as follows: 
Col. John Baxter, F. H. McClung. C. W. Coffin, George W. 
Ross, Joseph Jacques. E. J. Sanford, O. P. Temple, R. C. 
Jackson. J. W. Gaut, Rev. F. Esperandieu, George H. Smith. 
David Richards, H. D. Evans, J. B. Hoxsie, Dr. Josiah Curtis, 
and J. A. Rayl, all of Knoxville, and a few gentlemen of other 
parts of East Tennessee. R. C. Jackson was elected president ; 
Dr. Josiah Curtis, vice-president; Spencer Munson, secretary; 
E. P. Bailey, treasurer, and J. M. Thornburgh, attorney. A 
finance committee, an executive committee and a medical com- 
mittee were also appointed, and Munson and Bailey were made 
managers for East Tennessee. 

The plan of this company as announced to the public was to 
invest the funds received in the ordinary course of business 
and its surplus premiums in real estate securities at reasonable 
rates, thereby retaining the money invested in life insurance 
at home, instead of permitting it to go to Eastern or Northern 
states, which had previously l>een the case. It was thought 


that this company would be unusually welcome to the people 
of the Southern states. In order to encourage those who de- 
sired to carry life insurance the stockholders of this company, 
on February 28, 1872. pledged themselves to take at least 
$100,000 in life insurance. 

This company was in fact a Chicago company, the local or- 
ganization being merely a branch established by J. E. Jacobs, 
who was the Knoxville agent. Some of the gentlemen named 
above took insurance in the company, paying premiums that 
were very high, a $5,000 policy carrying with it a premium of 
$111.55. After some years the main company went into the 
hands of a receiver, Samuel D. Ward of Chicago, who in 1884 
notified policy holders that they must prove their claims within 
one year from August 8. 1884, or be barred from sharing in 
the distribution of the assets. The company therefore ceased 
to exist about 1885. 



Charles McClung, the Pioneer Road Builder — Stage-Coach Lines — 
Progress in Turnpike Roads — The Tennessee River and Tributaries — 
First Steamboat at Knoxville — Railroad Building — The East Tennes- 
see and Georgia and the East Tennessee and Virginia Roads — The 
Great Southern System — Roads to Atlanta and Cumberland Gap- 
Bridges — Street Railways. 

THE completion of the Kingston pike in 1894 from 
Knoxville to Campbell's station, a distance of fifteen 
miles, was an event of great importance both to 
Knox county and Knoxville, increasing as it did the trade 
of the town and the ease with which farmers and others 
could drive over the road. The time required to drive this 
distance on the old dirt road was about five hours, while after 
the completion of the pike two and a half hours was quite 

In 1792 Charles McClung, from whom the numerous and 
honorable McClung family of Knoxville have descended, came 
from the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa., and by the first county 
court held in Knox county was engaged to locate a public 
highway from Knoxville west to Campbell's station, and 
thence to the western boundary of Knox county. There was 
already a bridle path following pretty closely after an Indian 
trail to Sinking creek, but here a divergence was necessary. 
At Campbell's station there was a block house and a consider- 
able settlement. In this connection it is important to note that 
the Indian trails usually followed the ridges, in order that the 
Indians following these trails might overlook the valleys, in 
which settlements were for the most part made, and thus dis- 
cover the existence of settlements from the rising columns of 
blue smoke ascending from the cabins in the nooks and cran- 
nies of the forests. Just east of Sinking creek this trail turned 


2 7 : 


abruptly to the south, extending in that direction for a short 
distance, then ran along the slope of Chestnut or McAnally's 
ridge to an Indian town on the Tennessee river near the 
present site of Concord, and thence to the Cherokee country 
beyond the Little Tennessee. 

The road as originally laid out by Mr. McClung was about 
thirty feet wide, cut the greater portion of the way through 
the primeval forest. At that time the county of Knox con- 
tained only about 2,000 inhabitants, and this undertaking was 
one of no small magnitude. Many years later the road was 
widened to fifty feet, every land owner along the way freely 
giving of his land to the extent made necessary by this widen- 
ing of the road. Before the beginning of the present century 
the road reached Kingston, and later on it formed a part of 
the great national highway from Washington to Knoxville, to 
Nashville, to Montgomery and to Xew Orleans. 

Along this national highway the means and methods of 
travel were wonderfully different from those at present in 
vogue. On that part of it between Knoxville and Washing- 
ton, in 1842. there was a line of stages, called "The Great 
Western Line," and in the advertisement of the company own- 
ing and operating this line they said that the trip between the 
two cities could be made in six days and six hours. The line 
ran by the way of Warm Springs, Asheville, Rutherfordton, 
Salisbury and Greensboro to Raleigh, a distance of 385 miles, 
the fare between Knoxville and Raleigh being $25. From 
Raleigh to Washington the traveler went by rail and steam- 
boat, a distance of 288 miles, making the entire distance 673 
miles. From Raleigh to Washington the fare was $19, making 
the fare between Knoxville and Washington $44, the time, 
"only six days and six hours," being considered remarkably 
short, as it in reality was. considering the means of travel. 
The schedule time now is 19 hours, 50 minutes. 

The Kingston Turnpike company was chartered by a spe- 
cial act of the legislature of the state passed May 24. 1866, 
the company being organized September 17. succeeding a 


board of commissioners appointed for the purpose by the leg- 
islature. This preliminary board consisted of the following- 
gentlemen: Perez Dickinson. Joseph A. Cooper, O. P. Tem- 
ple. Charles M. McGhee, and Robert H. Armstrong. A board 
of directors was elected consisting of Robert H. Armstrong, 
O. P. Temple, Charles M. McGhee, Joseph A. Cooper, and 
George W. Mabry, the officers of the company being O. P. 
Temple, president, and Robert H. Armstrong, secretary and 
treasurer. As fast as the company could raise funds it mac- 
adamized the road, and soon after five miles had been thus 
improved, a toll gate was established and tolls collected which 
were applied to the further macadamizing and improving of 
the road. The county of Knox was a stockholder in the com- 
pany, and in 1892 became by purchase of the remainder of the 
stock the sole owner of the pike. Soon afterward an order 
was issued to extend the road to the county line, the work to 
be done by the convicts of the count}-, and the pike was com- 
pleted to Campbell's station by November 1, 1893. at which 
time the purchase above mentioned was effected, the county 
paying the other stockholders $20,000 for their stock. 

In 1876 Knox county established a workhouse for the pun- 
ishment of criminals with the view of devoting their labor to 
the building of roads. Work was begun as soon as practicable, 
and by January 1. 1892, there had been constructed seventy- 
seven miles of turnpike roads. During 1892 there were con- 
structed three miles of the Third Creek pike, reaching Beaver 
ridge. nine miles from Knoxville, and also a mile on a branch 
of this pike, into Hind's valley. There were also constructed 
five miles on the Kingston pike, making eight miles in all this 
year, or nine miles considering the short branch into Hind's 
valley. The board of pike commissioners built during the 
year seven and a third miles of pike road, or an equivalent of 
this length, as follows : On the Sevierville pike, one and one- 
fourth miles; Pickens Gap pike, one and three-fourth miles: 
Neubert Springs pike, three-eighths of a mile: Maryville pike, 
one and one-third miles ; Rutledge pike, one-half a mile: Bra- 


boson Ferry pike, one and three-fourths miles, and in the 
Twentieth district, one-eighth of a mile. At the end of 1892 
there were about ninety-five miles of turnpike road in the 
county, which cost in the neighborhood of $300,000. 

In addition to the above there was the Tazewell pike, seven 
miles long, which was owned by a private corporation, and to- 
gether with this seven miles of Tazewell pike there were about 
102 miles of good turnpike road in the county, all of course 
running into Knoxville and increasing its trade. 

At the present time (February 1, 1899), the different turn- 
pike roads leading out from Knoxville are of the following 
lengths : 

The Kingston pike is macadamized to a distance of six- 
teen miles, and is graded about one and one-half miles further. 

Middlebrook pike is macadamized to a distance of eight 

Third Creek pike is macadamized seven miles to the forks, 
from which point Beaver Ridge pike is macadamized five 
miles, and from the same point Hinds' Valley pike is mac- 
adamized two miles. 

Clinton pike is macadamized ten miles and is graded one 
mile further to the county line. 

Sharp's Gap pike is macadamized eight miles, and is graded 
one mile further. Tazewell and Jacksboro pike is macadam- 
ized nine miles to Hall's Cross Roads, from which point it 
takes the name of the Maynardville pike and is macadamized 
about six miles further to the county line. 

Tazewell pike begins at Smithwood four miles out from 
Knoxville. and is macadamized twelve miles, to the county line. 

Washington pike is macadamized twelve miles. 

Rutledge pike is macadamized thirteen miles. 

Strawberry Plains pike, which runs by the Holston river, is 
macadamized eight miles. 

Thorn Grove pike is macadamized sixteen miles. 

Sevierville pike is macadamized to the county line, a dis- 
tance of nine and a half miles. 


Gap Creek pike, which leaves the Sevierville pike about six 
miles from Knoxville, is macadamized seven miles. 

Martin's Mill pike is macadamized nine miles, and Picken's 
Gap pike branching off from this pike about three miles from 
Knoxville extends rive miles. 

Maryville pike extends seven miles to the county line. 

Lowe's Ferry pike branches off from the Kingston pike four 
miles out from Knoxville and extends four miles. 

Besides the above pikes which radiate from Knoxville in 
various directions, there are several cross pikes, connecting the 
main ones, to the extent in the aggregate of about ten miles. 
Thus the entire length of turnpike roads in Knox county con- 
necting Knoxville with the country, is 173.5 miles, to which 
adding the ten miles of cross pikes, makes the total 
length of such roads in the county at the present time, 183.5 

The Tennessee river, taken as a whole, is a wonderful 
stream. From the junction of the Holston and French Broad, 
which of late years has been considered its origin, though 
formerly the name Holston was applied down to the conflu- 
ence of the Little Tennessee, the distance to its mouth is 650 
miles. Including its tributaries it has more than 1,300 miles 
of water navigable for steamboats, and when only flat boats 
are taken into consideration it is navigable for more than 
2,200 miles ; that is, it and its tributaries together. 

In 1820 the government appropriated several thousand dol- 
lars for the improvement of the Mussel Shoals, and in 1829 
it appropriated $4,000,000 for the construction of a canal 
round the shoals ; but as there was no appropriation ever made 
either by the government of the United States or by the state 
of Alabama for keeping the canal in repair, it was neglected 
and was in use only a few years. And while previous to 1897 
there had been considerable money spent in improving the 
river below Chattanooga, very little had been done in this way 
above that city. 

But the amount of business done on the river showed that 


it was worthy of attention. In 1896 there were sixty-four 
steamboats on the river, with an aggregate capacity of 80,000 
tons. During the year these sixty-four steamboats carried 
more than 20,000 passengers and 20,000,000 tons of freight. 
About 3,000,000 tons of this freight were carried between 
Knoxville and Chattanooga. The French Broad is used much 
more than other of the tributaries of the Tennessee, for the 
reason that there is but little railroad built up its valley. In 
1896 the French Broad carried about forty times as much 
freight in value as had been expended on the Tennessee in its 
improvement, including all the appropriations made since the 
first one mentioned above, in 1820. 

The citizens of Knoxville are very much interested in the 
improvement of this splendid stream. They think that with 
an expenditure of about $600,000 the channel of the Ten- 
nessee could be made three feet deep at low water all the 
way to Chattanooga, and if this depth were secured the river 
would become a competing line between these two points. 
The Tennessee river improvement committee of the Knox- 
ville Chamber of Commerce has this matter constantly under 
consideration, and is doing all in its power to secure an ade- 
quate appropriation. 

The first steamboat to arrive at Knoxville was the "Atlas," 
a small boat which had made its way through "The Suck" in 
the Tennessee river to Knoxville in 1826, and which greatly 
astonished the citizens by its movements. The commander 
of the "Atlas" was Captain Connor, who was greeted on his 
arrival by a dinner and by speeches and was honorably toasted. 
The arrival of this little boat suggested to the citizens of 
Knoxville the possibilities of the navigation of the Holston 
and Tennessee rivers by means of steamboats, and almost 
immediately a company was organized with the view of pur- 
chasing a steamboat for the purpose. The steamboat thus 
purchased was designed to run between Knoxville and "The 
Suck," the place where the Tennessee cuts through the Cum- 
berland mountain range. One of the members of this company 


was sent to Cincinnati to make the purchase, and the steam- 
boat thus purchased was brought to Knoxville and named in 
honor of the town in which lived the members of the company 
that thus established the navigation of the Tennessee, for the 
attempt of the Atlas to so navigate the river was only a sug- 
gestion as to what might be done. When this new steamboat, 
the "Knoxville," arrived at the wharf there was great excite- 
ment in the town, for it was looked upon as an event opening 
up a new era in its history. 

In 1848 William Williams and James Williams, the latter 
of whom was minister plenipotentiary under President Bu- 
chanan to Constantinople, began the wholesale grocery busi- 
ness in Knoxville under the firm name of Williams & Co. 
Their warehouse was located on the river at the foot of Gay 
street. They purchased the steamer "Cassandra," and a short 
time afterward built the "Kate Fleming" and the "Chatta- 
nooga." The former was in the trade between Louisville, Ky., 
and Cairo, 111., in the fall of 1850, until such time as high 
water in the Tennessee river would permit of her passage over 
the Mussel shoals ; but she was burned to the water's edge 
just below Louisville in October of that year. The "Chatta- 
nooga," however, succeeded in getting over the shoals, and at 
once went into the trade between Knoxville and Decatur, Ala. 
This boat was 145 feet long and 23 feet beam, and of 160 
tons burden. Her full length cabin was finely fitted up and 
furnished for carrying passengers, her captain being McMahon 
and clerk, James E. Williams. This boat w r as a success in 
every way, running from and to Knoxville nine months in the 
year. Then followed in a short time the "Mollie Garth" and 
the "Lady Augusta." The river traffic was considerable until 
the completion to Knoxville in 1855 of the East Tennessee and 
Georgia railroad, and then it was that Williams & Co. closed 
out their business and the passenger and freight business, until 
that time enjoyed by the river, was gradually transferred to 
the railroad, that on the river gradually sinking into insig- 


In 1895 the following boats were on the Tennessee river, 
and were more or less intimately connected with Knoxville : 
The steamer "Telephone," owned by the Union Boat, Store 
and Warehouse company; the "Flora Swan," owned by the 
Knoxville, Sevier and Jefferson Steamboat company ; the 
"Lucile Borden" and the "Onega," owned bv the Three Rivers 
Packet and Transportation company; the "Oliver King," 
owned by Oliver King; the "Bill Tate." owned by the Holston 
River Packet and Transportation company, and the "City of 
Knoxville," owned by C. R. Love & Co. The "Onega" was 
built in 1891. is 106 feet long, and has a net tonnage of 74-77 
tons. The "City of Knoxville" is 130 feet long, and has a ton- 
nage of about 100 tons. The "Dixie" is a new boat, built in 
Knoxville, and is owned by Oliver King of that city. The 
Three Rivers Packet company has a shipyard, located on the 
south of the river about 200 yards above the bridge, at which 
they repair such boats as may need to be repaired. So far they 
have built no new boats. All of the above-named boats are on 
the river at the present time. 


Railroads are one of the most potent factors in modern 
civilization, and yet it is but seventy years since the first loco- 
motive made its first trip in the United States, that being at 
Honesdale, Pa., in August, 1829. Horatio Allen was the en- 
gineer and the locomotive was named the Stourbridge Lion. 
It was but six years later, in 1835. when the movement which 
awakened public interest in Tennessee in the question of rail- 
roads began, this being under the new constitution of 1834. 
This constitution declared that a well regulated system of 
internal improvements is calculated to develop the resources 
of the people of the state, and to promote their prosperity and 
happiness. A general system of public improvements was 
established in 1836 by an act of the legislature which provided 
that when two-thirds of the capital stock of any company or- 
ganized for the purpose of constructing any railroad or mac- 


adamized turnpike within the state of Tennessee had been sub- 
scribed, the governor, on behalf of the state, should subscribe 
the remaining one-third, and in payment thereof should issue 
bonds bearing 5 1-2 per cent interest. Under this scheme the 
state became subscriber for one-half of the stock of all railroads 
and turnpike companies, provided that the whole amount of. 
stuck taken by the state bad not reached $4,000,000. The 
profits arising from the stock thus subscri1>ed by the state in 
various companies was set aside to' constitute a fund for the 
redemption of the bonds issued in pursuance of the state's most 
liberal policy. Under the laws issued by the legislature state 
bonds were issued to railroads to the amount of $800,000. 

But a reaction came against the state's being so extensively 
engaged in internal improvement schemes, and in 1840 all laws 
authorizing the governor to subscribe stock in this way to such 
improvements were repealed; but there was no* interference 
with any work already in progress and ljeing carried on in good 
faith. No more aid was granted by the state to railroads until 
1852. when an act was passed creating a general system of 
internal improvements. This act provided that when railroad 
companies had graded a certain amount of track, then bonds 
not to exceed $8,000 per mile should be issued for the purpose 
of equipping the road and its franchises, and the road itself to 
be mortgaged to the state, the mortgage being in the form of 
a lien on the property. But the state, by reason of the coming 
on of the war of the Rebellion in 1861, became a great loser 
through its generosity. The railroads were notwithstanding 
of great benefit to the people in their commercial and social 
capacities, and this in all probability much more than com- 
pensated for the loss to the state treasury. 

After 1867 no bonds were granted by the state to railroad 
companies, and the constitution of 1870 forbids the loaning 
or giving of the credit of the state to any corporation or com- 
pany, and it also prohibits the state from becoming a stock- 
holder in any company. But, notwithstanding this prohibition 
to the state, counties and incorporated towns may still, as 


previously, vote to aid railroads and other like companies, 
under certain limitations. 

The year 1835, mentioned in the beginning of this sketch 
of the railroad history oi Knoxville as that in which the spirit 
of public enterprise manifested itself to such a degree that 
internal improvements were largely undertaken, is that in 
which Col. Robert T. Hayne, of South Carolina, paid a visit 
to Nashville, for the purpose of urging the construction of a 
railroad from Memphis to Knoxville and thence to Charleston, 
S. C, on the Atlantic coast. Such a railroad would, if con- 
structed, connect the Mississippi river with the Atlantic ocean. 
A similar effort was made in 1836 by William Armour, then 
a representative in the state legislature from Shelby county, 
to connect the Mississippi with the seaboard by a line "'running 
from the eligible point on that river as near the center of the 
state as practicable to the Tennessee river, thence near the 
center of the state to a point on the Virginia line." 

For the purpose of discussing the subject of internal im- 
provements, which was still of interest to the public mind, a 
convention assembled at Nashville, in 1836, at which sixteen 
counties were represented, and at this convention a resolution 
was adopted advocating the construction of the above-men- 
tioned road. The legislature, which was then in session, 
appropriated $15,000 for the survey of a road by the name 
of the "Central Railroad." and Albert Miller Lea was ap- 
pointed chief engineer of this road, with authority to survey 
the line through the state and to estimate the cost of both a 
single track and a double track road. 

During this same year a charter was procured for the 
Hiwassee railroad, the charter requiring that stock should be 
subscribed within two years to the amount of $600,000; and 
on July 4, 1836, a railroad convention assembled at Knoxville 
composed of gentlemen from many of the states in the Union, 
of which convention Col. Robert T. Hayne was chosen chair- 
man. This convention adopted measures for the construction 
of a railroad from Cincinnati or Louisville through Cumber- 


land Gap up the French Broad and on through to Charleston, 
S. C. Several delegates, however, from lower East Tennessee 
and Georgia were dissatisfied with this route, and having their 
attention called to the Hiwassee charter, determined if possible 
to avail themselves of its privileges and construct a road under 
them. By the adoption of this route they considered that a 
railroad could be built from Knoxville through Georgia to 
Charleston and put in operation before the road by way of 
Cumberland Gap could be commenced. The McMinn county 
delegates hastened home and opened subscription books, while 
the Georgia delegates procured a charter from their state 
legislature, intending to' construct the road in such a way as 
to meet at the state line. The taking of stock in McMinn 
county being somewhat slow, six residents of that county 
agreed to subscribe each $100,000, thus furnishing the entire 
$600,000 required by the Hiwassee charter, in order to prevent 
its forfeiture. These six residents were General Nathaniel 
Smith, Onslow G. Murrell, Ashbury M. Coffey, James H. 
Tyffe, Alexander D. Keys and T. N. Vandyke. But it was 
found upon examination of the books that $120,000 had al- 
ready been subscribed, and thus it was necessary for each of 
these six gentlemen to subscribe only $80,000. 

Upon the organization of the company, Solomon P. Jacobs 
was chosen president, and Ashbury M. Coffey, secretary and 
treasurer. As chief engineer, J. C. Trautwine of Philadelphia 
was selected. This road was surveyed and ground was broken 
two miles west of Athens, in 1837. and this was the first work 
on a railroad in the state of Tennessee. The road was soon 
afterward graded from the state line to Loudon and a bridge 
erected across Hiwassee river. 

After considerable difficulty with the state occasioned by its 
having subscribed $650,000 to the stock of the road, because 
of the insufficiency of the original $600,000 already mentioned 
as having been subscribed, the difficulty taking the form of a 
lawsuit which was won by the railroad company in the supreme 
court; and by reason of various difficulties caused by the 


stringency of the times, several unsuccessful efforts being made 
to raise money enough to build the road', the company made an 
agreement with Gen. Duff Green, under which agreement Gen. 
Green undertook to build the road from Dalton, Ga., to Knox- 
ville, Tenn. But Gen. Green failed and at length was compelled 
to surrender his contract. 

The company then made an agreement with William, Grant 
& Co., to complete the road from Dalton to' the Hiwassee river, 
and with J. G. Dent & Co. to complete it from the Hiwassee 
river to Loudon in 1852, and in 1854 it was completed from 
Loudon to Knoxville. In the chapter on the municipality of 
Knoxville may be found an account of the proceedings of the 
mayor and board of aldermen with reference to the location 
of the depot of this road in the town. But through failures, 
disappointments and other difficulties the name "Hiwassee" 
had been changed in 1848 to East Tennessee and Georgia. 

In 1852 the East Tennessee and Virginia railroad company 
was chartered, the road extending from Knoxville to Bristol, 
on the state line between Tennessee and Virginia. Thus a 
connecting link was formed between the great railroad systems 
of the Northeast with the roads of the Southwest, in Georgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi. This route was completed in 1858, 
and the two roads mentioned above were afterwards, in 1869, 
consolidated under the name of the East Tennessee. Virginia 
and Georgia railroad. 

The system of railroads was gradually extended by the con- 
struction of new lines and the absorption of other lines, until it 
became one of the most important systems of the South. The 
Knoxville & Ohio road was begun before the war, l>eing built 
as far as Clinton. In 1867 its construction was resumed, and it 
was completed to Careyville. Still later it was extended 
through the coal fields to the Kentucky state line at Jellico. 

Some time between 1870 and 1880 a line was built from 
Morristown to Wolf Creek in the Unaka mountains, and 
while Mr. Thomas was president this line was extended to 
Paint Rock, connecting with the Western North Carolina rail- 


road, forming with it a through line or connection with the 

Still later a connection was made hetween the southwestern 
terminal of the system at Ooltewah Junction with the Selma, 
Rome & Dalton to Cohutta, Ga., and a line built thence to 
Atlanta and Macon, thus making- connection with the Macon 
& Brunswick road and giving a direct line to the sea at Bruns- 
wick, which place is still one of the most important ocean 
terminals of the Southern railway. 

A branch road was also built from Johnson City to Embree- 
ville, the road from Emory Gap on the Cincinnati Southern to 
Oliver Springs was purchased, and the connecting link between 
the latter point and Clinton on the Knoxville & Ohio was 
built. Another branch was built from Knoxville to Maryville, 
Tenn.. which is the Maryville branch of the Southern railway. 
This branch was surveyed in 1876 and completed in 1881, and 
for the grading of the road from Maryville to' the Smoky 
mountains five hundred Swiss laborers were engaged, but this 
part of the road has not yet been built. The road from Knox- 
ville to Maryville is known as the Knoxville & Augusta rail- 

There was also acquired by the company the road from 
Rome, Ga., to Meridian, Miss. ; the Mobile & Birmingham, 
from Mobile to Marion Junction, Ala. ; and the Memphis & 
Charleston, and the Blocton branch from Birmingham to 
Blocton, Ala. 

On May 31 and June 1, 1886. the gauge of this system of 
roads was changed from a five foot to a four foot nine inch 
gauge, the standard gauge, or nearly so, all the roads in the 
country at that time, except the Pennsylvania railway, having 
a gauge of four feet and eight and a half inches. 

In 1894 the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia railway 
system comprised 1,780.3 miles, and it was in this year that 
the organization of the present Southern railway system, 
which included the Richmond & Danville, the East Tennessee. 
Virginia & Georgia, the Georgia Pacific, and most of the leased 


and operated lines of those systems. The Memphis & Charles- 
ton and the Mobile & Birmingham were not included, but 
the former was purchased and absorbed by the Southern Rail- 
way Company in February, 1898. 

It was in this same year. 1894. that the Louisville Southern 
railway, extending from Louisville to Lexington, Ky.. a dis- 
tance of eighty-seven miles, was purchased by the Southern, 
and as it had the Knoxville & Ohio to Harriman Junction, it 
thus obtained through the Cincinnati Southern railway an out- 
let to the Ohio river. 

The officers of the East Tennessee. Virginia & Georgia Rail- 
road Company elected November 26, 1869, the time of the 
formal consolidation of the East Tennessee & Virginia with 
the East Tennessee & Georgia, were Thomas H. Calloway, 
president; Joseph Jacques, vice-president; James G. Mitchell, 
secretary and treasurer ; R. C. Jackson, superintendent ; C. 
Hodge, master of transportation, and J. R. Ogden, general 
freight and ticket agent. Among the directors were Thomas 
H. Calloway. Joseph Jacques, J. T. Grisham, C. M. McGhee, 
B. M. Branner, William Galbraith, Joseph H. Earnest, Perez 
Dickinson, J. M. Meek. William R. Sevier and Joseph R. 

At the time of the consolidation the total owned mileage of 
these roads was 270 miles, including the line from Bristol, 
Tenn., to Chattanooga. Tenn., and from Cleveland. Tenn., to 
Dalton, Ga. 

On May 25, 1886, the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
Railway Company's property was sold under foreclosure by 
special master. William Rule, for $10,250,000, and was bought 
in by interests therein controlled, and the East Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia & Georgia Railway Company was organized to succeed 
it. The officers elected under this reorganization were Samuel 
Thomas, president ; Henry Fink, vice-president ; L. M. Schwan, 
secretary, and J. G. Mitchell, treasurer. 

In 1 89 1 the mileage of the roads owned, leased and operated 
by this company, as given by Poor's railway manual, was as 
follows : 


East Tennessee Division. — Bristol, Term., to Chattanooga, 

Tenn 242 

Ooltewah Cut Off. — Ooltewah. Tenn., to Cohutta, Ga 11. 5 

Nortli Carolina Branch. — Morristown to Paint Rock, Tenn 43.5 

Walden's Ridge R. R. — Clinton to Harriman Junction, Tenn 30.6 

Tennessee Valley Branch R. R 4 

Tennessee & Ohio R. R. — Rogersville to Rogersville Junction, 

Tenn 16 

Embreeville Branch. — Johnson City to Embreeville. Tenn 15.5 


Atlanta Division. — Cleveland, Tenn., to Rome, Ga 68 

Rome & Decatur Division. — North Rome, Ga., to Attalla, Ala. . 61.3 
Atlanta Subdivision. — Rome to Macon, Ga 158.5 


Brunswick Division. — Macon to Brunswick, Ga 190 

Hawkinsville Branch. — Cockran to Hawkinsville, Ga 10 


Alabama Division. — Rome, Ga., to Selma. Ala 196 

Meridian Subdivision. — Selma to Meridian, Miss 113 

Akron Branch. — Marion Junction to Akron, Ala 53.1 

Blockton Branch. — Birmingham Junction to Blockton, Ala 31.4 

Bessemer Branch. — Junction to Bessemer, Ala 20.6 


Total length of lines whose operation is included above 1,265.0 

Sidings. 252.64 miles. Gauge, 4 ft. 9 in. Rails (steel, 1,087.7 
miles. 56 lbs.). Controlled by stock ownership. 


Knoxville & Ohio R. R. — Knoxville to Jellico, Tenn.. and 

branches 69.3 

Mobile & Birmingham Ry. — Mobile to Selma, Ala 150 

Louisville Southern Railway. — Louisville to Burgin, Ky., and 

branches 130 

Memphis & Charleston. — Memphis to Stevenson. Ala., and 

branches 330 

Alabama Great Southern Railway. — Chattanooga to Meridian. 

Miss 295.5 

Cin. N. O. & Texas Pacific Railway. — Cincinnati. O., to Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn 336 

Included in the mileage of the Meridian sulxlivision is a 
section of the Mohile & Ohio railway from Lauderdale to 
Meridian, Miss.. iS miles, which was used under trackage 
contract; and included in the Atlanta subdivision was 17.6 
miles from Austell to Simpson street, in Atlanta, which is 
owned jointly by this company and the Georgia Pacific Rail- 
way Company. 


The Embreeville branch was opened June i, 1891, and the 
Bessemer branch on the same date. In September, 1891. the 
company purchased a controlling interest in the Chattanooga 
Union Railway Company. The board of directors of the East 
Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railway Company, elected De- 
cember 16, 1 89 1. was as follows : Samuel Thomas, New York; 
Calvin S. Brice, Lima, Ohio ; John G. Moore, New York : Sam- 
uel M. Felton, Cincinnati, Ohio; John H. Inman, Xew York; 
James Swann, Xew York ; T. M. Logan, Xew York ; John 
Greenough, Xew York; William L. Bull. Xew York; R. G. 
Erwin, Xew York : E. P. Howell, Atlanta ; George J. Gould, 
Xew York ; C. M. McGhee, Xew York ; George Coppell, New 
York, and E. J. Sanford, Knoxville, Tenn. 

The officers elected were as follows : Samuel M. Felton, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, president : Calvin S. Brice. vice-president ; 
Henry Fink, Xew York, second vice-president; J. M. 
Mitchell. Knoxville, treasurer; William Hawn, Knoxville, 
auditor; L. M. Schwan. Xew York, secretary, and C. H. 
Hudson. Knoxville. general manager. 

Henry Poor's manual for 1893 states that plans for reorgan- 
ization were under consideration. According to the manual in 
1892, Charles M. McGhee and Henry Fink of New York were 
appointed receivers of the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
Company. At the election held Xovember 16, 1892, W. G. 
Oakman of Xew York became president, and ex-President 
Samuel M. Felton became vice-president in place of Calvin S. 
Brice. Samuel Thomas of Xew York was again chosen chair- 
man of the board. Mr. Brice remained as a director. 

The Richmond & Danville railwav was sold under fore- 
closure June 15, 1894, and was purchased by the reorganiza- 
tion committee. The Southern railway was then organized 
with the following officers : Samuel Spencer, president ; A. B. 
Andrews, second vice-president; W. H. Baldwin. Jr.. third 
vice-president ; Francis Lynde Stetson, general counsel ; W. A. 
C. Ewen. secretary ; George S. Hobbs, auditor. The new com- 
pany began to operate the property on June 30, 1894. In 


1892, Samuel Spencer, of New York, was added as a receiver 
of the East Tennessee. Virginia & Georgia Railway Company. 
in connection with the two former receivers, Messrs. Charles 
M. McGhee and Henry Fink. The same board elected Novem- 
ber 16, 1892, are reported in Poor's manual for the year 1894. 
Poor's manual for 1895 gives the following" mileage of the 
Southern at the time of the consolidation: 

Washington, D. C, to Richmond. Va.. via Danville, Va.. and 

Charlotte, N. C., to Atlanta, Ga. (about) ." 790.00 

Bristol, Tenn.. via Knoxville and Chattanooga to Atlanta, Ga.. 

thence via Birmingham. Ala., to Greenville. Miss, (about).. 852.00 

Rome, Ga.. to Lauderdale, Miss 282.20 

Atlanta. Ga.. to Brunswick, Ga. (about) 350.00 

Various other lines owned, leased or controlled 2.062.25 

Total length of all lines of Southern railway system (Decem- 
ber 31. 1894) 4.342-45 

The Southern Railway Company was chartered by the leg- 
islature of Virginia. February 20, 1894, and the corporation 
was organized in Richmond, Va., June 18, following. August 
1, 1894, the operation of the East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia railroad was assumed, as was that of the Charlotte, 
Columbia & Augusta, and the Columbia & Greeneville railroad. 
Other railroads were acquired September 1, 1894, giving at 
that date a mileage to the Southern system of 4.429.47 miles. 

October 23, 1894, the following board of directors was 
elected : Aubin L. Boulware. Richmond, Va. ; and the follow- 
ing, all from New York-: Charles H. Coster, Harris C. 
Fahnestock, Thomas F. Ryan. Samuel Spencer, Anthony J. 
Thomas, Samuel Thomas and Skipwith Wilmer. (One va- 
cancy. ) 

On the same day the following officers were elected : Samuel 
Spencer, president; A. B. Andrews, Raleigh, N. C, second 
vice-president: W. H. Baldwin, Washington, D. C, third 
vice-president; F. L. Stetson. New York, general counsel; 
W. A. C. Ewen, New York, secretary, and H. C. Ansley, 
Washington, D. C, treasurer. 


At the time of this election the principal office was at Rich- 
mond, Va., the New York office being at No. 80 Broadway, 
and the Washington office. No. 1300 Pennsylvania avenue. 
Later on other mileage was added to the Southern system and 
the total mileage, including the Alabama Great Southern, 
amounting to 5.591.86 miles, was as follows: 


Washington Division. — Washington to Monroe, Alexandria to 
Round Hill. Manassas to Harrisonburg. Calverton to War- 
renton . . . 338-54 

Norfolk Division. — Monroe to Spencer. Greensboro to Golds- 
boro, Selma to Norfolk (Pinners Point). Franklin Junction 
to Rocky Mount. University to Chapel Hill. Greensboro to 
Wilkesboro, Winston-Salem to Mocksville, High Point to 
Asheboro 655.27 

Charlotte Division. — Spencer to Greenville, Biltmore to Spartan- 
burg Junction, Salisbury to Norwood, Charlotte to Taylors- 
ville ' 357.55 

Atlanta Division. — Greenville to Atlanta. Atlanta to Ooltewah 
Junction, Atlanta to Fort Valley, Toccoa to Elberton. Cham- 
blee to Roswell. Atlanta Belt. Cleveland to Cohutta, North 
Rome to Attalla 540.04 

Richmond Division. — Neapolis to West Point. Keysville to Dur- 
ham. Oxford to Henderson 284 .82 

Asheville Division. — Salisbury to Morristown. Asheville to 

Murphy 350.8o 

Columbia Division. — Charlotte to Augusta. Columbia to Green- 
ville. Spartanburg to Alston. Hodges to Abbeville, Belton to 
Anderson. Edgefield to Aiken 422.73 

Knoxville Division. — Bristol to Chattanooga. Knoxville to Jel- 
lico (K. & O. R. R.). Embreeville Branch. Rogersville 
Branch, Clinton to Harriman Junction. Coal Branches, Mid- 
dlesboro Branch 450.54 

Memphis Division. — Chattanooga to Memphis and Branches.... 331.70 

Macon Division. — Atlanta to Brunswick, Cochran to Hawkins- 

ville, McDonough to Columbus 387.18 

Birmingham Division. — Austell to Greenville (including South- 
ern Ry. in Mississippi) and branches 546.60 

Anniston Division. — Atlanta Junction to Meridian. Birmingham 
Junction to Birmingham. Akron Branch. Blocton Branch, 
Lauderdale Branch 449.80 

Louisville Division. — Southern Railway in Kentucky. Louisville 
to Lexington, Lawrenceburg to Burgin. Versailles to 
Georgetown 131. 10 

Between Knoxville and Maryville (K. & A. R. R.) 16.00 

Total 5.232.67 

Alabama Great Southern R. R. 

Main Line Chattanooga to Meridian 296.04 

Branches 3309 

Belt Ry. of Chattanooga (Leased to A. G. S.) 30.06 

Grand total 5.591.86 


On August 1. 1894, the Southern railway assumed the opera- 
tion of the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia ; the Charlotte. 
Columbia & Augusta and the Columbia & Greenville roads. 
The mileage at that time as given by Poor's manual was before 

The Southern railway covers almost the entire South, from 
the Ohio and Potomac rivers to the Gulf, and from the Missis- 
sippi to the Atlantic. There are few important cities which it 
does not reach, and it gives all points on its lines direct passen- 
ger and freight service and facilities scarcely, if at all, sur- 
passed by points on any line. 

Since the organization of the Southern railway, the trackage, 
grades, equipment and service of the roads amalgamated to 
form it and afterwards added have been greatly improved. 
Patrons have been given facilities not before enjoyed, and such 
as are now equal to those given by any railroad line. The 
administration and policy of the company are progressive and 
wide-awake. All that is possible is done to> build up the coun- 
try tributary to the lines of the company, and within the past 
few years a great development in agriculture, horticulture, 
manufacturing and commerce has been witnessed. That devel- 
opment is still in progress. 

The present board of directors is as follows: Hon. Joseph 
Bryan, Richmond, Va. ; Charles H. Coster, H. S. Fahnestock, 
James T. Woodward and Adrian Iselin. all of Xew York; 
S. M. Inman, Atlanta, Ga. ; Skipwith Wilmer, Baltimore, Md. : 
A. B. Andrews, Raleigh, X. C, and William W. Finley, Wash- 
ington, D. C. The principal officers are: Samuel Spencer. 
Xew York city, president; A. B. Andrews, Raleigh, N. C first 
vice-president : W. W. Finley. Washington, D. C. second vice- 
president; Frank S. Gannon, Washington, D. C, third 
vice-president and general manager; Francis Lynde Stetson, 
New York city, general counsel ; J. F. Hill, New York city, 
secretary; A. H. Plant. Washington, D. C. auditor; H. C. 
Ansley, Washington, treasurer; John M. Culp, Washington, 
traffic manager; W. A. Turk. Washington, general passenger 


agent, and M. V. Richards, also of Washington, land and in- 
dustrial agent. 


"Kxoxville, July and August, 1897. 

"A few years since the East Tennessee, Virginia .& Georgia 
system was reorganized under the name of the Southern rail- 
way, under the direction of Samuel Spencer and W. H. Bald- 
win, Jr., and put upon an advanced basis in point of equipment 
and management. Standard steel rails, steel and iron bridges, 
heavy rock ballast and the strongest and handsomest rolling 
stock obtainable, followed the reorganization. Connections 
were extended in all directions. The old East Tennessee rail- 
road, with the North Carolina extension, is now known as the 
branch division of the Southern, with division headquarters at 
Knoxville. Here are also located the repair shops of the sys- 
tem, a magnificent new establishment costing over $500,000 
and employing 1,000 men. Thirty passenger trains daily 
traverse the East Tennessee lines and the freight business has 
assumed gigantic proportions. To take one's stand on one of 
the main lines on any day in the year and watch the incessant 
outgo and influx of large fast freight trains, laden with coal or 
slabs and blocks of marble, with iron, lumber, live stock, grain 
and merchandise, affords a better realization of the great traffic 
of the valley than any bold figures could produce. 

"Along the lines of this system which now penetrate almost 
every portion of the valley, is found an unparalleled diversity of 
interests. Agriculturally this division of the Southern reaches 
an excellent region. The strong upland soils cannot be sur- 
passed, and the abundant water supply, both for power and 
natural irrigation, affords the first great requisite. Of the 9,000 
square miles of territory enclosed in the valley district, a great 
portion is covered with superb timber, embracing every variety 
known in the Eastern United States and many species peculiar- 
ly indigenous. The manufacturing industries are extensive 
and growing. The Southern has its headquarters in Washing- 

"Scenically the Southern railway is not only unsurpassed but 
unequaled. The route from North Carolina into Tennessee, 
where the railroad and the French Broad river pass together 
through the great mountains, is the most wildly 1>eautiful bit of 
railway journeying in America. It is an enchanted region." 


The Knoxville Southern Railroad Company was organized 
in 1887, and began the construction of its railroad the same 
year. On the completion of this line to Blue Ridge station, 
where it made a junction with the Marietta's North Georgia 
railroad, which started some years before and was constructed 
as a narrow gauge to run from Marietta, Ga., north and north- 
east into the mineral region of northeastern Georgia and north- 
western North Carolina, the entire line was made standard 
gauge, and was taken up under the same management. But 
the division of the old Marietta & North Georgia railroad from 
Blue Ridge station to Murphy, N. C, a distance of twenty-five 
miles, is still a narrow gauge. 

At .Marietta connection is made with the Western & Atlantic 
radroad, and in this way solid trains have since been run from 
Knoxville to Atlanta. 

From Knoxville the Knoxville Southern, as it was originally 
called, but which is at the present time known as the Atlanta. 
Knoxville & Northern railroad, runs through an agricultural 
country, until it reaches Louisville, fourteen miles from Knox- 
ville. and six miles further on reaches Friendsville. an old 
Quaker settlement. Madisonville, the county seat of Monroe 
county, is forty-four miles from Knoxville. Jellico Junction 
is sixty-one miles and Wetmore, at the head of navigation on 
the Hiwassee river, is sixty-seven miles from Knoxville. From 
this place there is weekly steamboat connection with Knoxville 
and Chattanooga. 

The Knoxville Southern Railroad Company on August 13, 
1887. asked the mayor and board of aldermen of the city of 
Knoxville for a subscription to its capital stock of $275,000, to 
be paid for in the company's stock, to aid in the construction 
of the road, under an act of assembly passed February 17, 
1887, regulating the manner in which counties and municipal- 
ities might subscribe to the capital stock of railroad companies, 
and upon the submission of the question to the people of Knox- 
ville as to whether they would authorize such subscription. 
there were cast for the subscription 3,329 votes, to 20 against 


it. The conditions upon which the bonds thus voted to be 
issued were that they should be twenty-year, five per cent 
bonds, to be issued to the company when it should have com- 
pleted its road from a point within one mile of the city of 
Knoxville to the state line between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, where said state line crosses the Hiwassee river, the 
road to be of the standard gauge, to make connection with the 
Marietta & North Georgia railroad, and have its trains running 
from Knoxville to the city of Atlanta. 

The railroad was completed within the next three years, and 
on August 25, 1890, a committee of the mayor and board of 
aldermen appointed for the purpose, reported that the road 
began at a point on the south side of the Tennessee river within 
one mile of the citv of Knoxville, that it was a standard gauge, 
steel railroad, that the southern terminus was at the state 
line between North Carolina and Tennessee and that the cars 
had run into the city of Atlanta from Knoxville and into the 
city of Knoxville from Atlanta. All the conditions having 
therefore been complied with by the railroad company, an ordi- 
nance was passed by the mayor and aldermen of Knoxville, 
September 2, 1890, that upon the receipt of the stock of the 
company for $275,000, the bonds of the city should be delivered 
to W. B. Bradley, president, and George R. Eager, agent and 
attorney for the company, and the transfer was actually made 
on September 3. the city receiving certificate No. 176 for 2.750 
shares of the stock of the company and the interest on the bonds 
from July 1, 1890, to September 3, 1890. amounting to 
$2,367.75, giving the bonds in exchange therefor. 

This company was afterward consolidated with the Marietta 
& North Georgia Railroad Company, the consolidation being 
authorized by legislation both by the state of Georgia and the 
state of Tennessee. The first legislation of Georgia on this 
subject was had Decemlier 17, 1892, and this act was amended 
December 15, 1894, and also December 16. 1895. Under these 
acts the Atlanta. Knoxville & Northern Railroad Construction 
Company had become lawful purchasers of the property and 


franchises of the Marietta & North Georgia Railroad Company 
through a judicial sale of the same in the city of Marietta, Ga., 
which sale was confirmed by the circuit court for the northern 
district of Georgia, January 6, 1896. This company, there- 
fore, filed a petition in the office of the secretary of state of 
Georgia praying for the formation of a corporation to exist for 
the period of 101 years with the right to renew the charter, 
and to be known as the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern Rail- 
road Company, the petitioners being Charles A. Collier, Eu- 
gene C. Spalding, Charles S. Northern, Jacob Haas, Victor 
L. Smith, William T. Spalding, Edward K. Barnes, Theodore 
A. Hammond, Jr., Henry- L. Smith, and Alexander W. Smith, 
all of Fulton county, Ga. Their petition was that they be sub- 
stituted for the original incorporators of the Marietta & North 
Georgia Railroad Company, that they should have a capital 
of $3,000,000, to be used for operating the lines of railroad 
previously owned by the Marietta & North Georgia Rail- 
road Company, between Marietta, Ga., and Knoxville, Tenn., 
and between Blue Ridge, Ga., and Murphy, Tenn., and the 
prayer of the petitioners was granted, the company being incor- 
porated by the state of Georgia, and the charter being filed for 
record in Knoxville, November 6, 1896. Since that time the 
roads mentioned above have been owned and operated by the 
Atlanta. Knoxville & Northern Railway Company. 

The Knoxville, Cumberland Gap & Louisville railroad was 
formerly the Powell's Valley railroad, and was begun in 1887, 
about the same time as the Knoxville Southern railroad, now 
the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern. It extends from Knoxville 
to Middlesboro, Ky.. a distance of seventy-three miles, and in 
an almost exactly northern direction. It passes through Bever- 
ly, Corryton, Powder Springs, Lone Mountain, Powell's River 
and Cumberland Gap, the latter station being three miles from 

In order to assist in the construction of this road, the city 
of Knoxville. upon invitation, subscribed $225,000 to the stock 
of the company, and agreed to give in exchange therefor the 


same amount in bonds of the city, the election to determine the 
will of the voters being held August 13, 1887, at the same time 
the vote was taken on the subscription to the stock of the 
Knoxville Southern Railroad Company, and with almost pre- 
cisely the same result, the vote in case of the Powell's Valley 
railroad stock being 3,328 in favor to> 20 against it. This is a 
very useful road to the city of Knoxville, as it passes through a 
rich agricultural and mining country, and almost exactly over 
the old Cumberland Gap trail, which had for nearly a century 
been used as a wagon road, and which during the civil war 
was famous as being the only practicable route from the North 
into the valley of the Tennessee, and was kept open by the gov- 
ernment of the United States at enormous expense. At Knox- 
ville this road connects with the Knoxville Belt railroad, and at 
Middleboro with the Middleboro Belt railroad, thus increasing 
its mileage considerably, and it also has short spurs running 
out from the main line to coal mines at several places. 

On August 22, 1889, an excursion party from Knoxville and 
West Knoxville. being on board a train making a tour of 
observation over this road, a very serious accident occurred at 
Flat Creek. Grainger county, Tenn.. in which several citizens 
of the two corporations were either killed or wounded. Those 
who were killed were Col. Isham Young, chairman of the 
board of public works of Knoxville, and Alderman F. Hocken- 
jos of the same city ; S. T. Powers and Alexander Reeder and 
Judge George Andrews of West Knoxville. The wounded 
were Peter Kern and Aldermen Barry and Pern-, and Citizens 
H. H. Ingersoll. H. H. Taylor, A. J. Albers. John T. Fleam. 
Dr. West, Alexander A. Arthur. Hugh McKeldin. A. M. Wil- 
son. W. 1. Smith. C. Aebli, H. Schubert, R. Schmidt. F. W. 
Adkins and E. S. Kinzel. all of Knoxville. and Hon. George 
L. Maloney, H. B. Wetzel. Ed. Barker. W. W. Woodruff and 
Thomas Rodgers, citizens, and Aldermen Park and Ross of 
West Knoxville. 

This accident produced a profound sensation in the two cor- 
porations, and the boards of mayor and aldermen of each 


passed suitable resolutions expressive of sympathy for the 
families to whom such great calamities had come. 

August 30, 1889, Mayor Condon of Knoxville conveyed the 
information to the board of aldermen that he had been notified 
by the proper authorities of the Knoxville, Cumberland Gap & 
Louisville Railroad Company that their road had been com- 
pleted according to contract as a standard gauge road and 
that connections had been made at Cumberland Gap with the 
Louisville & Nashville railroad, and that he had appointed 
J. C. Anderson and William Park to make an investigation of 
the condition and quality of the road. September 2j, 1889. 
the railroad company made a demand on the city of Knoxville 
for the $225,000 in bonds or the same amount in cash, in ac- 
cordance with the contract with the city, made as above related, 
their road having been, as they said, completed according to 
their contract. The entire matter was referred by the board of 
mayor and aldermen to the finance committee to investigate 
and report back to the board. 

October 12. 1889, two reports were submitted, a majority 
and minority report, the former signed by George W. Albers 
and Samuel B. Boyd, Jr., being to> the effect that the railroad 
company had not complied with its contract, but in what par- 
ticulars the report did not state. The opinion of the majority 
was sustained by the opinion of Attorney Joseph W. Sneed. 
The minority report, signed by W. C. Perry, was to the effect 
that the railroad company had complied with its contract in 
every particular — that the rails were of steel, the roadbed well 
tied, the bridges and trestles in good shape, and that connection 
had been made with the Louisville & Nashville railroad in 
Claiborne county, 460 feet south of the Tennessee state line. 
The minority report was adopted by the board of mayor and 
aldermen. On October 25, 1889, Alderman Perry requested 
that the city attorney be instructed to draw up an ordinance 
authorizing the issuance of the bonds of the city for the $225,- 
000 to the Knoxville. Cumberland Gap & Louisville Railroad 
Company, and on November 8. following, such an ordinance 


was passed on its first reading by the following- vote : Aye — 
J. D. Selby. Barry. Knafrle, Jones, Home, Perry and Mc- 
Daniel; and nays — Boyd and Albers. November 22, 1889, 
Mr. Templeton and Major T. S. Webb, attorneys for the rail- 
road company, presented the case of the company to the council, 
asking for the issue of the bonds, and the city attorney ex- 
pressed his opinion. Alderman Perry called up the ordinance 
for the issue of the bonds for its second reading, and on motion 
of Alderman McDaniel the entire matter was referred to a 
committee of five aldermen, to be assisted by the city attorney, 
to investigate the financial condition of the company — this 
committee being composed of Aldermen Selby. Boyd. Mc- 
Daniel, Knaffle and Albers. December 20 this committee re- 
ported to the board that they had investigated the financial 
condition of the company in connection with the city attorney 
and Gen. Hood, and had been informed by the company that 
the stock book was in New York city, which fact from necessity 
terminated their investigations. They had been informed, 
however, that the company owned no stock, having turned it 
over to the construction company, which had disposed of it 
together with the first mortgage bonds, which this company 
had sold in order to enable it to build the road. 

November '21, 1890. W. P. Washburn, presented an argu- 
ment to the board in favor of the Knoxville, Cumberland Gap 
& Louisville Railroad Company, stating that they had com- 
pleted the road in accordance with their contract to its final 
connection with the Louisville & Nashville railroad, at Cum- 
berland Gap, and that the company then made application for 
the issuance of the bonds, or the payment of so much money in 
cash. The city council replied by passing the following series 
of resolutions : 

"Whereas, The matter of the issuance of $225,000 in bonds 
of this city to the Knoxville, Cumberland Gap & Louisville 
Railroad Company has been heretofore fully investigated by a 
former board with the assistance of expert railroad engineers, 
of the city attorney and a special attorney employed by the 
city ; and. 


"Whereas, The board making the investigation was the one 
legally existing at the time of the expiration of the railroad 
company's contract with the city, and was in full possession 
of all the facts in the case, and after such investigation reached 
the conclusion adverse to the issuance of said bonds; and, 

"Whereas, This l>oard is unwilling to issue bonds of the city 
which may be subject to the charge or even suspicion of in- 
validity and believes that any bonds now issued in response to 
the application at present made by the Knoxville, Cumberland 
Gap & Louisville Railroad Company, would be subject to such 
a charge ; and, 

"Whereas, This board has not the same opportunities of 
forming correct judgment in the premises as were possessed by 
its predecessors and does not feel warranted in reversing the 
action of its predecessors, therefore. 

"I!e it resolved, That, while this board has the desire and 
purpose to regard and satisfy all just demands against the city, 
it declines to comply with the request now made by the Knox- 
ville, Cumberland Gap & Louisville Railroad Company, and 
to the end that the question may be put at rest, suggests to said 
company the propriety of securing a determination thereof in 
the courts of the country, with the purpose of thereby securing 
a final and indisputable settlement of the rights of the parties 
and of saving' the obligations of the city from attack or sus- 
picion in the event the courts shall adjudge that the city must 
issue the bonds." 

The Knoxville, Cumberland Gap & Louisville Railroad Com- 
pany thereupon brought suit against the city for the purpose of 
compelling it to issue the bonds, filing its original 
bill December 20. 1890, the city filing its answer in 
January. 1891, setting up more than twenty different 
defenses — technical and meritorious — the principal one 
being that the railroad company had not constructed 
its road within the time and according to the terms pre- 
scribed in the contract. Another defense was that Knox- 
ville's subscription had. prior to the suit, been assigned by the 


railroad company to the Cumberland Gap Construction Com- 
pany, and that the railroad company had no legal interest in the 
subscription. The railroad company thereupon amended their 
bill and alleged the assignment of the subscription to the Cum- 
berland Gap Construction Company and made that company a 
co-complainant. After voluminous argument on both sides of 
the case. Chancellor Gibson, on June 19, 1893, ne ' c ' tnat tne 
terms of the contract had been in all respects complied with by 
the railroad company, and that the construction company, as 
assignee of the contract of subscription, was entitled to the 
city's bonds, and decreed their issuance. 

The city appealed the decree to the supreme court, which, on 
November' 20, 1894, held that the railroad company had com- 
plied in all respects with the terms of its contract and was en- 
titled to the bonds or to the cash on November 21, 1890, pro- 
vided the railroad company was then able or was able on 
November 20, 1894, to deliver to the city the stock subscribed 
for; but as the court was not satisfied that the railroad company 
was able to deliver the stock on either date, it ordered and de- 
creed that the cause \ye remanded to the Chancery court at 
Knoxville to be there referred to the clerk and master for proof 
and report on this point. 

This decree was presented to the Chancery court December 
18, 1894, and on June 27, 1895, the master reported that the 
railroad company was able to deliver its stock on December 26, 
1890, and on November 20, 1894. Exceptions were filed by 
the city July 6, 1895, and the cause was heard by Chancellor 
Lindsay on the master's report and on the exceptions. July 30. 
1895, the chancellor overruling the exceptions and decreeing 
that the railroad company was able to deliver the stock on the 
days given above, and decreed that the city should within ninety 
days issue its bonds for $225,000 to the railroad company. 

The city again appealed to the supreme court, which, after 
long argument on both sides, decided that it was proven that 
the railroad company nor the Cumberland Gap Construction 
Company could deliver the stock to the city at either of the 


dates mentioned, as all of the stock of the company had been 
issued to the construction company, which itself had hypothe- 
cated all of the stock received from the railroad company, and 
had actually expended of its own money, $289,500, which 
amount was to the construction company a total loss. The 
supreme court decision was made November 16, 1896, the bill 
of the complainants being- deemed invalid, and the unadjudged 
costs in that court and in the courts below were to be paid by 
the complainants. And in this way the city of Knoxville was 
saved from the issue of its bonds. The cost of the road to the 
construction company was $2,069,560. 14. The only cost to the 
city of Knoxville for being" saved from the issuance of these 
bonds, which, together with the accrued interest at the time 
the decision was reached, would have amounted to near 
$300,000. was the fees paid her attorneys, viz.: To John W. 
Yoe, $10,000. and to Joseph W. Sneed, $15,500, this latter 
sum being so fixed by the Supreme court of the state of 
Tennessee, which reduced it from $20,000, as it had been 
fixed by the court of appeals. 

The Knoxville Belt Railway Company was chartered Feb- 
ruary 28, 1887. by A. L. Maxwell, O. P. Temple. J. W. S. 
Frierson, Sam House, W. R. Tuttle. William Morrow, A. A. 
Arthur, Henry B. Wetzel and Charles Seymour, for the pur- 
pose of constructing a railway from near the mouth of Wil- 
liam's Spring branch, near the Crescent Marble Company's 
quarries, about one mile above the mouth of First creek on the 
Tennessee river; thence northwest, passing through or near the 
fair grounds, crossing the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
railway, near the zinc works, and on up the valley of First 
creek to a point near where the Broad street turnpike crosses 
said creek, and thence around the city in such a way as to cross 
the Knoxville & Ohio railway at a point near the Brookside 
Cotton mills ; thence on to the valley of Third creek not far 
from where the old Clinton road from Knoxville crosses the 
north prong of the east fork of Third creek: thence down the 
valley of Third creek, crossing the tracks of the East Ten- 


nessee, Virginia & Georgia railway near the car works, and 
thence on down the valley of Third creek to the Tennessee 
river ; thence up the river along the northern hank to the point 
of beginning, making a complete circuit of the city, in a line 
twelve miles in length. 

During the years 1887, 1888 and 1889 a portion of this line 
was constructed. Reps Jones contracting for the construction of 
three miles of it, and put a number of men to work on the 
line from a point near the cotton mills down to the mouth of 
Third creek. In 1889 it was determined that the road should 
run along the north hank of the Tennessee river to the mouth of 
Second creek and thence up Second creek to a point where it 
was designed to erect a union depot. Alxjut one-half of the 
line as originally designed has been constructed. 

One of the latest railroad projects in which Knoxville is in- 
terested is that of Colonel Boone's Black Diamond system of 
railways, which it is designed to build from some point or 
points in a northern state or in northern states through Knox- 
ville to the Atlantic coast at Port Royal, S. C. This route is 
practically the one selected or favored by John C. Calhoun in 
1837, and on which some work was done; but by reason of the 
breaking out of the war the project had to be abandoned. This 
dream of Calhoun, therefore, lay dormant until 1893, when a 
convention of friends of the enterprise met at Knoxville, at- 
tended by delegates from South Carolina. North Carolina. 
Georgia, Kentucky and Tennessee, some of the original direc- 
tors of the road being present. 

Colonel Albert E. Boone of Zanesville, Ohio, having gained 
considerable reputation as a railroad promoter, was sent for, 
and has since had charge of the project. The original plan was 
to construct a road from the Jellico coal fields to the sea. but 
as there would be great, if not insuperable, difficulties in at- 
tempting to financier a local road. Col. Boone insisted that the 
road be extended to the Ohio river, and later to the capitals of 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and also that it be a double track 
road throughout. 


Two other points Col. Boone insisted upon; first, that 
the grades should not exceed sixty-six feet to the mile, which the 
surveys show has already been accomplished ; and second, the 
colonel interested the people along the proposed route to invest 
in the franchises and surveys, and they by subscriptions from 
$5 up to $250 raised enough money to secure the rights of way 
and to make the necessary surveys of the line, this money to be 
returned to the subscribers when the road is under construc- 

Early in February, 1899, Col. Boone announced that the 
capital necessary to construct this line of railroad had been 
secured from English sources, and there the matter rests at the 
present time, March 1. 1899. 

In 1892 there was organized a company which had in view 
the transfer of persons across the Tennessee river by means of 
a cable car, the cable extending from the bank of the river on 
the south side to the top of what was known as Longstreet's 
Heights on the north side, the car ascending on this side of the 
river to a height of nearly three hundred feet. This cable line 
was completed in the latter part of the year, 1893, and in the 
beginning of 1894 went into operation. It had made several 
successful trips, when on Sunday, February 18, 1894, the cable 
broke just as the car had reached the upper end of the line, and 
was almost ready to land its passengers. The result was that 
the car slid down the cable at great speed, the broken end of the 
cable entwining itself about the car, crushing in one end, and 
stopping it when about half way down the incline, the car being 
then almost directly over the middle of the river. Here it 
hung suspended in midair for several hours before a rescue of 
the passengers could be effected. Those in the car were : Oliver 
Ledgerwood, who was struck and killed by the cable when it 
crushed in the end of the car; Miss Alice Wardell, Frank and 
Fred McBee, George M. Phillips, Henry Hatcher, and Willis 
Kibley. Mr. J. E. Patten, one of the proprietors of the cable 
line, as soon as practicable after the accident, procured a cable 
rope 600 feet in length, and throwing it over the cable sup- 


porting the car, slid it clown to the car, the ends of this rope 
being securely held by boatmen below. Then making a loop 
seat, Mr. Patten was drawn up to the car from the launch Vol- 
lette, taking with him block and tackle, which he so fastened to 
the cable that all the living passengers could readily descend. 
The body of Mr. Ledgerwood was then taken down, and the 
excitement, which was very great throughout the city, then 
subsided. A coroner's jury announced as their verdict that 
Mr. Ledgerwood came to his death through the breaking of 
the cable of the cable car which runs from the north to the south 
side of the river, at what is known as Longstreet's Heights, 
and that the accident was due to the carelessness of the owners 
of the cable in not guarding or protecting it, as it evidently had 
been tampered with. The company had already on that day 
carried across the river by means of their car 105 persons, and 
they announced their intention of repairing the cable and going 
on with the business of transferring people across the river ; 
but this intention was at length abandoned. 

Up to 1872 the Tennessee river at Knoxville was crossed by 
means of ferries, except for a short time during and immedi- 
ately after the civil war, when there was in use a temporary 
bridge. On August 3, 187 1, a vote was taken on the question 
of the construction of a bridge across the river at this point, to 
be paid for by an appropriation from the count}' treasury. In 
Knoxville the vote on the proposition to appropriate $75,000 
was as follows: For the appropriation, 1.156 votes; against 
it, 35 votes. Outside the city the vote so far as could be ascer- 
tained was 768 in favor of the appropriation and 851 against 
it, making the affirmative vote 1,919, and the negative vote 

This question having been settled in favor of the bridge, a 
committee was appointed consisting of W. A. A. Connor. John 
L. Moses, Alfred Caldwell. John Tunnell. Julius Ochs and M. 
Nelson, to contract for the construction of a bridge, and this 
committee organized by the selection of W. A. A. Connor, 
chairman ; Julius Ochs. secretary, and John L. Moses, treasur- 


er. The foot of Gay street was selected as the site for the north 
end of the bridge, and in due time it was constructed, though 
not without increases in the amount of the appropriation, until 
finally the cost of the bridge was $163,653.65, the bridge being 
completed in 1874. This bridge was of the Howe truss pat- 
tern. 1,404 feet in length, with a driveway eighteen feet wide, 
and a sidewalk on each side, five and a half feet wide. 

This structure erected at such cost was blown down by a 
high wind May 1. 1875. being utterly destroyed, and ferries 
were again resorted to and in use for nearly five years. But 
in 1879 a contract was made with George W. Saulpaw, by 
the terms of which he was permitted to use the old piers so long- 
as he should keep open a bridge upon them. Mr. Saulpaw at 
once began the erection of a bridge on the old piers, which he 
opened to the public March 2. 1880. Soon afterward S. B. 
Luttrell purchased a half interest in the bridge, becoming sole 
proprietor in the year 1881. 

This bridge was used until 1898, in July of which year the 
present fine structure constructed just below- the old frame 
bridge, at the foot of Gay street, was opened to the public. The 
superstructure of this new bridge is of steel, resting on five 
stone piers and surmounted by a concrete driveway and side- 
walks. Its length is 1,512 feet, width between the sidewalks, 
30 feet, the sidewalks themselves being six feet in width and 
protected on the outer side by an iron railing four and a half 
feet high. The stone piers rise above low water to a height of 
fifty feet, and the bridge is 104 6-10 feet above low water. The 
est of this elegant structure, which is considered the finest in 
the Southern states, was $211,000. aside from incidental ex- 
penses. The approach at the south end of the bridge is sixty 
feet long, and at the north end. 127 feet, so that the extreme 
of the bridge and its approaches is 1,699 ^ eet - 

The Knoxville Street Railway Company was the parent 
company of the street railroads in Knoxville, Tenn. It was 
chartered December 12, 1875. and secured the first franchise 
from the city granted to any street railroad, on February 11, 


1876. The original directors were M. L. Patterson. Edwin 
Phelps, Joel J. P. Hargis, Oliver C. Irish and George W. Ross. 
This company built its first track along Gay street and operated 
it by mules. 

In 1882 the Market Square Railroad Company was organ- 
ized with C. \Y. Crazier, D. R. Samuels, W. C. McCoy, John L. 
Moses, \Y. H. Simmons, Peter Kern and J. S. Hall as directors, 
the charter dating February 2j, 1882, and they secured a fran- 
chise from the city on August II, 1882. While they had a 
franchise over all of the streets of the city, they only built from 
Gay street out Asylum street and made a loop line in that 
part of the city known as the Ninth ward. 

Xext the Mabry Street, Bell Avenue and Hardee Street 
Railway Company was organized by M. E. Thompson, Daniel 
Cawood, H. H. Taylor, Joseph Meek. Thomas L. Seay and 
R. X. Hood as directors, the charter 1>ein°- issued on August 12, 
1885, and the franchise being granted by the city council on 
August 25, 1885. This company built a horse car line along 
Vine and Hardee streets to the cemeteries on the Rutledge pike 
and along Central avenue to Hardee street, and along that street 
and Bell avenue to the Rutledge pike and beyond ; along several 
other streets. Afterwards extending to the vicinity of Lake 

Early in the nineties the Mabry, Bell Avenue and Hardee 
Street railroad desired to connect with the Market Square 
railroad by the construction of a track through Gay street, 
parallel to the track of the Knoxville street railway. The latter 
company made a proposition for the use of their tracks and it 
was accepted. 

In January. 1886, the Citizens Railway Company was char- 
tered with John S. Van Gilder. Reps Jones, E. C. Jones, F. H. 
McClung and Somers Van Gilder as directors, and the city 
granted a franchise over specific streets on August 10, 1886. 

The Knoxville and Edgwood Street Railroad Company was 
organized March 12. 1887. with William Caswell. N. A. Jack- 
son. J. A. Jackson, S. A. Rogers, F. A. Moses and E. C. Camp 


named as directors in the charter, and the city gave a franchise 
on April 1, 1887, for a track through Gay street, Park, Florida. 
North Fourth avenue, to city line, and from Park through 
Crozier to Broad and along Central avenue to city line. 

On March 15. 1887, the Elmwood Street Railway Company 
was incorporated with Reps Jones, H. B. Brainier, Charles Mc- 
Teer, A. P. White and H. W. Curtis as directors, and were 
granted a franchise by the city April 1, 1887, along Main street 
from the court house to Prince street and along the latter street 
to Market scpiare and to Gay street ; or from the court house 
along Gay street to White street, now North Gay street, and 
then along Park street to Elmwood Park, which was outside of 
the city. This line was constructed from White street to Elm- 
wood Park and operated by dummy engine. In 1890 there 
was organized by amendment to the charter of the Elmwood 
street railroad, the Rapid Transit Company, with the following 
directors: W. G. McAdoo, S. G. Heiskell. M. R. McAdoo, 
Samuel Hensel and A. P. White, with the right to use either 
electricity or cable as motive power. 

The West End Street Railroad Company was chartered No- 
vember 10, 1887, with James D. Cowan, R. S. Payne, R. M. 
Rhea, R. P. Gettys and W. H. Simmonds as directors, and the 
city granted a franchise over Clinch street from Gay street to 
the city line, December 2$, 1887. The road was erected. It 
was extended into West Knoxville and operated over Highland 
avenue, Clinch avenue, Eighth street, Cumberland, Temple, 
Yale and other avenues. 

There was granted a charter to the Middlebrook Railway 
Company dated October 14, 1889, with Samuel McKinnev, 
T. S. Webb, H. H. Taylor, Hu. L. McClung, S. B. Craw- 
ford, W. B. Ragsdale and W. H. Simmonds as directors, 
and the city granted a franchise April 14, 1893, from Gay 
street along Fifth avenue and over the Knoxville and Ohio 
railroad bridge, along University avenue to the city line. 

In May. 1893, the Knoxville Electric Railway Company 
was organized by amendment to the charter of the Knoxville 


Street Railway Company (the parent company). W. G. Mc- 
Adoo. F. K. Huger, Charles E. Bostwick, M. R. McAdoo 
and Samuel Hensel were the first directors. The city granted 
a new franchise to this company, recognizing the former grants 
to the old company and extending the franchise to include 
other specific streets. 

Just prior to the organization of the new company the old 
company absorbed the Mabry Street, Bell Avenue and Hardee 
Street Railroad. The new company also consolidated the 
Market Square Company into the new organization and also 
the Rapid Transit Company properties, the latter having 
absorbed the Edgwood Company properties. Then there was 
installed the system to operate the roads by electricity. The 
Middlebrook and West End companies remained out of the 

In 1893, the Knoxville Electric Railway Company having 
failed to pay interest on its bonds, it was placed in the hands 
of a receiver, and in June, 1895, the properties were sold to 
J. Simpson Africa as trustee, representing the Union Trust 
Company of Philadelphia and other creditors, C. C. Howell 
acting as agent of the parties at the sale and bidding the same 
in for the owners of the bonds. This sale included the 
property of the Rapid Transit Company, and soon after the 
sale J. E. M. Chamberlain, Jr., as trustee, raised the bid on 
the Rapid Transit property. The decrees for the sale of these 
properties were made in two parts. Nine-tenths of the prop- 
erty was confirmed to Africa as trustee and one-tenth (the 
Rapid Transit line) to Chamberlain as trustee. 

Soon after the sale the Citizens' company began to operate 
the Rapid Transit company line and commenced the construc- 
tion of lines on Jacksboro, Munson streets and Central and 
Park avenues. This brought on litigation after litigation and 
the Citizens' company fought the company operated by C. C. 
Howell as agent. The city also took a hand in the litigation 
to protect its rights, and the United States court of appeals 
decided that a street railroad could only build on streets where 


the charter specifically named the streets and the municipality 
specifically granted the franchise. This delayed the Citizens' 
company and the old company, or Howell's, seemed to have 
their own way, and through good management obtained posses- 
sion of all the streets and bridges in and about Knoxville. 
There seemed to be nothing for the Citizens' company 
to do. 

Mr. Howell organized a new company, known as the Knox- 
ville Street Railway Company. It was chartered November 
2, 1896, with W. S. Shields, J. C. Luttrell, T. S. Webb, Hu. 
L. McClung and C. C. Howell as directors, and the city granted 
a franchise naming specific streets, including those previously 
specifically granted to the Knoxville Electric railway and its 
predecessors and others over which the company desired to 
build. The Citizens' company enjoined the Knoxville Street 
Railway Company from accepting the franchise granted as 
above stated and the injunction held for a year. On being dis- 
solved by the courts, the Knoxville Street Railway Company 
accepted the franchise. This company was the main or prin- 
cipal company in the city at that time. 

The North Knoxville corporation granted to> the Citizens' 
company a franchise over certain streets, and as there had 
been several extensions and delay after delay, the city by ordi- 
nance declared forfeited a deposit of $1,000 made by the com- 
pany and the track of the Citizens' company within the 
limits of that city. 

On March 1, 1897, the Citizens' company attempted to dig 
up Depot street, contrary to a city ordinance prohibiting the 
digging up of streets during winter months. When the police 
interfered the Citizens' company had the police arrested for 
interfering with them and the fire department was called out 
to do police duty, which they did. This brought about addi- 
tional litigation between the Citizens' company and the city, 
and the city won every point of the litigation. 

In the latter part of 1895 Mr. C. C. Howell, the general 
manager of the Knoxville Street Railway Company, bought 


the Micldlebrook Railway Company and operated it in con- 
nection with the lines managed by him. 

The Knoxville Traction Company was organized March 28, 
1898, by an amendment to the charter of the Knoxville Street 
Railway Company. On the same day it acquired by purchase 
the property and lines of the Knoxville, Middlebrook, West 
End, and the Citizens' Street Railway Companies. This com- 
prised all of the street railways in the city. On the same day 
the same company secured by purchase the property of the 
Knoxville Electric Light and Power Company and the Mutual 
Light and Power Company. These light and power proper- 
ties are still held and controlled by the same people. It was 
a virtual consolidation of all the electric business in Knoxville, 
which was at that time placed in the charge and management 
of Mr. C. C. Howell, who had also been in charge of the affairs 
of the Knoxville Street Railway O impany and the Knoxville 
Electric Light and Power Company and had made them a 

When the Knoxville Traction Company was organized it 
chose as directors the following gentlemen : Frank S. Hamble- 
ton, John N. Steele and Charles X. Baer of Baltimore, Md. : 
C. C. Howell. E. E. McMillian, W. S. Shields and R. M. Rhea 
nl" Knoxville, Tenn. 

Mr. Frank S. Hambleton was chosen as president. He was 
connected with the Baltimore Consolidated Street Railway 
Company and his father, T. Edward Hambleton, was the 
father of rapid transit in Baltimore. Md. Mr. Frank S. 
Hambleton has been associated with his father for many years 
and was thoroughly equipped and the proper person to become 
the head of this important property. 

Mr. C. C. Howell was elected vice-president and general 
manager of the company. Mr. Hambleton first showed his 
ability and good judgment in placing Mr. Howell at the helm 
of management of these newly acquired properties, as he was 
acquainted with the people, who had been watching him since 
he arrived in Knoxville and knew that he was operating the 


property of the city well, and in the interest of the people that 
he represented. 

On many occasions when Mr. Howell was in his hardest 
fight with the city authorities, establishing what he thought 
was the rights of his company, he would say : "The railway's 
interest and the people's interest are identical," and his pre- 
dictions have proved true, as he has the whole community 
in sympathy with his work. There is not a more thoroughly 
equipped and better managed property in the country than 
the Knoxville Traction Company and its allied property, the 
Knoxville Electric Light and Power Company. The roadbed 
and the cars are of the best and the service given to its patrons 
is equal to that of any town of the same size of Knoxville. 

Mr. C. C. Howell was born in Jefferson county, New York, 
March 22, 1848. His father died when he was four years of 
age and he was compelled to become the architect of his own 
fortune and in 1861 he apprenticed himself to learn the black- 
smith's and machinist's trade in Watertown, N. Y., which he 
followed until after the war, when he entered the employ of 
the Watertown Portable Steam Engine Manufacturing Com- 
pany, remaining for two years, and during that time he 
attended night school. After working at his trade for seven 
years in Watertown he went to Utica, N. Y., and remained for 
one year, following his trade. In the fall of 1868 he left 
Utica and went to the Michigan State University at Ann 
Arbor, where lie took a special course in chemistry, metallurgy 
and mechanical engineering. 

He has become identified with all the public enterprises of 
Knoxville and was one of the originators of the annual carni- 
val, each year giving it his strong support. He was one of 
the principal movers in securing the national camp of volun- 
teers in Knoxville during the Spanish-American war. He 
identified himself with the women of the city and helped to 
secure the first funds for the erection of the new city hospital. 
The Woman's Hospital and Promoting Board entrusted him 


with the obtaining of the necessary legislation and he secured 
the passage of an act permitting the city to issue $30,000 of 
bonds, which sold for $32,000 net. He was selected by the 
Women's Building and Promoting Board as one of the gov- 
ernors of the new hospital and the city council chose him as 
one of the building committee of that institution. 



The Gazette, Knoxville's First Newspaper — The Register and Its Long 
Life — The Plebeian, Knoxville's First Daily— Brownlow's Whig and 
Its Remarkable Career — Recent Ventures in Knoxville Journalism — 
The Chronicle — The Press and Herald — The Tribune — The Journal 
and Tribune — The Afternoon Sentinel — The Church Newspapers. 

THE first newspaper published in Knoxville, which was 
also the first in Tennessee and the third west of the 
Allegheny mountains, began publication in 1791, the 
year before Knoxville was laid out as a town. Since then 
more than fifty periodicals have found birth here and all, with 
the exception of two dailies, with weekly editions, and four 
with only weekly editions, published at the present time, have 
also come to their death here. A few of them had compara- 
tively long lives; the life of most of them reached only a few 
years, in many cases only months. A few, only a small num- 
ber, of the men who have been connected with these various 
publications gained considerable fame; most of them have 
been forgotten, except to a few persons of advanced age and 
a few others who attempt to gather up the faded facts of un- 
written history. It was nearly half a century between the date 
of the publication of the first Knoxville newspaper and the ap- 
pearance of the first one issued more than once a week. The 
first daily paper attempted was in 185 1, but it was not a pay- 
ing enterprise. The first daily that was published for more 
than a year came out in 1861, and suspended in 1863, as one 
of the casualties of the Civil war. Since 1866 Knoxville has 
not been without a daily paper, and at one time had four. At 
least one Knoxville paper, as will appear further on in this 
chapter, reached, under all circumstances, a phenomenal cir- 



culation, others have had fair success, while many others 
have printed only small editions, being dependent upon a 
territory with meager mail facilities. 

The first paper published in Knoxville was The Gazette. 
Its first number appeared on the 5th day of November, 1791. 
It was the Knoxville Gazette from the beginning; but the 
first number was printed at Rogersville, where it continued 
to be published for nearly a year. It was founded by George 
Roulstone, who, according to a recent article writtqn by 
Dr. George F. Mellen of the University of Tennessee, and 
printed in the Knoxville Sentinel, had been connected with an 
unsuccessful newspaper enterprise at Fayetteville, North Caro- 
lina. T he Gaze tte at first and for some time came out only 
once in t wo w eeks, and its issues were not uniform in size, 
probably on account of the difficulty in procuring paper upon 
which to print it. This appears upon examination of a bound 
file of the paper now in possession of the State Historical So- 
ciety. In the issue of June 16, 1792, appears the conclusion 
of Thomas Paine's "Rights of Man," which had been running 
from the issue of November 5, 1791. The paper was removed 
from Rogersville in the fall of 1792. The issue that should 
have appeared on October 6, 1792, did not appear until the 
10th. which had the following explanation: "The removal of 
the printing office from Hawkins C. H. to this place prevented 
the publication of this paper till this day, by which means 
we have an opportunity of presenting the public with the fol- 
lowing important intelligence." (Here follows an account 
of a supply of arms and ammunition to the Indians from 
Pensacola, by the Spaniards, Carondolet and O'Neal.) 

Mr. Roulstone had a partner named Ferguson, but in April, 
1793, the partnership was dissolved and the publication was 
continued by Roulstone & Co. In the fall of 1793 a number 
of issues of The Gazette did not appear on account of the mis- 
carriage of a load of paper. The publisher had troubles com- 
mon to newspaper men in the earlier days under the credit 
system, as, in December, 1793, he mentioned outstanding un- 


paid accounts of two years' standing. The Gazette was a 
small three-column, four-page paper, not attractive in its 
appearance, but its appearance was quite an event to the hardy 
pioneers who were then laying the foundation of the sixteenth 
of the American Commonwealths. Mr. Roulstone was a 
printer and came to Tennessee, then the Territory South 
of the River Ohio, at the suggestion of Governor William 
Blount, appointed governor of the territory by President Wash- 
ington in 1790. He was printer afterwards to' the territorial 
and state legislatures and was the clerk of the territorial legis- 
lature when it was organized at Knoxville on the 25th day of 
August, 1794. He continued to publish The Gazette to the 
date of his death, which occurred in the year 1804. He was 
doubtless aided in his endeavors by Governor Blount and the 
authorities in the infant state, who felt the importance of hav- 
ing a medium through which to make known the laws enacted 
to the people governed. The income of the Gazette was supple- 
mented in that way. The difficulties that confronted the pub- 
lisher of the Gazette can be easily imagined when it is known 
that paper and all other material had to be transported hun- 
dreds of miles through a country that was without roads 
except those of the most primitive character. George Roul- 
stone was a man who commanded the respect and enjoyed the 
confidence of the people of his day, which is attested by the 
fact that he was elected public printer to the state, held that 
position at the time of his death, and after he died his wife was 
elected to fill the office two successive terms. 

Mr. Roulstone started two other papers in Knoxville, The 
Register, a weekly, in 1798, which he published about two 
years, and then The Genius of Liberty, in connection with 
John Rivington Parrington. Knoxville then had three week- 
lies, in every one of which Mr. Roulstone was interested. 
In 1804, in the month of January, George Wilson became the 
publisher of Wilson's Gazette, the successor of the Knoxville 
Gazette. It was a weekly and continued to be published in 
Knoxville for fourteen years and in the year 1818 Wilson 



removed to Nashville, that city having then become the capital 
of the state. 

In the year 1816, on the 3d day of August, Major Fred- 
erick S. Heiskell and Hu. Brown began the publication of 
the Knoxville Register, which continued to be published for 
a longer term of years than any other paper yet published in 
the city. It suspended publication upon the arrival of General 
Burnside with the Union army, about the first of September, 
1863. Its life was within a few days of forty-seven years, 
and in the main it was a distinctly honorable career. In this 
connection a brief sketch of its distinguished founders will 
be proper and of interest. Major Heiskell remained one of 
the proprietors of The Register for about twenty-one years, 
devoting his w"hole time, energy and ability to its success. 
He was born in Hagerstown, Maryland, but when yet a 
child his parents removed to Shenandoah county, Virginia. 
He learned the printer's trade in the office of his brother, 
John Heiskell, in Winchester, Virginia, and came to Knoxville 
in December, 1814. After working as a journeyman printer 
something less than two years, he, in conjunction with Hu. 
Brown, whose sister he afterwards married, founded The 
Knoxville Register, a weekly paper. In 1829 Hu. Brown 
retired from the paper and Major Heiskell continued its pub- 
lication until in 1837, when, on account of impaired health, 
he retired to a farm ten miles west of Knoxville, having sold 
his interest in The Register to W. B. A. Ramsey and Robert 
Craighead. While publishing The Register, Major Heiskell 
was intimately acquainted with Hugh Lawson White, John 
Bell, Ephraim H. Foster, James K. Polk and other famous 
men of his time. For years he was a trusted friend of Andrew 
Jackson, and fought his earlier political battles with char- 
acteristic vigor. He also knew Henry Clay well and was one 
of his earnest, sincere supporters. In 1847 he was elected to 
the state senate, the only office he ever held, and distinguished 
himself as an able, conscientious and zealous representative 
of the people's interests. He was always a gentleman in his 


habits and deportment, and universally recognized as thor- 
oughly incorruptible. He was a public-spirited man and took 
a deep interest in the cause of education. He was one of the 
trustees of the East Tennessee Female Institute and for years 
up to the date of his death was also one of the trustees of 
the East Tennessee University, now University of Tennessee. 
While conducting The Register his counsel and influence was 
eagerly sought by men in public life and his advice was always 
received with consideration. His life was long, strenuous and 
useful. He died in the 94th year of his age at Rogersville. 
Tennessee, in November, 1882. He remained an omnivorous 
newspaper reader to the last, and at the time of his death left 
twenty large scrap-books made up of clippings which he con- 
sidered of value. His partner and brother-in-law, Hu. Brown, 
was also a superior man. He retired from The Register in 
1829, to accept a professorship in the University of Tennessee. 
Under their management the power and influence of The 
Register was second to no paper in the state. It was a credit 
to its publishers and to the section of the country in which it 
circulated. Its proprietors took an active part in the politics 
of the period and made themselves felt by friends and by foes. 
In 1836, contrary to the will and wishes of Andrew Jack- 
son, who had been the most influential man in Tennessee 
politics, and who had decreed that Martin Van Buren should 
be his successor in the Presidential chair. The Knoxville Reg- 
ister supported Hugh Lawson White for that office. He car- 
ried the state, his majority, in spite of Jackson's opposition, 
being a little more than nine thousand in a total vote of 61,000. 
In the Eastern division of the state Hugh Lawson White car- 
ried every county with the exception of Greene, Sullivan and 
Washington, most of them by overwhelming majorities. Four 
years previous to that, in 1832, Andrew Jackson had carried 
every one of the counties in East Tennessee. This year, against 
the influence exerted by the Knoxville Register, he could influ- 
ence but three counties to vote for Martin Van Buren. This 
is mentioned as showing the influence of The Register in those 


days. Some of the men who were at times connected with 
The Knoxville Register office afterwards became prominent 
in the state. Gen. Felix K. Zollicoffer worked as a printer in 
the office. He afterwards became, as editor of the Nashville 
Republican Banner, one of the best-known journalists in the 
South, was elected state comptroller, served in the lower house 
of congress, and was killed at Mill Springs, Kentucky, in 
February. 1862, while gallantly leading a brigade of Confed- 
erate soldiers of which he was the commander. 

From John E. Helms, one of the oldest newspaper men in 
the state, it is learned that Major Heiskell. the founder of The 
Register, was the president of the first meeting of the Tennes- 
see Press Association. It was held in the old Mansion House, 
an excellent hotel in its day. It stood on the grounds upon 
which the county court-house now stands. The meeting was 
held about the year 1838. 

In 1840 Thomas W. Humes was the editor of The Register, 
when it was an earnest supporter of the Whig Presidential 
ticke^ and the organ of the Whig party in this section. Mr. 
Humes afterward took orders in the Protestant Episcopal 
church, was rector of St. John's church in Knoxville eighteen 
years and also served eighteen years as president of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee. In 1838 James C. Moses came to Knox- 
ville from Exeter, New Hampshire. He was a practical printer 
and was first employed as foreman of The Knoxville Times. 
He afterwards purchased The Register and with his brother, 
John L. Moses, with whom he was connected for a time, re- 
mained with the Register until in 1849. when they retired 
from the newspaper field and entered mercantile business. 
For the next ten years The Register was less prosperous. 
For two or three years its editorial department was conducted 
by John Miller McKee, who afterwards removed to Nashville 
and for years was on the editorial staff of the old Union and 
American. At another time, when quite a young man. with 
brilliant prospects. Hon. John M. Fleming presided over the 
editorial department of the paper. About the year 1859 the 


services of George W. Bradfield were secured as editor and 
the paper, which had been Whig - , espoused the principles of 
the Democratic party. Air. Bradfield was a strong partisan 
and an upright gentleman, universally respected. 

Early in 1861 Mr. Bradfield severed his connection with The 
Register and it passed into the hands of J. Austin Sperry. 
The Civil war began soon afterwards and the paper became 
a vigorous, uncompromising advocate of secession. About the 
time that the Confederate soldiers began to be mobilized in 
the vicinity of Knoxville in 1861, The Register was issued as 
a daily, six days in the week, and continued to be so issued 
until some time in August, 1863, when it suspended publica- 
tion, and never again resumed. A large majority of the people 
of East Tennessee were opposed to secession and remained 
loyal to the Union. These were antagonized bitterly by The 
Register and Mr. Sperry realized that with the advent of the 
Union army it would be impossible for him to continue the 
publication of his paper, therefore upon the approach of General 
Burnside he fled South and the paper was never afterwards re- 
vived. Thus was ended the career of a newspaper that had 
been published for forty-seven years, a longer period than any 
of its predecessors or successors. As already shown, its career 
for the most part was one of which its founders had good 
reason to feel proud. 

In 1 8.23 The Enquirer was started. It was printed in the 
office of Hiram Barry, who came, to Knoxville in 1816, and 
who carried on the printing business here for more than fifty 
years. When Mr. Barry was the owner and publisher of The 
Enquirer it was edited by J. J. Meredith. It lived a precarious 
sort of life and came to an early death, without having made 
an impression sufficient to give it a permanent place in local 

Hon. John R. Kelson, a lawyer of considerable natural 
ability, combative in disposition, without literary attainments 
to speak of. but nevertheless a man of marked character, made 
two ventures in the newspaper world, starting The RepuU 


lican in 183 r . and Uncle Sam in 1834. There was no place 
for them and they soon disappeared. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Heiskell having disposed of his inter- 
est in The Knoxville Register, some gentleman of character 
and influence became dissatisfied with that paper and deter- 
mined to start another. When the matter was finally settled, 
all of those who had favored it and had decided to put money 
into it declined, except Mr. Perez Dickinson. He went to 
Philadelphia and bought an outfit. He then went to Boston, 
and while there, James C. Moses was recommended to him 
as being a good man to take charge of the mechanical depart- 
ment of the new venture. Mr. Dickinson secured his services 
and he came on to Knoxville. The paper was brought out 
under the name. The Knoxville Times. Thomas W. Humes 
was engaged as editor, and tri-weekly editions were printed, 
it being the first paper printed in Knoxville oftener than once 
a week. It was published successfully for two years, when its 
owners bought The Knoxville Register and the name of The 
Times was dropped, The Register being continued. While it 
was published The Times was printed on the best paper, was 
tasteful in its make-up and edited with ability. 

In 1 841, Capt. James Williams, afterwards United States 
minister to Constantinople under President Buchanan's ad- 
ministration, started the Knoxville Post. In 1848 The Post 
was removed to Athens, Tennessee, where it was published 
to the time of his death by Sam. P. Ivins, who had been 
employed as a printer in the office of The Post at Knoxville. 
He was one of the best known newspaper men in the state, 
and as a writer of editorial paragraphs had few equals. It 
may be noted here that while the office was conducted in 
Knoxville a book was published there, of which J. W. M. 
Brazeale was the author, entitled "Life as It Is." which at- 
tracted much attention, and though long out of print is sought 
after yet. While relating facts of history, it contains com- 
ments upon the customs of the early settlers, notable for their 
freshness and freedom from all restraint. It also relates how 


two noted murderers, "The Harps," went about the country 
killing people, for no other purpose than murder. The Post 
is still in existence and is published at Athens, Tennessee. 

A Democratic paper called The Argus was started in 1838, 
the name of which was changed in 1844 to The Standard. It 
was continued precariously for a number of years under 
various managements until 1855, when its light went out. In 
1850 The Plebeian was started by John E. and William T. 
Helms. In 1851 it was published as a morning daily, being 
the first daily paper published in Knoxville, but it was not 
a success. 

In the year 1839 Brownlow's Tennessee Whig made its 
appearance at Elizabethton, Tennessee, William G. Brown- 
low, editor and proprietor. After being published a year at 
Elizabethton, it was removed to Jonesborough, where it con- 
tinued to be published for nine years. It was, as its name 
indicates, a Whig paper and its editor was a remarkable 
man, fond of controversy, given to the use of vigorous lan- 
guage, and consequently had bitter enemies as well as warm, 
sincere friends. In 1849 he determined to remove to Knox- 
ville, this city, though then a small town, presenting a more 
promising field for his enterprise. The first number of the 
Knoxville Whig was published about the first of the year 
1850. It soon won for itself and its editor a national reputa- 
tion. It was taken and read solely on account of its editorials, 
and before the end of the decade, although a weekly published 
in a small town with limited facilities for reaching the outside 
world, its circulation reached the phenomenal figure of twelve 
thousand copies weekly. It was common in those days for 
newspapers to adopt mottoes, or devices, printed at the top 
of their front pages, meant to be explanatory of the policy of 
such papers. Among those thus printed in Brownlow's 
Knoxville Whig were "Cry Aloud and Spare Not," and "In- 
dependent in All Things, Neutral in Nothing." These 
devices very succinctly set forth the general policy of the 


While The Whig was a political paper, an enthusiastic 
adherent of the Whig part}', Air. Brownlow, the first years 
of whose manhood life had been spent as an itinerant Meth- 
odist clergyman, a "circuit rider," engaged actively in the 
discussion of religious questions, and was an outspoken 
champion of temperance. Besides preaching frequently, in 
addition to his duties as editor and publisher of a newspaper, 
he was often called upon to deliver addresses on temperance, 
and his denunciations of the liquor traffic were amongst the 
most scathing that ever fell from man's lips. He also became 
involved in some very acrimonious controversies on religious 
questions, once with Rev. Frederick A. Ross, an able Presby- 
terian divine, and again with Rev. James R. Graves, an able 
and distinguished Baptist clergyman. He himself, as already 
stated, being a Methodist, stood up valiantly for his own 
church and its peculiar doctrines and controverted the doc- 
trines of his antagonists. His style was vigorous, incisive and 
few men have excelled him in the employment of invective 
and sarcasm, which he used without stint in dealing with his 
antagonists, whether the subject of controversy happened 
to be politics or religion. It is perhaps impossible for men 
and women of the present day to realize fully the full measure 
of bitterness with which religious controversies were waged 
about the middle of the century. In his intercourse with 
the public, Mr. Brownlow adhered to his motto, "Cry Aloud 
and Spare Not." 

While an outspoken champion of Whig principles, he did 
not always support the Whig candidates for office, he was 
"independent in all things, neutral in nothing." A notable 
exception was in the presidential campaign of 1852, when the 
Whigs nominated Gen. Winfield Scott for President. Brown- 
low refused to support him and supported and voted for 
Daniel Webster instead, although Webster died a few days 
before the election was held. He also opposed the election 
of Hon. Horace Maynard. nominated by the Whigs of the 
district for congress in 1S53. Mr. Maynard was defeated 


by William M. Churchwell, who, by the way, was the last 
Democrat elected to congress from the Knoxville district 
from that day to this. Mr. Maynard was afterwards, in 
1857, again nominated for congress, was supported by Mr. 
Brownlow and was re-elected eight consecutive times. He 
and Mr. Brownlow became fast friends and remained so to the 
close of their lives, Maynard outliving Brownlow five years. 
These things are mentioned to show that Mr. Brownlow was 
never neutral and always independent. 

During the years immediately following the removal of 
The Whig from Jonesborough, the question of slavery be- 
came a more conspicuous issue than it had ever been before. 
In the years 1854-5 a new party arose, called the Know- 
Nothing, afterwards the American party. Its motto was, 
"Put None but Americans on Guard," and it sought to extend 
the period of residence required of foreign immigrants before 
naturalization. The party also made war upon the Roman 
Catholic church. Mr. Brownlow warmly espoused this new 
party, the old Whig party being dead, not only through the 
columns of The Whig, but also on the stump. He also 
wrote and published a book about that time, entitled, 
"Americanism and Romanism Contrasted." In this place it 
may be remarked that he also wrote a book during the decade 
here under consideration, entitled, "The Great Iron Wheel 
Examined, and Its False Spokes Extracted." It was written 
in reply'to a book of which Rev. J. R. Graves was the author, 
called "The Great Iron Wheel," being an attack on the 
doctrines and the polity of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Brownlow's reply was published by the Book Concern of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and with the official 
sanction of that church. It was during the ten years, from 
1850 to i860, when he was from 45 to 55 years old, that he 
won a national reputation. He was then in his prime, and 
besides editing The Whig, did a prodigious amount of other 

Going back to the fierce discussion of the slavery ques- 


tion, precipitated by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
Mr. Brownlow took the pro-slavery, or Southern, side of the 
issue. His paper became very popular in this section and 
had a large circulation in every state in the South. This 
popularity was increased when in 1858 he held a debate last- 
ing five days, in the city of Philadelphia, with Rev. Abram 
Pryne. Brownlow defended the institution of slavery and 
Mr. Prvne attacked it. The joint discussion was published 
together in a volume soon afterwards. About this time his 
paper reached a very large circulation for a country weekly. 
In the campaign of 1861, when the question of secession 
from the Union was the issue, Mr. Brownlow was an un- 
compromising Union man, and the secessionists printed ex- 
tracts from his speeches against Pryne as a campaign docu- 
ment. But they were garbled. He was always a strong 
Union man. When the nullification movement was in- 
augurated in South Carolina in 1832, Mr. Brownlow was rid- 
ing a circuit and preaching in that state. He opposed 
nullification earnestly and vigorously at considerable per- 
sonal peril. In his debate with Pryne he indulged in a 
strong plea for the Union, from which this is an extract: 

"Who can estimate the value of the American Union? 
Proud, happy, thrice-happy America! The home of the op- 
pressed, the asylum of the emigrant! Where the citizens of 
every clime, and the child of every creed, roam free and un- 
trammeled as the wild winds of heaven! Baptized at the 
fount of Liberty in fire and blood, cold must be the heart 
that thrills not at the name of the American Union!" 

Two years after this debate, he supported his personal and 
political friend, Hon. John Bell, of Tennessee, for President 
on the platform, "The Union, the Constitution and the En- 
forcement of the Laws." He entered this campaign with all 
the ardor of his nature, both in his paper and on the stump. 
He denounced disunion and the men who favored it as a 
remedy for alleged evils. John Bell carried the state of 
Tennessee, but Abraham Lincoln was elected President. 


South Carolina adopted a secession ordinance a few weeks 
after the election became known, and other states were pre- 
paring to follow. The Knoxville Whig became more and 
more outspoken for the Union. Many of its subscribers in 
the Southern states refused to take it from the postoffices and 
some of them wrote insulting and threatening letters to the 
editor. But what the paper lost in the South was more than 
made up from the Northern states. Subscribers poured in 
from that section, hundreds of them in a day, and The Whig 
thundered anathemas against secession and disunion. A large 
majority of his neighbors in Eastern Tennessee stood by him 
loyally and to the last. In June, 1861, the state voted on the 
question of secession and ratified an ordinance to that effect 
that had been proposed by the legislature at an extra session 
called for that purpose. But the editor of the Knoxville 
Whig continued to write and print Union editorials. The 
campaign preceding the June election was one of the most 
exciting ever seen in this country, and during its progress Mr. 
Brownlow was busy with his pen and on the stump. His 
style both in writing and in speaking suited the times, and 
he was heard by tens of thousands, while his editorials were 
read by ten times as many. Hostilities had begun and armies 
were being mobilized. He was considered a public enemy by 
many. His state had voted to go with the Southern Con- 
federacy; but he kept the flag of the Union floating from his 
residence while armed soldiers threatened to tear it down. 
Still he wrote and printed defiant editorials, hurling thunder- 
bolts of epithet and sarcasm at his opponents. 

But the end came. He could no longer send his paper to 
Northern subscribers, for the mails were cut off. The South- 
ern authorities very naturally regarded The Whig as an in- 
cendiary paper and it could not be circulated in the South. 
Finally, in October, 1861, believing that he was about to be 
arrested on a charge of treason against the Southern Con- 
federacy, Mr. Brownlow decided to suspend the further pub- 
lication of The Whig, which he did. lie announced his purpose 


in a signed editorial, dated October 24, 1861, more than six 
months after the beginning of hostilities and more than four 
months after the ratification of the ordinance of secession in 
Tennessee. The editorial was printed in the last number of 
the paper, issued a day or two after it was written. Measured 
by the influence exerted upon the people in the immediate 
section in which it circulated, the temporary death of the 
Knoxville Whig ma}' be compared to the death of a Sampson, 
the slain outnumbered those of its life. It is quite possible 
that Mr. Brownlow so intended it. After announcing the 
information he had. to the effect that he was to be indicted 
and arrested, he said that under the usages of the courts he 
presumed he might go free by taking the oath the authorities 
were administering to other Union men, or that he might 
enter into bond to keep the peace, but that he should ob- 
stinately refuse to do that, and added, "if such a bond should 
be drawn up and signed by others, I will render it null and 
void by refusing to sign it. In default of both I expect to 
go to jail, and I am ready to start upon one moment's warn- 
ing." In addition to this he said, among other things: 

"I shall in no degree feel humbled by being cast into 
prison, whenever it is the will and pleasure of this august 
government to put me there; but on the contrary I shall feel 
proud of my confinement. I shall go to jail — as John Rogers 
went to the stake — for my principles. I shall go, because I 
have failed to recognize the hand of God in the work of 
breaking up the American Government, and the inauguration 
of the most wicked, cruel, unnatural and uncalled-for war 
ever recorded in history. I go, because I have refused to 
laud to the skies the acts of tyranny, usurpation and oppres- 
sion inflicted upon the people of East Tennessee for their 
devotion to the Constitution and laws of the government 
handed down to them by their fathers, and the liberties 
secured to them by a war of seven long years of gloom, 
poverty and trial! I repeat, I am proud of my position, and of 
my principles, and shall leave them to my children as a 


legacv far more valuable than a princely fortune, had I the 
latter to bestow!" 

A few days after writing the editorial from which the fore- 
going is quoted, he went into the counties of Blount and 
Sevier and was the guest of friends. A little more than a 
month afterwards he returned to Knoxville, under a promise 
of permission to go North, when he was arrested and put in 
jail, where he remained a month. He became seriously ill 
and on the advice of his physician was removed from the jail 
to his residence, where he was kept under guard by details of 
armed soldiers. Having recovered sufficiently to travel, in 
March, 1862, he was sent through the Confederate lines, near 
Nashville, from which place he went North and remained 
there, his family being also sent through the lines in the fall 
of 1862, until the advent of Gen. Burnside in Knoxville in 
September, 1863. In the month of November of that year_ 
he again began the publication of the Knoxville Whig, to 
which he added, "And Rebel Ventilator." In 1865. when the 
state government had been reorganized, William G. Brown- 
low was elected governor, and he was re-elected in 1867. He 
resigned in 1869, and took his seat on the 4th of March as 
one of the United States senators from Tennessee. Having 
retained his connection with The Whig, in connection with his 
son, Col. John B. Brownlow, and Tilghman Hawes. the paper 
went into the hands of a joint stock company in 1869, and 
Rev. Thos. H. Pearne became its editor. After this Gov. 
Brownlow gave it little attention beyond occasional signed 
contributions. Later the Whig was controlled by Joseph A. 
Mabry and it became a Democratic paper, with C. W. Charl- 
ton as editor. S*till later it was sold to Saunders & Clark. It 
was published as a daily from early in 1869. Saunders & 
Clark failed of success and the paper was permanently sus- 
pended in 1871. Much space has been given to The Whig 
and its famous editor, because of its large circulation and 
because the reputation of its editor was national. Having 
served out his term in the senate, Governor Brownlow re- 


turned to Knoxville and purchased a half interest in the 
Knoxville Daily and Weekly Chronicle. The name of the 
weekly edition was changed to The Whig" and Chronicle. 
He became editor-in-chief of this paper, being associated in 
its publication with Wm. Rule, one of the founders of 
The Chronicle. Governor Brownlow closed his vigor- 
ous, busy, eventful life at his home in Knoxville, 
on the 29th day of April, 1877, and he rests in Gray 
Cemetery, where a beautiful granite shaft marks his resting 
place. And though his life was a stormy one, his death 
was sincerely mourned, well nigh universally by those who 
knew him well. He honored his name, his country, his state 
and the profession in which he won national fame. 

There are a number of reasons for the large success of The 
Knoxville Whig under Governor Brownlow's management. 
It was published at a time when controversy was rife; he 
was a born controversialist. He was a master of invective and 
burning sarcasm, and he flourished in an age when such 
things were expected of a public journalist. He kept him- 
self well informed concerning the weak as well as of the 
strong points of men, and that was a day of personal journal- 
ism. He was a man of the strictest integrity, and as a news- 
paper editor never permitted principle to become subservient 
to expediency, so his friends had in him unlimited confidence. 
He seldom made mistakes. And in all of his editorial writ- 
ings there ran a vein of humor that was sometimes exquisite. 
This was often exhibited at unexpected times, and some- 
times troubled his antagonists more than his bitterest words. 
But it was not always employed in that way. it made him the 
center of whatever social circle he became a part. He em- 
ployed it on one occasion when a young preacher, lying, it 
was thought, at the point of death at Abingdon, Virginia. 
The venerable Bishop Capers and other ministers, a Metho- 
dist conference being then in session at that place, were curi- 
ous to know how the "eccentric parson" felt in view of a 
possible exchange of worlds. The bishop called at his room. 


read from the Scriptures and prayed with him, and on taking 
his leave held Brownlow by the hand, looking him in the 
face, asked him about his prospects beyond the grave. 
Brownlow replied: "Well, Bishop, if I had my life to live 
over again, I could improve it in many respects and would 
try to do so. However, if the books have been properly 
kept in the other world, there is a small balance in my favor." 
He didn't die then, but lived to win a very large measure of 

In 1855, 1856, and 1857 The Southern Journal of Medical 
and Physical Sciences was published by Kinsloe & Rice and 
edited by Dr. Richard O. Currey, a man of much ability. 
The publication ceased with December, 1857. It was a 
monthly and in the latter years was the organ of the East 
Tennessee Medical Society. 

In 1857 The Southern Citizen was published in Knoxville 
for about a year. Its editor was the "Irish Patriot," John 
Mitchell, whose name was familiar, in his time, to all Eng- 
lish-speaking people. He was born at Dungiven, County 
Derry, Ireland, and was the son of a Unitarian clergyman. 
He was well educated, and began life as a practicing lawyer, 
in Dublin. Afterwards he became the editor of The Nation, 
Dublin, and soon got himself into serious trouble by writing 
revolutionary articles for his paper and publishing them, for 
which he was prosecuted and his paper suppressed. Mitchell 
was sentenced to expatriation for fourteen years. He was de- 
ported to Australia, where he remained on parole until 1854, 
about six years, when he resigned his parole and, escaping 
from the colony, sailed for New York, landing there on the 
29th day of November. 1854. Shortly after his arrival there 
he founded The Citizen, a weekly journal, which he con- 
tinued until failing eye-sight induced him to give it up and 
seek a more congenial climate. It was then that he came to 
Knoxville, where he associated himself with William G. 
Swan, then a leading member of the Knoxville bar. Swan 
was an extreme man. fond of controversy, and it was prob- 


ably through his influence that Mitchell came to Knoxville. 
Mr. Swan, besides being extreme was an able and scholarly 
man, who wielded much influence over his associates and 
friends. These two started The Southern Citizen in Knox- 
ville, which was a very extreme paper, and soon got its 
editor into some warm controversies. Among other things 
advocated by The Southern Citizen was the reopening of 
the African slave trade. It is a mystery why a paper advo- 
cating so extreme a policy in that day should have been 
published in Knoxville, for there was not a town in the 
whole South, or a section, where such a policy had fewer 
sympathizers than in Knoxville, in Eastern Tennessee. There 
were comparatively few slave-holders in this part of the state, 
and there were many who -were opposed to slavery. Mr. 
Mitchell went from Knoxville to Richmond, where, during 
the Civil war, he was editor of The Richmond Examiner. 
After the war he removed to New York and settled there, 
where he did some literary work. He visited Ireland in 1874, 
was elected to parliament for Tipperary in 1875, though dis- 
qualified for a seat. Soon afterwards he died in Ireland. He 
was an able and fluent writer, his editorials combining force, 
choice English and often great bitterness. They were read 
eagerly by his enemies as well as by his friends and his jour- 
nals always attracted widespread attention, both those 
printed in Ireland and in the United States. 

John Miller McKee, whose name has already been men- 
tioned in connection with The Knoxville Register, founded 
a paper about 1846 called The Tribune, which was pub- 
lished about four years, and was then sold out to the owners 
of The Knoxville Register and was absorbed by that paper, 
Mr. McKee becoming the editor of The Register. He is still 
living in Nashville, where he did many years of active news- 
paper work and was noted for the painstaking methods and 
for the completeness and accuracy of his contributions. 

The Knoxville Argus was published in this city for some 
time by E. G. Eastman, who was a prominent man in his day. 


He went from Knoxville to Nashville and spent several years 
in that city in newspaper work. 

It was about the year 1854 that John E. Helms founded 
a Democratic weekly newspaper called The Knoxville Mer- 
cury. It was a neat-appearing sheet and a good newspaper, 
but it suspended after a life of about two years. 

In February, 1862, Hon. John Baxter, a leading and able 
lawyer of Knoxville, who was afterwards appointed a United 
States Circuit Judge by President Hayes, determined to pub- 
lish a daily paper in the office in which Brownlow's Knoxville 
Whig had been printed previous to its suspension. It was 
called The East Tennesseean. It was a neat paper, but it 
suspended with its first number. While it was not intended 
to oppose the Confederate government, its purpose was to 
defend the Union people of East Tennessee, and to be such 
a paper as they might read and feel that it was their friend. 
The paper was started soon after the disastrous defeat of the 
Confederate forces at Fishing Creek, just beyond the Ken- 
tucky border, where the Confederate General Zollicoffer was 
killed, and its projectors may have anticipated a time coming 
when they could publish a Union paper. But after mature 
deliberation it was probably seen that the publication of such 
a paper as they contemplated would be impracticable and it 
was at once abandoned. Colonel Baxter remained in Knox- 
ville until the advent of General Burnside and then success- 
fully practiced his profession until in 1877, when he was made 
United States Circuit Judge of the Sixth Judicial Circuit, 
composed of the states of Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and 
Tennessee, which position he held to the date of his death, 
which occurred in 1886, at Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

The Southern Chronicle was started in 1862, but lived only 
about a year, suspending publication when General Burnside 
came to Knoxville in September, 1863. It was conducted 
with ability, but was not sensational enough to suit the pub- 
lic appetite in such eventful times. 

In January. 1865. the end of the Civil war being apparently 


near at hand, J. W. Patterson, an Ohio man, came to Knox- 
ville and founded The Daily Commercial, which he continued 
to publish for something more than a year. It was a paper 
of merit, sprightly and newsy; but the political policy of its 
editor, Mr. Patterson, was in opposition to the sentiments 
of a majority of the people residing in the section in which 
it was published. It was at a time when the virtue of toler- 
ation was a scarce article and The Daily Commercial occasion- 
ally found its course a stormy one. For this reason, and for 
the additional reason, perhaps, that the outlook for reasonable 
remuneration was not inviting, its publication was abandoned 
in the year 1866. 

The Knoxville Whig having changed its politics under 
its changed management, there was no Republican paper 
in Knoxville, and as an overwhelming majority of the voters 
of Knox county and East Tennessee were Republicans, Wm. 
Rule and Henry C. Tarwater determined early in the year 
1870 to establish a Republican weekly newspaper in the city. 
An order was made for the necessary material and a press 
was bought. The old building on South Gay street, opposite 
the court-house, which had been the office of The Knoxville 
Whig when it suspended in October, 1861, was secured as the 
office of publication. The new venture was called "The Chron- 
icle" and it met with much favor from the beginning. Mr. 
Rule had had some experience in the business, had spent 
something more than a year as an employe in Brownlow's 
Whig office before the Civil war, in 1860-61, and had served 
on the reportorial staff of that paper about three years after 
the war. The first number of "The Chronicle." weekly, ap- 
peared in April. 1870. and a month later a daily edition was 
printed. Shortly afterwards Mr. Tarwater sold his half interest 
in the paper to A. J. Ricks, who had been connected with the 
editorial department, and the firm became Rule & Ricks. By 
them it was published successfully until in 1875, when Mr. 
Ricks sold his interest to Senator William G. Brownlow. 
whose term in the United States senate was about to expire. 


Mr. Ricks soon afterwards removed to Ohio, where he en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession, the law. In 1878 he 
was appointed by Judge John Baxter, clerk of the United 
States circuit court at Cleveland. Ohio. He is now United 
States district judge for the Northern district of Ohio, having 
been appointed to that position by President Harrison. It 
may be said of Judge Ricks that as an editor he was a fluent 
and vigorous writer and that his knowledge of affairs in 
general enabled him to write on a wide range of sub- 

Senator Brownlow came in as editor-in-chief in 1875, with 
Win. Rnle as his associate, and they two published the pa- 
per, the name of the weekly edition having been changed to 
the "Whig and Chronicle" to the date of Mr. Brownlow's 
death, which occurred on the 29th day of April, 1877. After 
Senator Brownlow's death his interest in the paper was sold 
by the administrator of his estate, R. A. Brown becoming the 
purchaser. Mr. Brown had been connected with The Chron- 
icle from the beginning and at the time he purchased this 
half interest was in charge of the local news department. 
He then became business manager, and Mr. Rule had charge 
of the editorial department. In the month of November, 
1882, they sold the paper to a stock company, and this com- 
pany published the paper nearly four years. The first editor 
under the new management was Hon. Henry R. Gibson, 
present representative in congress from the Knoxville dis- 
trict, who had previously published and edited the Knoxville 
Republican. The name of the weekly was again changed, 
to the "Republican-Chronicle." Judge Gibson was succeeded 
by George W. Drake, who had been for some time editor of 
the Chattanooga Commercial. Hon. L. C. Houk, at that time 
a representative in congress, served as editor for some 
months. In the spring of 1886, the paper having become in- 
volved financially, went into the hands of a receiver, and in 
the month of July, 1886, was sold at public sale, and was 
bid off for Major E. B. Stahlman of Xashville, who was one 


of its largest creditors. John J. Littleton, afterwards killed 
in Nashville, edited it a short time, when the establishment, 
with its good will and franchises, was sold to Wm. Rule and 
Samuel Marfield, they then being the publishers of the Knox- 
ville Journal. The Chronicle being thus merged with The 
Journal lost its name, after having been published as a daily 
and weekly for a little more than sixteen years. 

In 1879 Henry R. Gibson started The Knoxville Repub- 
lican, a weekly, and continued its publication until 1882, when 
he, with others, purchased The Chronicle and he became its 

In June, 1867, a daily paper called The Knoxville Press 
was started, with John M. Fleming as editor. In politics it 
was Democratic and its purpose was to support the admin- 
istration of President Andrew Johnson, who was then 
engaged in a controversy with congress over the question 
of the reconstruction of the states in the South that had 
attempted secession. Mr. Fleming had had some previous 
newspaper experience and was a graceful and vigorous writer. 
On the 27th of October, 1867, another Democratic daily, The 
Herald, made its appearance — Wm, J. Ramage, publisher, 
and Major Thos. B. Kirby, an ex-Union officer, editor. Soon 
afterwards Mr. Ramage purchased from M. J. Hughes a 
weekly paper called The Messenger. In January, 1868, these 
papers were consolidated, the daily becoming The Knoxville 
Press and Herald and the weekly The Press and Messenger. 
In the spring of 1868, Samuel C. Ramage, a brother of Will- 
iam J., came to Knoxville and became associated with Wm. 
J. Ramage. The services of Col. John M. Fleming were re- 
tained as editor of the consolidated paper and Major Kirby 
was assistant editor. Afterwards Major Kirby went to Chat- 
tanooga, where he started the Daily Times, in that city, in 
December, 1869. The Press and Herald continued to be suc- 
cessfully published under the same management until 1876, 
when it was sold by Mr. Ramage to John M. Fleming and 
Samuel McKinney, who had just started another Democratic 


daily called The Knoxville Tribune, and the name "Press 
and Herald" disappeared. 

William J. Ramage, besides being a good business man- 
ager, is a practical printer. He is a native of Philadelphia 
and learned, the printer's trade in the old Johnson type 
foundry in that city. When a young man he went to Chi- 
cago, and was employed as a journeyman printer in the 
office of The Chicago Democrat, "Long John" Wentworth's 
paper. He was there at the beginning of the Civil war and 
enlisted at the beginning in the Nineteenth Illinois infantry 
volunteers, in which he served three years and was mustered 
out in July. 1864. In the fall of 1864 he went to Chattanooga, 
where he worked as a printer in the office of The Chattanooga 
Gazette for a time, and then started a news stand business. 
Some Northern gentlemen, about that time endowed with 
great expectations of Chattanooga's immediate future, had 
purchased an outfit, expensive and complete enough to run 
a great metropolitan paper. Their paper was called The 
American Union. Finding that they had an elephant on 
their hands, they induced Mr. Ramage to come to their re- 
lief. He took hold of the paper, reduced its expenses and 
continued to publish it until in the fall of 1867, when he 
came to Knoxville, as above stated, and founded the Herald, 
acquired The Press and then continued to publish The Press 
and Herald and The Press and Messenger until he sold out 
to The Tribune, as before stated, in 1876. Since he retired 
from the newspaper business he has established a thriving 
book and stationery business in Knoxville, in which he is still 

Soon after the close of the Civil war M. J. Hughes founded 
a Democratic weekly called The Messenger, which he pub- 
lished until in the latter part of the year 1867, when he sold 
out to William J. Ramage, the proprietor of The Daily Her- 
ald. It was continued as The Messenger until in January, 
1868, at which time Mr. Ramage became the owner also of 
The Press and the weeklv was continued as The Press and 


Messenger until in 1876, when it was absorbed by The 

In December, 1884, Wm. Rule and Samuel Marfield, then 
a citizen of Circleville, Ohio, determined to publish a dailv 
and weekly paper to be called The Knoxville Journal. Be- 
ing denied the Associated Press news service, Mr. Rule went 
to New York and made arrangements for a news service with 
W. P. Phillips, then with the United Press, and with Mr. 
Somerville, manager of the press department of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, by which a news sendee was ob- 
tained. The service was to be edited and sent out from the 
Washington office of the United Press, then in charge of two 
young men, P. V. DeGraw and John Boyle. Mr. Rule visited 
them, explained the competition he would have to meet and 
the character of dispatches he wanted. They promised to 
make the service the best possible under the circumstances 
and they did, making up in quality very largely for what was 
lacking in quantity. The first issue appeared on the 26th 
day of February, 1885. A little later, on the 4th of March, 
1885, when Grover Cleveland was inaugurated for a first tenv« 
as President, its proprietors convinced the public that The 
Journal was going to be a newspaper. Mr. Marfield took 
charge of the business, and Mr. Rule of the editorial depart- 
ment of the paper. In June, 1886, The Knoxville Chronicle 
was sold at public sale and was bid off by one of its creditors, 
who, after running the paper for a short time, sold it with its 
good will and franchises, to Rule & Marfield, the proprietors 
of The Knoxville Journal, after which the combined papers 
were published under that name. In 1889 Mr. Rule pur- 
chased the interest of Mr. Marfield in the paper, and about 
the same time organized a joint stock company under a char- 
ter from the state. 

This company was organized with a board of directors, 
and Mr. Rule was made president and general manager; 
Henry T. Cooper, vice-president, and James F. Rule, secre- 
tary. The paper was then, as The Chronicle had also been 


for many years, the only daily Republican paper published in 
the eleven states that seceded and joined the Southern Con- 
federacy. The paper continued under this management for 
eight years, when, on the 30th day of June. 1898, it was sold 
at public sale, by a trustee, and E. J. Sanford became the 
purchaser. In these eight years a Web perfecting press and 
Mergenthaler Linotype machines had been added to the out- 
fit of the office. On the same day that Mr. Sanford purchased 
The Journal, he also purchased the good will and franchises 
of The Knoxville Daily Tribune. A joint stock company was 
organized at the same time and the two papers were com- 
bined under the name of "The Knoxville Journal and Trib- 
une," and it is still so published. The new company was or- 
ganized with Alfred F. Sanford, president; Edward W. 
Ogden, secretary, and Samuel L. Slover, business manager. 
The editorial department of The Journal remained the 
same as that of The Journal — : Wm. Rule, editor; George 
\Y. Denney. managing editor. The Knoxville Journal 
and Tribune is a seven-column, eight-page paper, pub- 
lished seven days in the week, its Sunday issues 
covering from sixteen to twenty-eight pages, sometimes 
more. It has a circulation larger than has ever before been 
reached by any seven-days-in-the-week newspaper published 
in the city. The editor, William Rule, has been continuously, 
with an interim of two years and four months, from the date 
of selling The Chronicle to that of founding The Journal, 
connected with the Knoxville daily press for more than 
twenty-nine years. The Journal and Tribune is now the only 
daily morning Republican paper published in the eleven se- 
ceding states. While a political paper, it is thoroughly de- 
voted and loyal to the agricultural, industrial, commercial 
and educational interests of Knoxville and of the country trib- 
utary to Knoxville. It will be seen that it is the legitimate 
successor to "The Knoxville Tribune," established in 1876; 
"The Knoxville Chronicle," established in 1870, and "The 
Knoxville Whig," established in 1839. 


The Knoxville Tribune, daily and weekly, began to be pub- 
lished in March, 1876. Its founders were Col. John M. Flem- 
ing, who had been editor of The Press and Herald, and 
Samuel McKinney. It started with an excellent outfit and 
presented a fine typographical appearance. It was Democratic 
in politics. It was published for about two years by Fleming 
and McKinney, when it passed into the hands of Col. Moses 
White and Frank A. Moses, a son of James C. Moses, who 
some forty years previous to that time had published The 
Knoxville Register. Colonel White had charge of the edi- 
torial and Mr. Moses of the business department. The paper 
was continued under their management until 1880, when 
it suspended for a short time, and was then sold to Joseph 
H. Bean, James W. Wallace and Alexander Summers, who 
revived The Tribune. Mr. Bean is a practical printer, and 
four years previous to this date had been publishing a weekly 
paper at Sweetwater called The Monroe Democrat. In 1888 
Mr. Wallace retired from The Tribune and the publication 
of the paper was continued by the remaining partners until, 
in 1 89 1, it was sold to a stock company and W. C. Tatom 
became its editor. He continued in that position until in the 
summer of 1898. when he resigned to accept a commission as 
major in the Fourth Tennessee volunteers. He is a writer 
of rare ability and established an enviable reputation as an 
editor. In June, 1895. the paper was sold to J. B. Pound and 
R. H. Hart, who, after publishing it for three years, sold its 
good will and franchises to Col. E. J. Sanford and it was 
consolidated with The Knoxville Journal on the 1st day of 
July, 1898. The consolidated paper, The Journal and Trib- 
une, is still being published. 

Rev. Charles W. Charlton was at different times connected 
with the press of Knoxville, including two afternoon dailies, 
since the Civil war. The Age and afterwards The Dispatch, 
neither of which were successful, though both were edited 
with ability. Mr. Charlton was a man of energy and a writer 
of note on agricultural and industrial topics. His papers were 


devoted also to politics, he being an ardent champion of the 
Democratic party. But he never was able to enlist sufficient 
capital to assure the success of his enterprises. 

The Knoxville Sentinel, an afternoon daily, was established 
in 1886 by Mr. John T. Hearn, a native of Kentucky, who 
had some experience in newspaper business before coming to 
Knoxville. He brought the first Web press to Knoxville. 
The Sentinel was not a success under Mr. Hearn's manage- 
ment and the paper was sold to J. B. Pound of The Chatta- 
nooga News, in 1892. Mr. R. H. Hart was put in charge 
of the paper and remains with it yet, being in charge of the 
business department. Messrs. Pound and Hart secured con- 
trol of The Knoxville Tribune in 1894 and from that time to 
July 1, 1898, The Sentinel and The Tribune were published 
from the same office, a Web perfecting press and Mergen- 
thaler Linotype machines being added to their outfit. After 
selling The Tribune, July 1. 1898, Mr. Pound returned to 
Chattanooga, though he still retains his interest in The Senti- 
nel. George F. Milton became editor of The Sentinel in 
1895, and continued in that position until in the summer of 
1898, when he resigned to accept a commission as first lieu- 
tenant in the Sixth United States volunteers, in the war with 
Spain. In the fall following he resigned his commission in 
the army and returning to Knoxville again became the editor 
of The Sentinel. In February, 1899, Mr. Milton having 
acquired a controlling interest in the paper, a reorganization 
was effected and its present managers are: George F. Milton, 
president; J. B. Pound, vice-president, and R. H. Hart, secre- 
tary and treasurer. In the thirteen years of its life The 
Sentinel has made many substantial improvements and ranks 
well among the afternoon papers of this section. 

The Holston Methodist, published in the interest of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, was first printed at Mor- 
ristown in 1871. It was founded by Rev. Richard N. Price, 
a man of learning ami ability. Associated with him was Rev. 
T. P. Thomas. In the fall of 1873 tne paper was moved to 


Knoxville. Among others concerned in its publication here, 
at different times, were Rev. J. R. Payne, W. W. Gibson, 
Thos. A. Lewis, J. H. Bean and Rev. W. L. Richardson. In 
1 88 1 the paper was moved to Bristol and Rev. Frank Rich- 
ardson became its editor, John Slack being its publisher. In 
1885 it came back to Knoxville, and again Rev. R. N. Price 
became its editor. He was the editor of the paper in 1898, 
and Owen W. Patton was in charge of the business depart- 
ment, having purchased a half interest in the paper in 1890 
from John W. Paulett and W. L. Richardson. In March, 
1898, the paper was removed to Nashville, where it is now 
published as The Midland Methodist. 

In March, 1898, another paper was started, called The Hol- 
ston Epworth Methodist, the name of which has been since 
changed and it is now The Holston Christian Advocate. It 
is published by The Holston Company and edited by Rev. 
James I. Cash of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. It 
is well on in the second year, is vigorously edited and quite 

The Methodist Advocate-Journal is the successor of a 
paper published first, in Atlanta, Georgia, more than a quar- 
ter of a century ago. It was published in Chattanooga for 
a number of years and removed to Knoxville in 1898. It is 
the organ of a number of Southern conferences of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, and is recognized as one of the official 
papers by the general conference .of that church. It is edited 
by Rev. R. J. Cooke, an able scholar and divine. The busi- 
ness department is managed by Rev. John S. Petty. 

Knoxville was the center, during the first half of the pres- 
ent century, of two separate seasons of religious controversy, 
remarkable for their fierceness and for the substantial ability 
of some of those who led in them, all of whom have long since 
been gathered with the fathers. These controversies led to the 
establishment of church periodicals, the editorial departments 
of which were conducted by men of marked strength. The 
first of these was The Holston Messenger, a monthly, of which 


Rev. Thomas String-field was the editor and publisher. He 
had previously published a church paper at Huntsville, Ala., 
called "The Western Armenian and Christian Instructor." 
He had no other motive in the publication of these journals 
than the defense of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which 
he was a member, being at the time an active pastor, for the 
expense of the publications was borne by himself and little 
income resulted. He was a man of large ability, good edu- 
cation and wonderful powers of endurance. He was involved 
in an unusually vigorous controversy, and met it from the 
pulpit and through his publications. It seems to have been 
kept up for ten years, though the publication of the Holston 
Messenger was not continued so long. Mr. Stringfield had 
for antagonists foemen worthy of his steel, in the persons of 
three able Presbyterian clergymen, Messrs. Gallaher and 
Ross, and Dr. Nelson. He acquitted himself to the entire 
satisfaction of his church and his partisans. Of Mr. String- 
field. Rev. David R. McAnallv, for many years editor of The 
St. Louis Advocate, said in 1859: 

"In this struggle for the very existence of the church of 
his choice, Mr. Stringfield spent not only his time and mental 
labor, but hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of his worldly 
means, for which he will never, in this world, be recompensed. 
Yet, by these labors and sacrifices, he gave an impulse to 
Methodism, the result of which may be distinctly traced all 
along her history there, from that day to the present." 

Mr. Stringfield was present at Knoxville in 1824, Novem- 
ber 27, and participated in the organization of the Holston 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church and was that 
year appointed presiding elder of the Knoxville district, in 
which capacity he labored for many years afterwards. In 
1836 the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church established the Southwestern Christian Advocate at 
Nashville, and elected Thos. Stringfield editor, in which posi- 
tion he served four years. 

The other period of controversy mentioned was along in 


the *40s, and a weekly paper called "The Methodist Episco- 
palian" was published. The project of starting this paper 
originated with Rev. Thos. Stringfield and Rev. D. R. Mc- 
Anally. Estimates were made of the cost and submitted to 
a number of Methodist preachers in Knoxville, who were on 
their way to attend an annual conference that was held at 
Athens in the fall of 1845. The plans were approved, a pub- 
lishing committee was appointed by the conference, at 
Athens, proposals were circulated and subscribers obtained. 
The first number of the paper appeared on the 5th day of 
May, 1846, with Rev. Samuel Patton as editor. He contin- 
ued to lie the editor of the paper, the name of which was 
changed in 1850 to "The Holston Christian Advocate." to. 
the date of his death, which occurred at the home of his 
friend. William G. Brownlow. on the 24th day of August, 
1854. Soon after his death the paper was discontinued, or 
merged with the Nashville Christian Advocate. "The Meth- 
odist Episcopalian" and "The Holston Christian Advocate" 
were devoted to a defense of the doctrines and polity of the 
Methodist church, and was intended to meet and supply the 
necessitv of such a periodical suited to the wants of the moun- 
tainous, and then isolated position of the Holston conference 
of the church. The paper was conducted with singular ability 
by Dr. Patton. Its tone was elevating and its editorials 
evinced on the part of their writer a very high degree of 
ability. He lived at a time when controversy was rife and 
while such polemics were probably distasteful to him, he did 
not shrink from them. The income of the paper was not 
large enough to remunerate sufficient help to get out and 
mail its issues. As a consequence the editor had to do 
much of the drudgery of the office, including work to which 
he had never been accustomed. This told on his health and 
phvsical strength, and doubtless hastened his death, which 
occurred at the home of \Y. G. Brownlow in 1854. Dr. 
Patton was a native of South Carolina, born in Lancaster 
district, on the 27th of January. 1797. In eulogy of him. 


immediately after his death, William G. Brownlow said in 
his Knoxville Whig: 

"He was the ablest divine in the Holston conference and a 
man of the greatest variety. He fervently sought the spiritual- 
ity of those who attended his ministry, and burned with a 
holy zeal for his Master's glory. These were the uniform, 
unvaried objects of his preaching, and, to promote these ends, 
he was prepared to sacrifice his ease, his health and even his 

Samuel Patton and William G. Brownlow, both able men, 
both distinguished as newspaper editors, in their spheres, 
were very unlike in some respects, but they were lifelong 
devoted friends, and when Dr. Patton died Mr. Brownlow 
sincerely mourned his departure as if he had been his own 
brother. Dr. Patton began the publication of his paper when 
there were no railroads to carry his mails, and before the 
modern improvements that have rendered the publication of 
newspapers less difficult in some respects; the smallness of 
the revenues coming to him made his remuneration wholly 
inadequate, but now since nearly a half-century after his 
death, it may be said of him that a greater man than he has 
not been connected with the religious press of Tennessee. 

A paper was published in Knoxville in 1819, called The 
Western Monitor. The writer of this chapter has not been 
able to secure data as to its publisher or editor or to fix its 
exact character; but through its columns the Presbyterian 
clergymen reached the public to give information concern- 
ing the state of the church in this section. 

\liout the last of the year 1850 or the first part of the 
year 185 1 , a weekly church paper was established, called The 
Presbyterian Witness. It was published by J. B. G. Kinsloe 
and Charles A. Rice, and edited by an able young man, Rev. 
Andrew Blackburn. He was born in Jefferson county in 1828, 
and was consequently less than 23 years old when he accepted 
this responsible position. The purpose for which The Pres- 
bvterian Witness was started was to advocate the doctrines 


and advance the interests of the church, which it did with 
signal ability. It was published at a time when there was 
much controversy over denominational differences and The 
Witness, with its able young editor and its able contributors, 
represented their side of the controversy to the satisfaction 
of their people. It was a paper dignified in bearing and 
admirable in spirit, commanding the respect of even those 
whom it failed to convince. Mr. Blackburn's health failed, 
but the paper continued to be published under his editorial 
supervision until a short time before his death, which occurred 
at Maryville in 1859. He was in charge of a church at Bris- 
tol, but still the editor of the paper. While in the pulpit of 
his church at that place, delivering a sermon, his voice sud- 
denly dropped to a whisper, and he never regained it. He 
removed to Maryville, for treatment and care, where he died 
about six months afterward and was buried near the place of 
his birth, at Westminster Church, in Jefferson county, Tennes- 
see. He studied theology with Rev. Wm. Minnis of New 
Market, Tennessee, who visited him a short time before his 
death and when taking his leave said to Mr. Blackburn: 
"My son Andrew (he called him son), you are about to be 
cut down in your young manhood, but you have a consola- 
tion and comfort to know that you have already accom- 
plished more good than many of us who have been in the 
ministry for forty years and more." This was a tribute from 
a high source to Mr. Blackburn's worth in the Gospel min- 
istry, and as an editor. He was only about 31 years old at 
the time of his death, but had conducted an able and in- 
fluential paper for eight years, besides establishing a solid 
reputation as a minister of the Gospel. When quite young 
he was married to Miss Ann E. Gillespy of Blount county, 
who is still living and resides at Maryville. He was a son 
of Col. Alexander Blackburn, who was for a long term of 
years a ruling elder in old Westminster Church in Jefferson 
county, and a grandson of Rev. Gideon Blackburn, one of 
the pioneers in the early settlement of the country. While 


Mr. Blackburn and William G. Brownlow were wide apart 
in their theological views, their papers were for a time printed 
on the same press and they were warm personal friends. 

In 1893 George W. Ford began the publication of The 
Knoxville Independent and is still publishing it. It is a 
weekly and is devoted chiefly to the interests of organized 

The latest venture in Knoxville journalism is The Chil- 
howee Echo. It is the first and only paper ever published in 
the city by women, devoted to the interests of women. It 
began publication in October, 1899. Its editors and pro- 
prietors are Mrs. Samuel McKinney and Mrs. W. C. Tatom. 
It is a handsome weekly, ably edited and has been received 
with substantial evidence of public favor. 

In closing this chapter, the author acknowledges indebt- 
edness to Col. Moses White for much of the information 
pertaining to the earlier papers published in Knoxville. Col- 
onel White, a number of years ago, delivered an able address 
before the State Press Association, in which he related much 
valuable history, which address has been drawn upon for 
much of the information contained in this chapter concern- 
ing the earlier newspapers. 

The papers now published in Knoxville are The Journal 
and Tribune, morning, daily and weekly, Republican in pol- 
itics; The Sentinel, afternoon, daily except Sunday, and 
weekly; and The Holston Christian Advocate, Methodist Ad- 
vocate-Journal, The Independent, and The Chilhowee Echo. 
all weekly issues. 



The Schools of a Century Ago — Rev. Samuel Doak, the Pioneer — Inter- 
est Manifested by Governor Blount — Blount College, Now the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee — Knoxville Female Academy — Hampden Sidney 
Academy — Organization and Success of City Schools — University 
School — Knoxville College for Colored Students — Tennessee Medical 

THE first school established in Tennessee was named 
Martin Academy, founded under an act "for the pro- 
motion of learning in the county of Washington," 
which was passed by the general assembly of North Carolina 
in 1785. The founder and first president of this pioneer insti- 
tution of learning was Rev. Samuel Doak, who is mentioned 
at some length in the chapter on religious history in this vol- 
ume. He was a graduate of what was then known as Nassau 
Hall, now Princeton College. He was a member of the 
Franklin Assembly, was a man of great ability, force of char- 
acter and learning, especially in the classics, as was usual with 
educated men in those days, and most men in the Presbyterian 
ministry, even in those days, were educated men. For many 
years his school was the only seat of classical learning west 
of the Alleghanies, and for a still longer period it was the 
principal seat of this kind of learning in that portion of the 
country. His school-house, a plain log building, which he 
erected on his farm, was near Jonesboro, a little west of the 
site afterward selected for Washington Academy, which be- 
came Washington College. It was near this academy that 
Rev. Mr. Doak established Salem Congregation, one of the 
first, if not the first, church in Tennessee. 

Upon being appointed governor of the new territory of 
Tennessee. William Blount immediately removed his family 



to his new field of activity, and, as became him in his import- 
ant position, took the lead in attempting to build up institu- 
tions of higher education in Tennessee. After considerable 
difficulty Blount College was established, having been char- 
tered by the territorial assembly in 1794, the bill incorporat- 
ing the institution being introduced September 4, by Hon. 
William Cocke of Hawkins county. On the 10th of the 
month this bill became a law. At the same session of the 
legislature Greeneville College was also chartered. 

Following is a portion of the act which became a law Sep- 
tember 10, 1794, as referred to above: 

"Whereas, The legislature of this territory are disposed to 
promote the happiness of the people at large, and especially 
of the rising generation, by instituting seminaries of educa- 
tion, where youth may be habituated to an amiable, moral 
and virtuous conduct, and accurately instructed in the vari- 
ous branches of useful science, and in the principles of ancient 
and modern languages; therefore, 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the governor, legislative 
council and house of representatives of the territory of the 
United States, south of the River Ohio, That the Rev. Sam- 
uel Carrick, president, and his Excellency William Blount, 
the Hon. Daniel Smith, secretary of the territory; the Hon. 
David Campbell, the Hon. Joseph Anderson. Gen. John 
Sevier. Col. James White, Col. Alexander Kelley, Col. Will- 
iam Cocke, Willie Blount, Joseph Hamilton, Archibald 
Roane, Francis A. Ramsey, Charles McClung, George Roul- 
stone, George McNutt. John Adair, and Robert Houston, 
Esquires, shall be and they are hereby declared to be a body 
politic and corporate by the name of the president and trus- 
tees of Blount College, in the vicinity of Knoxville." 

This college was declared open to all denominations in the 
following language: 

"And the trustees shall take effectual care that students of 
all denominations may and shall be admitted to the equal ad- 
vantages of a liberal education, and to the emoluments and 


honors of the college, and that they shall receive alike fair, 
generous and equal treatment during their residence." 

This clause is especially noteworthy because of the fact 
that it was the first legislation of the kind, establishing as it 
did a non-sectarian college in the United States. It is also 
noteworthy because of the fact that such legislation is now 
almost universally mentioned with commendation, as it tends ' 
to develop the minds of youth without bias on subjects con- 
nected with religion. Most of the state institutions of learn- 
ing are now on the same basis. For the use of the trustees 
of this new college Col. James White donated the town 
square upon which now stand the First Baptist Church and 
the Mechanics National Bank, and near the northwest cor- 
ner of this square was erected a two-story frame building, 
the money to pay for which being raised by subscription, and 
the school was opened as soon as pupils enough could be 
enrolled. Washington and Greeneville Colleges were both 
under clerical control. 

Rev. Samuel Carrick was a native of Pennsylvania, was 
educated in Virginia, and came to Tennessee in 1787, 
preaching from the artificial mound near the confluence of the 
Holston and French Broad rivers. The records of the col- 
lege begin with 1804, those kept previously, if kept at all, 
having been lost or destroyed. The institution, however, ap- 
pears to have been very popular from the first. Among the 
students in 1804 were C. C. Clay, William Carter, Thomas 
Cocke, Lemuel P. Montgomery and William E. Parker, the 
last-named being the first graduate from the institution, his 
graduation occurring October 18, 1806. Female students 
were also taken during its early history, the first named being 
Polly McClung, Barbara Blount, Jenny Armstrong, and 
Matty and Kitty Kain. Originally this college was depend- 
ent for its support entirely on the patronage of the public. 

In 1806 an act of congress was passed and approved which 
provided for the establishment of two colleges in Tennessee, 
which was in part as follows: "That the state of Tennessee 


shall appropriate one hundred thousand acres, which shall 
be located in one entire tract, within the limits of the lands 
reserved to the Cherokee Indians by an act of the state of 
North Carolina, entitled 'An act for opening the land office 
for the redemption of specie and other certificates, and dis- 
charging the arrears due the army,' " passed in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and shall be for the 
use of two colleges, one in East and one in West Tennessee, 
to be established by the legislature thereof." 

At its next session after the passage of this act, the general 
assembly of the state was flooded with memorials and peti- 
tions from the people of several counties, and from the presi- 
dent and trustees of each of the colleges in East Tennessee, 
praying for the grant and setting forth the advantages of 
their several localities for the establishment of the college. 
Greeneville College urged in its favor its local situation, 
extensive library, its philosophical apparatus, its ample funds 
and numerous other circumstances, and Blount College sent 
up a resolution offering to unite its funds with those of the 
college to be established, provided said college should be 
established within two miles of Knoxville. The people of 
Blount county desired to have the college located at Marys- 
ville, while those of Hawkins desired it at Rogersville. 

But it was not until the next session of the legislature, that 
is the second session after the passage of the act of congress 
alluded to, that the question of locating the new college was 
settled. At this session thirty persons were appointed 
trustees of East Tennessee College, which was to be "located 
on ten acres of land within two miles of Knoxville, conveyed 
in trust for the use of said college by Moses White at a place^ 
called the Rocky or Poplar Spring." Twenty-three of the 
trustees were appointed from the several counties of East 
Tennessee according to their population, as follows: For 
Hawkins county. Richard Mitchell and Andrew Galbreath; 
for Sullivan county, John Rhea and James King; for Greene, 
Augustus P. Fore and John Gass; for Washington. Matthew 


Stephenson and John Kennedy; Carter, George Duffield; 
Jefferson, James Rice and Joseph Hamilton; Grainger, John 
Cocke and Major Lea; Cocke, Alexander Smith; Sevier, 
Hopkins Lacy; Blount, Joseph B. Lapsly and Dr. Robert 
Gant; Claiborne. "William Graham; Anderson, Arthur 
Crozier; Roane, Thomas I. Van Dyke; and Knox, George W. 
Campbell, John Sevier and Thomas Emmerson. Seven 
trustees were appointed from men living in the vicinity of the 
college, in order that they might have a more direct over- 
sight of its workings, as follows: John Crozier, John Wil- 
liams, Archibald Roane, Francis A. Ramsey. David Dead- 
erick, George Doherty and John Lowry. Until buildings 
could be erected for the new college the trustees were author- 
ized to use those of Blount College, and the funds of this 
institution were declared incorporated with those of East 
Tennessee College. 

From 1794 to 1807, the latter year being the time of mak- 
ing the above-mentioned change, the work done by Blount 
College was practically the same as that done by a classical 
academy. Both sexes attended, but owing to the limited 
population of the state, there were in the vicinity of Knox- 
ville but few pupils to attend. The expenses were not heavy 
nor were the funds of the institution large, for "when Blount 
College and Greeneville College were chartered, the essential 
feature of Doak's plan for a Franklin University, namely: 
that it should be supported by public taxation, was omitted. 
Blount College neither in its beginning, nor in its subsequent 
history, at any time, received any grant from the public 
revenues nor any support from the government; nor did each 
family contribute either one peck of corn or twelve pence 
to its support, as the citizens of New England taxed them- 
selves to support Harvard College; it was always dependent 
for its support upon its tuition fees and voluntary contribu- 

The price of tuition at Blount College was $8 per session 
of five months, and board cost $25 per session; but it should 


not be forgotten that Washing-ton and Greeneville Colleges 
were located in the more thickly populated portions of the 
state, and that therefore they attracted to themselves all the 
college-going youth from their respective sections of the 
state, and were naturally more largely attended than Blount 
could be. This latter institution was attended by those who 
desired to become familiar with the polite arts and sciences, 
the only graduate from Blount College being William E. 
Parker, who graduated October 18, 1806, being examined by 
President Carrick in Virgil, Horace, rhetoric, logic, the Greek 
Testament, geography, Lucien, mathematics, ethics and nat- 
ural philosophy. Thus it will be seen that education given in 
this institution, like most other institutions of the day, was 
mainly classical, on the theory perhaps that classical studies 
give a superior tone and quality to the mind, and also that 
the students might be better fitted for the study of theology 
and thus become, if they so desired, ministers of the Gospel. 

But if Blount College did not receive any aid from the 
government, this can not be said of East Tennessee College, 
chartered, as above narrated, in 1807. Its great difficulty was 
in connection with securing its patrimony, as perhaps it may 
be called. This, however, was not the fault of the congress of 
the United States, which made the grant above alluded to in 
1806, of 100,000 acres of land for the benefit of two colleges 
to be established by the state of Tennessee, and also of 
100,000 acres of land for the benefit of the county academies, 
which the state was also required to establish. The difficulty 
was in part inherent in the situation, and in part was the 
fault of the state, which failed to perceive the equities in- 
volved in the case. 

The act of congress provided that the state of Tennessee 
should appropriate these lands within the limits of the lands 
reserved to the Cherokee Indians by the state of North Caro- 
lina in 1783: but these lands thus set apart for the benefit of 
learning were not to be sold for less than two dollars per 
acre, while lands not thus reserved were to be sold 


at a minimum price of one dollar per acre. The 
cession act also contained the provision that the people resid- 
ing south of the French Broad and Holston rivers and west 
of Big Pigeon, should be secure in their respective rights of 
occupancy and pre-emption. 

Now it so happened that the people residing south of the 
French Broad and Holston and west of the Big Pigeon, re- 
sided also within the limits of the lands reserved to the 
Cherokee Indians by the state of North Carolina, and had 
become quite numerous within these limits, a condition of 
things which congress did not anticipate when making its 
grant. These people had in fact invaded and taken possession 
of this territory against the express orders of congress and 
in violation of treaties made with the Indians by both state 
and nation. Notwithstanding this, they remained, and had 
the state of Tennessee, besides recognizing their "rights" as 
settlers to purchase these lands as pre-emptioners, at the 
minimum price of one dollar per acre, doubled the acreage 
to be sold for the benefit of the two colleges and the county 
academies, but little if any difficulty would have resulted. But 
the state provided for the sale at one dollar per acre of all 
the lands reserved for the institutions of learning, without 
increasing the number of acres to be sold, which latter it 
could and should have done, in order to carry out the benefi- 
cent spirit of congress, which was to establish a fund of 
$400,000 for the benefit of higher education, $100,000 for 
each of the two colleges, and $200,000 for the benefit of the 
several county academies in the state. 

"A simple and just solution of all the difficulties would have 
been to fix the price of all lands in the district south of the 
French Broad and Holston at $1 per acre, and to have made 
the college and academy tracts each to consist of 200,000 
acres, instead of 100,000 acres."* 

The full name under which this institution was chartered 

*Ed\vard T. Sanford. 


in 1807 was "The President and Trustees of the East Ten- 
nessee College," and it was endowed with that portion of the 
congressional fund designed for East Tennessee. To these 
trustees the prospect of assured support, as compared with the 
previous tuition fees, always an uncertain quantity, was ex- 
ceedingly pleasant. But they were doomed to severe disap- 
pointment as the years rolled away. The location of this 
new institution, "at a place called Rocky or Poplar Spring," 
was near the old Branner residence in Shieldstown, the 
buildings of Blount College being temporarily used and the 
old trustees remaining in control until the new trustees, 
thirty in number, as above related, took charge of the school. 

"At the same time the legislature also began with a flourish 
of trumpets to provide for the care of the fund to be realized 
for the support of the colleges, and appointed a commission 
of six, among whom were James Park and John Overton, to 
superintend its management and investment." (Edward T. 

The trustees of East Tennessee College, in 1808, met and 
organized, retaining the Rev. Samuel Carrick as president. 
His term of service was, however, short, for he was stricken 
with paralysis and died before the dark days of disappoint- 
ment came to the college which he fondly hoped would be his 
charge for years. He now lies buried beneath the myrtles and 
the elms in the historic graveyard of the First Presbyterian 
Church, where also rest William Blount and James White, 
President Carrick's headstone bearing the following mysteri- 
ous inscription: "Samuel C. Z. R. Carrick," no one knowing 
the meaning of the letters "C. Z. R.." as they were not a part 
of his name. The inscription in full upon his tombstone may 
be found in connection with the history of the First Presby- 
terian Church. 

No immediate steps were taken to fill the vacancy in the 
president's chair, nor was anything done toward the erection 
of a new college building, from the fact, no doubt, that the 
trustees had no funds and no immediate prospect of receiving 


any revenue from the land grant, the reason for which will 
appear as this sketch proceeds. However, in 1810, in order 
to aid the institution, the legislature authorized the holding 
of a lottery, and appointed as trustees to manage the same, 
Hugh Lawson White, Thomas McCorry, James Campbell, 
Robert Craighead and John N. Gamble. These trustees put 
out an advertisement in which they "flatter themselves that 
the scheme will be satisfactory to all who wish to become 
adventurers with a view to better their circumstances. When 
the object to be attained by the lottery is considered, it is 
believed every individual will become anxious to become an 
adventurer. It is not designed to retrieve a shattered fortune, 
nor to convert into cash at an extravagant price property that 
is of no use; but it is intended to aid the funds of a seminary 
of education where youth of the present and succeeding gen- 
erations may have their minds prepared in such a manner as 
to make them ornaments to their families and useful to their 
country, as will enable them to understand their rights as 
citizens and duties as servants of the people." 

This scheme, however, did not succeed. There was not 
sold a sufficient number of tickets, and no drawing was held. 

Rev. Samuel Carrick was born in what is now Adams 
county, Pa., July 17, 1760, was licensed to preach by Hanover 
Presbytery in 1782, was in 1783 installed pastor of a church 
in the valley of Virginia, and was dismissed to Abingdon 
Presbytery in 1891. In this year he took up his permanent 
residence in Tennessee, and in 1794, when pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church in Knoxville. was elected president of 
Blount College, in which position he served until his death, 
which occurred August 17, 1809. 

The next president of this institution was Rev. David A. 
Sherman, who graduated from Yale College in 1802, served as 
tutor in Yale from 1804 to 1810, was principal of Hampden- 
Sidney Academy in Knoxville from 1817 to 1820, in which 
year he was elected president of East Tennessee College, re- 
maining thus engaged until 1825, when he resigned, going 


then to Jackson College at Columbia, Tenn., where he died 
in 1843. 

From 1825 to 1827 the college was again without a presi- 
dent, and it was during this interval, in 1826, that the trustees 
obtained permission to change the location of the institution, 
purchasing of Pleasant M. Miller for $600 the present site 
of the University of Tennessee, which site was then known 
as Barbara Hill, named in honor of Barbara Blount, daughter 
of Governor Blount. Upon this hill the trustees proceeded 
to erect the center college building and three one-story dor- 
mitories in the rear of the college, all in such positions as 
to form a square of the campus. This having been accom- 
plished, the trustees succeeded in securing as president the 
Rev. Charles Coffin, D. D., of Greeneville College, who was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., August 15, 1775, and gradu- 
ated from Harvard College in 1793. In 1800 he went to 
Norfolk, Va., where he was induced by Rev. Hezekiah Balch 
to accept a position as professor in Greeneville College, and 
upon the death of Dr. Balch, Mr. Coffin succeeded to the 
presidency of Greeneville College, which position he retained 
until elected president of East Tennessee College in 1827. 
After six years of hard labor in behalf of this institution, not 
fully appreciated, he resigned and returned to Greeneville, 
where he died June 3, 1853. 

Dr. James H. Piper succeeded to the presidency in 1833, 
and served one year, resigning at the end of that time in 
despair of making the institution a success. Dr. Piper was 
a graduate of the college, in the class of 1830, and it is said 
that he was the ambitious youth who aspired to carve his 
name above that of the father of his country on the Natural 
Bridge in Virginia. After leaving East Tennessee College, Dr. 
Piper led a useful life in Virginia as a Presbyterian di- 

The two great difficulties with which the college had to 
contend up to about this time were these: One which may 
be considered the cause of the other, the first being the 


poverty of the settlers on the college lands, who kept up a 
constant clamor for a postponement of the payment of their 
interest from year to year, and in some cases of the principal. 
The legislature, in order to oblige them, yielded to their de- 
mands, postponing these payments continually until 1819, 
and even later. But the settlers were not satisfied even with 
the payment of the minimum price for their land, and with 
the continual postponements permitted by the legislature. 
They knew that payment was likely to be enforced sometime, 
and that the colleges were to be the recipients of the money. 
They were thus led to develop a feeling of animosity toward 
colleges, as is often the case with debtors against their credit- 
ors, which feeling, unreasonable and unjust though it was, 
was continually worked up and practiced upon by dema- 
gogues for their own purposes. 

In 1819 the legislature provided for the first time for the 
sale of such lands as were not claimed by occupants and 
authorized the general taking up of all vacant lands south 
of the French Broad and Holston at fifty cents per acre, mak- 
ing this rule applicable to all college and academy lands that 
had not been taken up. This rule amounted to a further 
reduction in the price of college lands from the former price 
of one-half of what congress authorized to one-fourth of that 
price, and to the practical ruin of the college and academy 
funds; but the assent of congress was provided for in the 
legislation, and this assent appears never to have been 
granted. But the spirit of the legislature was manifest just 
the same. 

In this same year. 1819, the payment of the principal due 
on the lands was again indefinitely postponed, and the time 
for the payment of the interest again extended. In 1821 the 
legislature again permitted the postponement of the payment 
of the principal, and the same policy was again renewed in 
1822. The attempt, so far as it was made, still further worked 
upon the feelings and prejudices of the settlers against col- 
leges and institutions of learning in general, which ambitious 


politicians well knew how to use, and which they did not 
scruple to use to further their own ambitious ends. 

But at length light shone in upon all this darkness. "The 
president and trustees of the University of North Carolina, 
to whom the state of North Carolina had issued warrants for 
many thousand acres of land in Tennessee, founded upon 
military services that had been performed by certain officers 
and soldiers of the Continental line of North Carolina, who 
had died, leaving no heirs in the United States, had pre- 
sented a memorial to the Tennessee legislature, praying that 
grants might issue upon these warrants and that all their 
lands in Tennessee might be exempt from taxation, offering 
to give a fair equivalent for such exemption. 

"There were, however, grave doubts as to the validity of 
these warrants, and the legislature directed the appointment 
of two commissioners to investigate and adjust the claims of 
the University of North Carolina, authorizing them to enter 
into an agreement with the university concerning" the war- 
rants and exemption from taxation, which, it was provided, 
should be binding on the state." (E. T. Sanford.) 

The commissioners appointed under this authority were 
Jenkins Whiteside and James Trimble, and they, on August 
26, 1822, entered into a compact with the University of 
North Carolina by which grants should issue upon its war- 
rants and all lands owned or acquired by the university within 
the state of Tennessee should be exempt from taxes until 
January 1, 1850; the university agreeing to transfer 60,000 
acres of its land warrants to two public seminaries designated 
by the commissioners — 20,000 acres to East Tennessee Col- 
lege and 40,000 acres to Cumberland College, and further 
agreeing to assign to the two colleges one-half of all military 
land warrants which might in future be issued to it by North 
Carolina, all of which gave promise of additional revenue to 
East Tennessee College, and inspired its trustees with re- 
newed hope and courage. In 1823 the legislature, in order to 
do something: for the colleges and at the same time still 


further to indulge and favor the settlers, two apparently 
contradictory projects, remitted one-third of the purchase 
money remaining due on all lands south of the French Broad 
and Holston, and vested in the institutions of learning the 
entire unremitted balance due upon all lands that 
had been previously sold within the district, whether 
within or without the college and academy tracts, 
together with all such lands as might be subse- 
quently resold for default of payments and bid in by 
the state, or that had been previously sold or should not be 
redeemed by the owners. This fact, "in consequence of the 
delays of payment heretofore or hereafter to be sustained by 
the colleges and academies and in order to make a final 
appropriation and investiture of the moneys and lands afore- 
said, and put it out of the power of the legislature to interfere 
hereafter by indulging the debtors or in any other way what- 
ever." (E. T. Sanford.) 

Not long afterward an act was passed making all of the 
territory which had been acquired by Tennessee east and 
north of the Congressional Reservation line, subject to entry 
at twelve and a half cents per acre, this act including the 
lands south of the French Broad and Holston. and even those 
within the college and academy tracts! And such was the sad 
end of the beneficent provisions of the cession act of 1806, 
which required these lands to be sold at a minimum price of 
two dollars per acre! 

Considerable payments were made in 1824, but in 1825 the 
occupants of the lands almost unanimously refused to pay 
any more. In this year an act was passed by the legislature 
providing for the appointment of a commission to examine 
all military land warrants laid before him by the University 
of North Carolina, East Tennessee College and Cumberland 
College, which had been issued by the University of North 
Carolina, and to adjudicate their validity, not exceeding 105,- 
000 acres, upon which adjudication a corresponding amount 
of land should be sold by the state at certain specified prices; 


one-third of the proceeds to be paid to the University of 
North Carolina, one-third to be appropriated to the use of 
common schools, two-ninths to be paid to Cumberland Col- 
lege, and one-ninth to be paid to East Tennessee College; all 
sums paid to Cumberland and East Tennessee Colleges to 
be considered as made for the relief of the people residing on 
the college and academy tracts south of French Broad and 
Holston ; and it was further provided that out of the moneys 
thereafter collected from the college and academy lands the 
academies should first be paid an amount equal to that re- 
ceived by the two colleges from the proceeds of these war- 
rants, and that East Tennessee College should be equalized 
with Cumberland College. 

The entire matter of the collection of the fund due to East 
Tennessee College for the Western lands under compact and 
the act of 1825 is so involved in uncertainty that it is im- 
possible to make any definite statement with reference 
thereto. But Mr. E. T. Sanford, who has made the most 
exhaustive study of this whole matter and whose historical 
address on "Blount College and the University of Tennes- 
see," delivered in 1894, has been the main source of informa- 
tion in the preparation of this sketch, stated that "probably 
the entire amount was not far from $24,000." 

In 1829 the state of Tennessee offered to give one-half a 
township of land in the country south of the Hiwassee river to 
which the Indian title had not then been extinguished, to 
East Tennessee College and the University of Nashville (for- 
merly Cumberland College), provided these two institutions 
would execute a written instrument releasing all their claims 
south of the French Broad and Holston rivers, and all rights 
they had acquired to lands in that section. To this proposi- 
tion East Tennessee College, through its trustees, gave as- 
sent, protesting, however, against anything in the said act 
being construed to operate as a release to the state from its 
obligation to pay to the institution the balance of its propor- 
tion of the congressional donation. To this proposition 


neither the University of Nashville nor the Western academies 
would then consent, considering" it wholly inadequate as a 
substitute for the magnificent gift intended for them by the 
congress of the United States; but in 1835 the university 
consented with great reluctance, and in 1838 the legislature 
directed the setting aside of the one-half township in the 
Ocoee district for the use of the college and university. Out 
of this Ocoee lands, which were almost immediately sold, 
East Tennessee College realized something more than 
$34,000 in cash. 

Rev. James H. Piper has been mentioned. Upon his 
resignation as president in 1834. he was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph Estabrook, who was born in Lebanon. X. H.. Decem- 
ber 8. 1792. graduated at Dartmouth College in 1815. came 
to Knoxville in 1828 as president of Knoxville Female Acad- 
emy, and was elected president of East Tennessee College in 
1834. By his ability, energy and wisdom he soon placed 
the institution on a better foundation than it had been be- 
fore, and revised the course of study, brought scholarly men 
into the faculty and so changed the policy and scope of the 
institution that in 1840 the name was changed from East 
Tennessee College to East Tennessee University. It was 
not far from this time that the sale of a portion of the 
lands belonging- to the institution enabled the trustees to 
make important improvements. Thomas Crutchfield. who 
had built the main edifice, was now engaged to erect the 
two three-story dormitories, and the two houses intended 
for residences for professors on the right and left slopes, but 
which an increasing demand for room afterward rendered it 
necessary to appropriate for other purposes. These im- 
provements, which were finally paid for in July. 1848. cost 

In 1850 President Estabrook resigned, his resignation hav- 
ing a tendency to hasten the decline of the institution, which 
subsequent years proved to have just then set in. This 
decline was due in part at least to the multiplication of col- 


leges and denominational schools then being established 
throughout Tennessee and other Southern states. 

Appreciating the necessity of having at the head of the 
institution a man with a great name and of unusual ability. 
the trustees elected to the presidency Hon. William B. Reese, 
who had then recently resigned his seat upon the supreme 
bench of the state. President Reese, notwithstanding his 
great ability, energy and industry, was unable to arrest the 
decline of the university, and after graduating just twelve 
students in three years, resigned at the end of his third 
year. He died at Knoxville, July 7, 1859. 

The next president was Rev. George Cooke, who was 
born at Keene, N. H., December 26, 181 1, graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1832, was pastor at Amherst, Mass., from 1839 
to 1852, in which latter year he accepted the pastorate of 
the Second Presbyterian church at Knoxville. and was 
elected president of the East Tennessee University in 1853. 
A majority of the faculty having resigned at the time of 
President Reese's resignation, it was necessary to fill the 
vacancies thus caused, and the opening of the university was 
necessarily postponed until the beginning of the summer 
session of 1854. In the following September the cholera 
prevailed in Knoxville and the students were prevented from 
returning at the opening of the winter session by reason 
thereof. An attempt to organize a medical department failed, 
and a subsequent attempt made in 1858 also failed. President 
Cooke suggested the establishment of an agricultural depart- 
ment, but before it could be determined whether this were a 
practical suggestion President Cooke resigned, in despair, in 

March 20, 1858. Rev. William D. Carnes, A. M., a gradu- 
ate of the university in 1842. and then president of Burritt 
College, Van Buren county, Tenn., was elected president, 
and served until i860, when he resigned, afterward being 
ordained a minister in the Christian church. But while he 
was president he procured the adoption of a joint resolution 


by the legislature, requesting the judges of the Supreme 
court of the state to report at the next session the facts in 
reference to the appropriation of the college lands under the 
act of congress of 1806, and to state their opinion as to the 
equitable right of the two universities to further compensa- 
tion on this account. The trustees appointed John H. Crozier 
and Thomas C. Lyon to present the claim of the university to 
the Supreme court; but the war came on and this matter 
is still undecided. 

The vacancy caused by the resignation of President Carnes 
was immediately filled by the election of Rev. J. J. Ridley, 
of Clarksville, to the position. The first session under his 
administration opened with a largely increased attendance, 
owing to the labors of Rev. Mr. Carnes during his incum- 
bency. The first important action by President Ridley was 
to secure the adoption of a resolution extending gratuitous 
education to candidates for the ministry, without regard 
to their denominational preferences. President Ridley re- 
mained in his position until February 7, 1862, when he 
unconditionally resigned, and from that time on until the 
close of the war the buildings of the university were alter- 
nately used by the Federal and Confederate forces, and when 
needed again for its legitimate purposes the buildings were 
in no condition to be used. 

Succeeding the act of congress of 1806, the next important 
legislation by that august body which affected the University 
of East Tennessee, was an act approved by President Lincoln 
July 2, 1862, entitled "An act donating public lands to the 
several states and territories which may provide colleges for 
the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." This 
act granted to each state a certain amount of the public 
lands within its borders (thirty thousand acres for each sena- 
tor and representative to which the states were respectively 
entitled by the apportionment made under the census of 
i860), or if there were not sufficient lands, then land scrip 
for a corresponding acreage, which lands were to be sold 


by the states and the moneys derived therefrom to be invested 
in safe stocks and to constitute a perpetual fund, which 
should remain forever undiminished, and the interest thereon 
inviolably appropriated to the endowment and maintenance 
of at least one college whose leading object should be to 
teach such branches of learning as relate to agriculture and 
the mechanic arts. 

The Civil war prevented Tennessee from accepting this 
generous gift until 1865, which, according to the provisions 
of the act, was too late, as two years from the approval of the 
act was the limit of time extended within which to accept the 
gift; but Tennessee having been readmitted to the Union, 
congress was induced to extend the time specified in the 
original act in order that Tennessee might avail herself of 
its provisions, which she did by an act passed February 1, 
1868. This act made provision for obtaining and selling 
the land scrip, which by lack of public lands the state was 
entitled to receive, and directed that the proceeds should be 
invested in bonds of the state to await the proper disposi- 

In the meantime the trustees of the university unanimously 
elected Rev. Thomas W. Humes, who was born in Knoxville, 
Tenn., April 22, 1815, and who graduated from East Ten- 
nessee College in 1830, president of the university, a position 
which he held continuously and successfully until 1883, when 
he resigned. One of the provisions of the act of congress 
of 1862 was that each state claiming the benefits of the act 
should within five years from its approval, July 2, 1862, 
provide a college to receive the endowment. East Ten- 
nessee University was already somewhat of a state institution 
and was desirous of securing the location of the Agricultural 
College. Under the leadership of President Humes she made 
application for the congressional appropriation, offering, if 
given the fund, to provide the necessary college building. 
In 1869 the legislature of the state appropriated the proceeds 
of the sale of the land scrip to East Tennessee University, 


making it the express duty of the trustees of the university 
to establish an agricultural college, in such manner as to 
strictly conform to the congressional enactment. This state 
law required the trustees of the university to complete build- 
ings for the accommodation of 275 students, and to provide a 
farm of not less than 200 acres, so that the whole property 
at a fair valuation should be worth not less than $125,000 
before it should be lawful for the governor to issue to the 
university the scrip ; and the university was required to admit 
three students from each county in the state free of tuition, 
said students to be nominated by the several representatives 
from each county. 

These conditions having been complied with, the Tennes- 
see Industrial College was organized in June, 1869, and 
went into operation in September following, and the endow- 
ment from the United states was invested in 396 bonds of the 
state of Tennessee, each bond for $1,000, bearing six per 
cent interest, the payment of which has been often delayed. 
The farm purchased is situated about three-fourths of a mile 
from the university, just west of Third creek on the north 
bank of the Tennessee river, new buildings were erected and 
a chemical laboratory was provided and equipped. 

The establishment of this industrial department created 
extraordinary demands upon the teaching force, and while 
Dr. Humes remained president of the institution and pro- 
fessor of mental and moral philosophy, Prof. J. K. Payne re- 
tained the chair of mathematics, to which natural philosophy 
was added; Prof. W. M. Grace took English language and 
literature, rhetoric having been dropped; and the new pro- 
fessors were assigned to the following branches of learning: 
F. H. Bradley, M. A., natural science; R. L. Kirkpatrick, 
M. A., Latin and literature; E. Dean Dow, M. A., agriculture; 
I. T. Beckwith, A. B., ancient languages; W. O. Atwater, 
agricultural chemistry: M. C. Butler, M. A., became principal 
of the classical preparatory department; and William Y. 
Deaderick, principal of the scientific preparatory department. 


Professor Dow not accepting the chair of agriculture, that 
thair was filled later by Prof. Hunter Nicholson, at which 
time horticulture was added to agriculture. Professor At- 
water did not take possession of his chair until the fall of 
1 87 1. Principal Deaderick taught half the year, and his place 
was then filled by J. V. Bradford. In the classical preparatory 
department George L. Maloney and W. A. Rice were em- 
ployed to give instruction. 

In this new organization there were, as will have been 
seen, two preparatory departments, the classical preparatory 
department being taught for some time in the old "White 
House," which stood where Agricultural Hall now stands, 
and the scientific preparatory department was taught at the 
old Hampden-Sidney Academy on Church street. The 
design was to dispense as soon as possible with all 
preparatory work as soon as the educational condition of 
the people of the state would justify such a course; but this 
condition of things was slow to arrive, and the preparatory 
schools did much good work, and though the lack of efficient 
preparatory schools throughout the state still renders pre- 
paratory work in the university necessary, yet no regular 
class is now maintained. 

The class of 1871, containing four members, was the first 
to graduate after the war. These members were S. A. Craig, 
T. C. Karns, Albert Setzepand and J. W. C. Willoughby, 
all receiving the degree of bachelor of arts except S. A. 
Craig, who received the degree of bachelor of science. 

The courses of study at this time were four in number: 
agricultural, mechanical, classical and scientific, the latter 
being identical with the classical, except that Greek was sup- 
planted by certain studies of the agricultural and mechanical 
courses. Prof. Atwater returned from Europe in the fall 
with a fully supply of improved apparatus for the chemical 
laboratory. Albert Ruth, A. M., and Levi Van Fossen, 
Ph. B., were appointed instructors in the preparatory de- 
partment, and Lieut. T. T. Thornburgh, of the United 


States army, in December, 1871, became professor of military 
science and commandant of cadets. 

In the year 1871 the farm was surveyed and laid off into 
lots, preparatory to the beginning of rotation of crops. The 
next year crops were planted and considerable preparatory 
work done; stock was purchased, a barn built, and the 
teaching of practical farming began, many of the students 
in this way earning enough to pay for half of their 

At the time of the establishment of four full courses, as 
mentioned above, there were also established two shorter 
courses, viz.: one in agriculture and one in mechanics, for 
the benefit of such men as were getting somewhat advanced 
in years, and there had been also for some time a Latin- 
scientific course, also for the benefit of the same class of 
men. In 1872 these three short courses were discontinued, 
and students, or their parents for them, allowed to select one 
of the other courses, and one year was added to the non- 
classical course, making it a three years' course. 

In 1872 Prof. Van Fossen resigned his position as instruc- 
tor in the preparatory department, and Rev. Thomas Roberts, 
M. A., was appointed to the vacancy. F. E. Hacker resigned 
as instructor in drawing, and Charles Waring, C. E., of the 
University of Dublin, was appointed to the place, but does 
not seem to have served. 

The next year there were several changes in the faculty. 
Prof. F. D. Allen resigned the chair of Latin and Greek and 
was succeeded by Morton William Easton, Ph. D. Rev. F. 
Esperandieu became professor of French in place of Prof. 
I. B. Barker, and Prof. Atwater was succeeded in the chair 
of general and agricultural chemistry by Prof. B. S. Burton, 
Ph. B. Lieut. Thornburgh having been recalled to the 
army, was succeeded by Col. S. B. Crawford as professor of 
military science and commandant of cadets. A special chair 
of rhetoric was filled by Rev. Thomas C. Teasdale, D. D. 
The president of the university took evidences of religion 


instead of mental science, the latter falling to Prof. Kirk- 
patrick. C. S. Newman resigned as principal of the prepara- 
tory department and was succeeded by A. Ruth. Spurrier 
Howard-Smith, A. B., Eben Alexander, A. B., and William 
B. Payne, A. B., were elected tutors, and L. W. Philson, 
A. M., and A. L. Wakefield. B. A., B. S., instructors in the 
preparatory department. 

During the scholastic year 1873-74, the attendance reached 
318, of whom 211 were state appointees, fifty-two counties 
being represented by appointees. And it is somewhat re- 
markable that while a majority of students were sons of 
farmers, yet they seldom chose agriculture as their course of 
study. It may be stated also in this connection that it 
became necessary to disabuse the public mind at this time 
that one of the principal objects of the establishment of this 
department of instruction was to furnish manual labor to 
the agricultural student. Prof. Hunter Nicholson showing 
that the successful study of agriculture is based upon knowl- 
edge of the physical sciences, and that the student is not 
prepared to specialize in agriculture until the last years of 
his course. 

In June, 1875. Col. Crawford resigned as professor of 
military science, and was succeeded by Lieut. A. H. Nave of 
the United States army. W. B. Payne and A. L. Wakefield 
were succeeded in the preparatory department by S. B. Craw- 
ford, A. B., and T. C. Karns, A. B. Lewis M. Herring was 
appointed instructor in chemistry in 1876, and Lieut. J. E. 
Bloom of the United States army became professor of mil- 
itary science in 1876, serving one year. 

In the summer of 1S77 the entire faculty of the university 
was reorganized, after which reorganization it stood as fol- 
lows : 

Rev. Thomas W. Humes, S. T. D., president and professor 
of ethics and evidences of religion. 

Richard L. Kirkpatrick, M. A., professor of logic and 
English literature. 


Hunter Nicholson, professor of agriculture and horticul- 

Morton William Easton, Ph. D., professor of modern 
languages and comparative philology. 

Eben Alexander. B. A., professor of ancient languages 
and literature. 

S. H. Lockett. M. A., professor of mathematics and me- 
chanical philosophy. 

\Y. G. Brown, B. S., professor of chemistry and instructor 
in geology and mineralogy. 

David Hunt Ludlow, B. A., assistant professor of mathe- 

W. G. McAdoo. M. A., S. B. Crawford, B. A., and T. O. 
Deaderick, B. A., instructors in preparatory department. 

G. R. Knabe, instructor in vocal and instrumental music. 

William E. Moses, assistant in analytical chemistry. 

Lieut. George W. Baxter, of the United States army, 
served a short time as professor of military science, but was 
succeeded in the fall of 1877 by Col. S. H. Lockett. 

In the same year separate colleges were made of the three 
ancient courses of study — the agricultural course becoming 
the college of agriculture; the mechanical course becoming 
the college of engineering and the mechanic arts, and the 
classical course becoming the classical college. Each had 
its separate curriculum and corps of instructors, but all were 
under one government and of equal rank. It was noticeable 
that more and more students followed a scientific course of 
study and fewer of them took the classical course as time 
sped on. 

In 1878 Prof. Kirkpatrick took the new chair of history 
and philosophy, and Edward S. Joynes, A. M., LL. D., then 
late of Vanderbilt University, became professor of English 
language and belles-lettres. 

By an act of the legislature of the state passed March 
24, 1879, it was provided that no further vacancies in the 
board of trustees should be filled until the number of trustees 


should be reduced below thirty, and the same act also pro- 
vided that a board of visitors should be appointed by the 
governor — three from each of the three divisions of the 
state — holding their offices for four years, who should visit 
the university at least once a year, and report upon its 
condition to the governor. On commencement day, June 18, 
1879, the University of Tennessee was inaugurated, and in 
compliance with the act just referred to. Governor Albert S. 
Marks appointed the following as the first board of visitors: 
Ex-Governor James D. Porter, Hon. J. Harvey Mathes, 
Gen. R. P. Neely, Hon. John C. Gaut, Gen. Lucius E. Polk, 
Hon. Z. YV. Ewing, Perez Dickinson, Hon. James T. Shields, 
and Dr. E. M. Wight. 

In 1879 the name of East Tennessee University was 
changed to that of the University of Tennessee, and laws 
were enacted connecting the university more intimately with 
the state system of public schools. 

For four years succeeding the resignation of Dr. Humes 
the faculty, upon authority of the board of trustees, annually 
elected one of their own number chairman, such chairman 
being clothed with the authority and charged with the duties 
of president; but in 1887, desiring to strengthen the institu- 
tion in the sciences relating to the industries and in engineer- 
ing, the trustees elected to the presidency Dr. Charles YV. 
Dabney. Jr., who was born at Hampden-Sidney, Y*a., June 19, 
1855. Dr. Dabney received the degree of bachelor of philos- 
ophy at the University of Goettingen. Germany, and previous 
to his election to the responsible position he now fills, had 
held several important positions connected with educational 
institutions in Virginia and North Carolina. In 1893 he 
was appointed by President Cleveland, Assistant Secretary 
of Agriculture, and in 1894 he was appointed chairman of 
the board of managers of the government exhibit at Atlanta, 
Ga., and in 1897 he was appointed to a similar position at 
the Tennessee Centennial Exposition. He received the de- 
gree of LL.. D. from Davidson College in 1889, and is now 


serving his twelfth year as president of this great state insti- 
tution, the University of Tennessee. 

What afterward became the medical department of the 
University of Tennessee was organized as the Nashville 
Medical College in 1876, this college being founded by Drs. 
Duncan Eve and W. F. Glenn. The first faculty was com- 
posed of Drs. Paul F. Eve, T. B. Buchanan, George S. 
Blackie, W. P. Jones and J. J. Abernethy, taken from the 
faculties of Nashville and Vanderbilt Universities. The first 
session of this college opened March 5, 1877, and in the 
spring of 1879 a dental department was established, the first 
in the South. During this same year an overture was made 
by the University of Tennessee to the Nashville Medical Col- 
lege to become the medical department of the university, the 
overture being accepted. 

Following are the names of the members of the medical 
and dental faculties as they stood in 1891: 

Charles W. Dabney, Jr., Ph. D., LL. D., president of the 

Hon. William P. Jones, M. D., president of the faculty. 

Duncan Eve, M. D., A. M., dean of the faculty and pro- 
fessor of the practice of surgery. 

John S. Cain, M. D., professor of the principles and prac- 
tice of medicine, with clinical medicine and general pathology. 

J. Berrien Lindsley, D. D., M. D., professor of medical 
chemistry and state medicine. 

J. Bunyan Stephens, M. D., professor of obstetrics and 
clinical midwifery. 

William D. Haggard, M. D., professor of gynaecology and 
diseases of children. 

W. M. Vertrees, M. D., professor of materia medica and 

Paul F. Eve, M. D., professor of the principles of surgery, 
operative and clinical surgery. 

William E. McCampbell, A. M., M. D., professor of gen- 
eral, descriptive and surgical anatomy. 


John A. Witherspoon, M. D., professor of practice of medi- 
cine and medical hygiene. 

T. Hilliard Wood, M. D., professor of physiology. 

William F. Glenn, M. D., professor of venereal diseases. 

John G. Sinclair, M. D., professor of clinical diseases of the 
eye, ear and throat. 

William G. Brien, M. D., LL. D., professor of medical 

J. H. Blanks, M. D., professor of clinical medicine. 

Haley P. Cartwright, M. D., professor of physical diag- 

Charles Mitchell, M. D., professor of microscopy and his- 

James W. Handly, M. D., professor of genito-urinary dis- 
eases and demonstrator of anatomy. 

Ross Dunn, M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

The course of medical instruction consists of "didactic 
lectures, with demonstrations, clinical teaching, examina- 
tions or quizzes, and practical teaching in subjects involving 
manipulation." The candidate for graduation must be 21 
years of age, of good moral character, and must have studied 
at least two years. The first year may be passed at some 
other reputable college. A graded course of three years is 
also provided, but it is not obligatory. 

The school is located on Broad street and has one of the 
best equipped buildings in the country. A free city dis- 
pensary is located on the ground floor. The fees are: 
Matriculation, $5; lectures, $75; demonstrator's fee, $10; 
graduation fee, $25. 

The dental course of study embraces "operative, prosthetic 
and clinical dentistry, lectures on oral and clinical surgery, 
chemistry, materia medica and therapeutics, regional anat- 
omy, physiology, and microscopy." The requirements for 
graduation and the fees are similar to those of the medical 

The degrees that were conferred in 1879 were divided into 


collegiate, post-graduate and professional. The collegiate 
degrees were those of bachelor of arts and bachelor of 
science. The degree of bachelor of arts was given in the 
classical college, and included full courses of study in Latin, 
Greek. English history and philosophy, and partial courses 
in mathematics, chemistry, natural history and modern lan- 
guages. The degree of bachelor of science was given in the 
mechanical college and in the agricultural college. In the 
former it included full courses of study in mathematics, ap- 
plied mathematics, chemistry, natural history and partial 
courses in English history and philosophy and modern lan- 
guages. In the agricultural college it included full courses 
in chemistry, including agricultural chemistry, natural his- 
tory and agriculture, and partial courses in mathematics, ap- 
plied mathematics, English history and philosophy and mod- 
ern languages. 

The post-graduate degrees were those of master of arts 
and doctor of philosophy. The master's degree had hitherto 
been given in course to graduates of three years' standing 
who had sustained a good moral character and would present 
to the faculty a satisfactory original thesis. Instead of this, 
in 1879, there was required one year of postgraduate study, 
and in order to receive the degree of doctor of philosophy 
two years of resident postgraduate study under the direction 
of the faculty were required, thus converting these degrees 
into degrees of merit instead of degrees of honor. 

The professional degrees were those of civil engineer and 
doctor of medicine, the former requiring two years of special 
In the summer of 1879 there were made some changes in 
the faculty. The chair of agriculture and horticulture was 
divided into two chairs, the one containing natural history 
and geology, assigned to Prof. Hunter Nicholson, and the 
other containing agriculture, horticulture and botany, as- 
signed to Prof. John M. McBryde. Prof. S. B. Crawford 
became professor of military science, and David B. Johnson, 


B. A., assistant instructor in mathematics. In July of this 
year Prof. Kirkpatrick died, and in 1880 Prof. M. W. Easton 
resigned the chair of modern languages, thus leaving two 
leading chairs vacant, and modern languages then went to 
the professor of English and belles-lettres; the instructorship 
in mathematics was discontinued and the new chair of pure 
mathematics was filled by Prof. James Dinwiddie, M. A. 

In 1880 a surveyor's course of two years, a practical agri- 
cultural course of two years and a business course of one 
year, were established, and in 1881 an arrangement was made 
with the Knoxville business college by which its professors 
conducted the business department of the university. 

In 1882 Prof. Joynes resigned his chair of English and 
modern languages, and was succeeded therein by Prof. 
Rodes Massie. and Prof. John W. Glenn of Georgia suc- 
ceeded Prof. McBryde in the chair of agriculture and horti- 

In 1883, upon the resignation of Dr. T. \V. Humes from 
the presidency, the board of trustees decided to elect a 
chairman who should be in effect president, and Prof. Rodes 
Alassie was chosen. Col. Lockett resigned the chair of ap- 
plied mathematics and the work was assigned to Prof. Din- 
widdie. Lewis C. Carter being elected instructor in applied 
mathematics. Prof. W. A. Noyes was elected to succeed 
Prof. Brown in the chair of chemistry and mineralogy. 
Thomas O. Deaderick became adjunct professor of ancient 
languages. In the summer of 1885 Prof. Dinwiddie resigned 
the chair of mathematics, and was succeeded by Prof. W. W. 
Carson. During the year 1885-86 Prof. E. Alexander 
served as chairman of the faculty, and at the end of the year 
was succeeded by Prof. Thomas O. Deaderick. Adjunct 
Professor W. E. Moses was promoted to the chair of chem- 
istry and mineralogy made vacant by the resignation of Prof. 
Noyes. Col. S. B. Crawford was chairman of the faculty for 
1886-87; Price Thomas. A. M., was chosen instructor in 
natural history, agriculture, etc.; Charles Walker, A. M., 


instructor in chemistry and physics, and T. C. Karns. A. Ah, 
principal of the preparatory department. 

.March 3, 1887, Congress passed what is known as the 
"Hatch Bill," which provided for the establishment of agri- 
cultural experiment stations in connection with the various 
agricultural colleges then already founded in different states. 
On March 28 the legislature of Tennessee passed an act 
accepting the gift of $15,000 and bestowed it upon the agri- 
cultural department of the University of Tennessee. In the 
following July the trustees of the University reorganized the 
agricultural department. President Dabney was made direc- 
tor of the station and entered upon his duties August 4, 
1887, and although by an oversight no appropriation clause 
had been included in the congressional act, Director Dabney 
added two men to his staff in September, 1887 — C. S. Plumb 
and C. L. Newman, the former being at the same time elected 
professor of agriculture. During the summer of 1888 a new 
station building worth $6,800 was erected adjoining Agricul- 
tural Hall on the south, and a new mechanical building was 
also erected during the same summer. At the same time a 
new residence was erected for the president just east of the 
experiment station, at a cost of $5,000. Agricultural Hall 
had not up to this time been completed, and now both it and 
the new station building were fitted up with the best gas, 
water, heating and ventilating apparatus. In addition to the 
improvements for the experiment station and the agricul- 
tural department, a new mechanical building was erected in 
the summer of 1888, being of brick and costing $1 1,500. 

In the summer of 1888 a complete reorganization of the 
faculty was effected. The board of trustees under which 
this reorganization was made consisted of the following- 
named gentlemen: Governor Robert L. Taylor, ex-officio; 
Hon. John Allison, secretary of state, ex-officio; Hon. Frank 
M. Smith, superintendent of public instruction, ex-officio; 
Hugh L. McClung, Hon. O. P. Temple. Frank A. R. Scott, 
Robert H. Armstrong, S. H. Smith. M. D.; R. P. Eaton, 


H. L. W. Mynatt, Hon. D. A. Nunn, Edward J. Sanford, 
W. A. Henderson, Esq.; Hon. J. M. Coulter, Rev. James 
Park, D. D.; James D. Cowan, C. Deaderick, M. D.; John M. 
Boyd, M. D. ; Hon. George Brown, J. W. Gaut, Samuel L. 
McKinney, William Morrow, M. D.; William B. Reese, Esq.; 
Moses White, Esq.; James Comfort, Esq.; Samuel B. Luttrell, 
and Robert Craighead. 

The officers of the board were Dr. Charles W. Dabney, Jr., 
president; Robert Craighead, treasurer, and S. H. Smith, 
M. D., secretary. 

The board of control of the agricultural experiment station 
consisted of O. P. Temple, J. W. Gaut, R. H. Armstrong, 
James Park, D. D., and Robert Craighead. 

The board of visitors, appointed by the governor, consisted 
of Charles Mason, Jonesboro; John W. Paulett, Knoxville; 
Rev. George Stuart, Cleveland; J. W. Sparks, Murfreesboro; 
Clinton Armstrong, Lewisburg; T. B. Harwell, M. D., Pu- 
laski; William Sanford, Covington; J. Harvey Mathes, 
Memphis, and S. B. Williamson, Trenton. 

The officers of government and instruction elected were: 

Charles W. Dabney, Jr., Ph. D. (Gottingen), President of 
the University. 

Thomas W. Jordan, A. M. (graduate University of Vir- 
ginia), Dean of the College. 

Kenneth G. Matheson (South Carolina Military Academy), 
Commandant of Cadets. 

The faculty elected, in the order of official seniority, were 
as follows: 

William W. Carson, C. E., M. E. (Washington and Lee 
University), Professor of Mathematics and Civil Engineering. 

Charles W. Dabney, Jr., Ph. D. (Gottingen), Professor of 
' Irganic and Agricultural Chemistry. 

Charles S. Plumb, B. S. (Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege), Professor of Agriculture. 

F. Lamson-Scribner, B. S. (Maine State College), Pro- 
fessor of Botany and Horticulture. 


J. S. Coon, M. E. (Cornell University), Professor of Me- 
chanical Engineering and Physics. 

Thomas W. Jordan, A. M. (graduate University of Vir- 
ginia), Professor of Latin Language and Literature. 

Charles E. Wait, C. E., M. E. (University of Virginia). 
Ph. D. (University of Missouri), Professor of General and 
Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy. 

Charles \Y. Kent, A. M. (University of Virginia), Ph. D. 
(Leipsic), Professor of English and Modern Languages. 

Edward E. Gayle, first lieutenant. Second Artillery, U. S. 
A., Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

Theodore F. Burgdorff, passed assistant engineer, U. S. N., 
Associate Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Thomas C. Karns, A. M. (University of Tennessee), Asso- 
ciate Professor of the English Language and of Literature 
and of History. 

Henry E. Summers, B. S. (Cornell University), Associate 
Professor of Biology and Zoology. 

Clifford L. Newman, B. S. (Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of Alahama), Assistant Professor of Agriculture. 

Kenneth G. Matheson (South Carolina Military Academy). 
Assistant Professor of English. 

S. N. Smith, A. M. (University of Tennessee), Instructor 
in Ancient Languages. 

Charles Hancock (graduate Miller Manual Labor School of 
Virginia), Instructor in Mechanics. 

David B. Oviatt (Cornell University), Instructor in Draw- 

William R. Ellington (University of Tennessee). Instructor 
in Mathematics. 

J. E. Matheny. Instructor in Bookkeeping. 

Dr. J. E. Kennedy, Physician. 

Prof. W. W. Camson, Secretary of the Faculty. 

Prof. Chas. S. Plumb, Librarian. 

Capt. K. G. Matheson. Inspector of Buildings. 

Robert J. Cummings. Superintendent of the Farm. 


The officers of the agricultural experiment station elected 

Charles W. Dabney, Jr.. Ph. D. (Gottingen), Director. 

Charles S. Plumb, B. S. (Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege), Assistant Director, in charge of field and feeding ex- 

F. Lamson-Scribner, B. S. (Maine State College), Botan- 
ist and Horticulturist. 

Winthrop E. Stone, B. S., Ph. D. (Gottingen), Chemist. 

Henry E. Summers, B. S. (Cornell University), Entomol- 

Clifford L. Newman, B. S. (Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of Alabama), Assistant. 

Robert J. Cummings, Foreman of Experiment Farm. 

Thomas L. Norwood, A. M. (University of North Caro- 
lina), had been elected professor of modern languages and 
English and also dean of the faculty, but very unfortunately 
sickened and died before the term opened. 

The departments of instruction comprised, first, the aca- 
demic, which was subdivided into the collegiate and the 
university, or post-graduate; secondly, the professional, lo- 
cated at Nashville, which was divided into a course in medi- 
cine and a course in dentistry. 

The collegiate department embraced the following courses 
of study: 1. Literary-scientific; 2. Latin-scientific; 3. Agri- 
culture; 4. Civil engineering; 5. Mechanical Engineering; 
6. Chemistry; 7. Mining engineering. These courses led 
to the degrees of bachelor of science, bachelor of philosophy, 
bachelor of agriculture, bachelor of science in engineering, 
and bachelor of science in applied chemistry. 

The university department included courses for the gradu- 
ate degrees of master of arts, master of science, and doctor 
of philosophy. The first and second required each one year 
of study; the third two years. Then there were the profes- 
sional courses leading to degrees of civil engineer, mining 
engineer and mechanical engineer. In the third place there 


were courses for special students in the various departments. 
University students working for degrees were required to 
be graduates of the academic department of this or equivalent 
schools and resident at the university. The degree of master 
of agriculture was afterward introduced. 

The medical department at Nashville conferred the degree 
of doctor of medicine, and the dental department that of doc- 
tor of dental surgery. 

The following schools were included in the academic de- 

1. School of ancient languages, with one professor and one 


2. School of English and modern languages, with two pro- 

fessors and one assistant professor. 

3. School of mathematics, and civil engineering, with two 

professors and one instructor. 

4. School of mechanical engineering and physics, with one 

professor and two instructors. 

5. School of general and analytical chemistry and 

metallurgy, with one professor. 

6. School of agriculture and organic chemistry, with one 


7. School of agriculture, with one professor and one assist- 

ant professor. 

8. School of botany and horticulture, with one professor. 

9. School of biology and zoology, with one professor. 
10. School of military science and tactics. 

The preparatory school was abolished, a few subcollegiate 
classes being retained to meet a present demand. 

Four new schools of study had been established, viz.: 
Mechanical engineering and physics, agriculture and organic 
chemistry, botany and horticulture, and biology and zoology. 
The library was recatalogued according to the well-known 
Dewey decimal classification system, and then contained 
about 6,000 volumes, since increased to volumes. 

In 1890 Prof. C. S. Plumb resigned the chair of agriculture 


and in 1891 was succeeded by Major C. F. Vanderford; Prof. 
Stonewall Tompkins became superintendent of shops in place 
of C. S. Coon, resigned; W. M. Yager became instructor in 
mechanics, and H. J. Darnall in German; Lieut. E. E. Gayle 
became professor of military science, and Cooper D. Schmitt, 
M. A., professor of mathematics. In 1889, in order to accom- 
modate workingmen who could not attend during the day, 
there was established a night school, aided liberally by the 
citizens of Knoxville. No tuition was charged, the professors 
of the university donating their time. The sessions were held 
in the Mechanical building on Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday evenings of each week throughout January, Febru- 
ary. March and April, the members of the teaching force 
being: Prof. Stonewall Tompkins, principal; Prof. T. W. 
Jordan, language; Prof. T. C. Karns, English; Prof. C. D. 
Schmitt, mathematics; Prof. R. S. Collins (Knoxville Busi- 
ness College), bookkeeping and penmanship; W. R. Elling- 
ton, freehand drawing, and W. M. Yager, mechanical draw- 
ing. A number of popular lectures on such subjects as 
chemistry, electricity, and political economy were delivered 
during the season. 

The law department was established in the beginning of 
the second term of 1889-90, with ex-Supreme Judge Thomas 
J. Freeman dean and professor in charge. The course was 
a two years' one and led to the degree of bachelor of laws. 
During the spring of 1891 Judge Freeman resigned on ac- 
count of ill health, dying in the fall of that year, and he was 
succeeded as dean by Judge H. H. Ingersoll, George E. 
Beers, a graduate of Yale law school being elected associate 

On February 2. 1877, a Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion was organized, with D. B. Johnson, president; James H. 
Cowan, vice-president; Charles J. Heiskell, secretary, and 
John M. Allen, treasurer. Meetings were held first in the old 
chapel, then in a room in the steward's hall, and afterward in 
East College. February 22, 1890, at a meeting held at the 


university, a subscription was started for the purpose of erect- 
ing a new building for the association, which had by this 
time become an influential body in East Tennessee. There 
was raised $3,500 immediately, which amount in a few days 
grew to $6,000, and then the trustees offered to give $3,000, 
provided $7,000 were raised outside, which was accomplished, 
and on June 9, ground was broken for the new building. As 
the building was in course of erection the ambition of its 
founders grew, and finally a fine three-story brick building 
was erected at a cost of $20,000. It stands on the east side 
of the campus commanding a fine view of the Tennessee 

In 1890 congress made an additional appropriation to the 
land grant colleges of the various states, the amount to be 
taken from the sale of public lands. It began with $15,000, 
on June 30, 1890, and increased $1,000 each year until the 
amount reaches $25,000, which sum is to be paid thereafter 
annually. This fund can go only to instruction in agricul- 
ture, the mechanic arts, the English language, and the vari- 
ous branches of mathematical, physical, natural, and economic 
sciences, with special reference to their applications in the 
industries of life, and to the facilities to such instruction. 

The teachers' department was strengthened in 1890 by the 
election of Prof. Frank M. Smith as principal. F. R. Jones, 
M. E., was elected superintendent of shops; P. L. Cobb, 
instructor in ancient languages; J. R. McColl, in mechanics; 
E. M. Davis, in English; S. W. McCallie. in geology; P. F. 
Kefauer in practical agriculture, and R. L. Watts in horti- 

High schools were designated in 1890, whose preparatory 
work would be received for entrance at the university. On 
application the University School at Columbia, Institute at 
Lewisburg. Memphis Institute, University High School at 
Knoxville, Wall and Mooney School at Franklin, the 
Yerkes School at Paris. Ky., and the Bingham School of 
North Carolina, were added to the list. One free scholar- 


ship was awarded to the best graduate of each school. After- 
ward were added the High School of Asheville, N. C; the 
Peabody High School at Little Rock, Ark.; the University 
School of Kansas City, Mo.; the University School of Monti- 
cello, Ark.; and high schools in Tennessee at the following 
places: Alexandria, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Cleveland, 
Clinton, Columbia, Dyersburg, Jonesboro, Knoxville, Lex- 
ington, McMinnville, Memphis, Milan, Nashville, Newbern, 
Pulaski, Rogersville, Trenton and West Knoxville. 

Early in 1891 Laurence D. Tyson, first lieutenant, Ninth 
Infantry, U. S. army, was appointed professor of military 
science, Lieut. Gayle having been recalled to the army. Prof. 
George F. Mellen, Ph. D. (Leipsic) was elected associate 
professor of Greek and French, taking charge in the fall of 
1891 ; J. D. Hoskins was appointed in mathematics. 

The foundations for a new science hall were laid in the 
summer of 1890, and the building completed in 1891, at a 
cost of about $60,000. The money with which to erect this 
building was obtained principally from the sale of forty-nine 
acres of land adjoining the college farm. It was not needed 
for agricultural purposes, and had then recently so appreci- 
ated in value as to readily bring $1,000 an acre. 

The constitution of Tennessee provides that there shall be 
no discrimination against colored persons in any of the public 
schools. The university being simply the head of the public 
school system the act endowing the institution with the 
proceeds of the land grant, sets forth that "no citizen of 
this state, otherwise qualified, shall be excluded from the 
privileges of the university by reason of his race or color; 
but the accommodation and instruction of persons of color 
shall be separate from the white." 

For many years, of course, no colored persons were found 
qualified to take advantage of the grade of instruction pro- 
vided by the university. When, later, a few state appointees 
to scholarships were found qualified, their tuition was paid 
at Fisk Universitv, at Nashville, and then also at Knoxville 


College, Knoxville, Tenn. When the present management 
took charge of the institution, and the number of colored 
appointees increased considerably, steps were taken to estab- 
lish a regular department in the university for the benefit 
of this class of students. In response to an inquiry addressed 
to the attorney-general of the state, an opinion was received 
from him to the effect that all the departments of the uni- 
versity ought to be located at Knoxville, in immediate rela- 
tion with, and under the direct supervision of. the trustees 
and faculty. As soon, therefore, as the students then attend- 
ing Fisk University could be graduated, steps were taken 
which led to the establishment of such a department at 
Knoxville. By contract with the trustees of Knoxville Col- 
lege, an excellent institution for the education of colored 
people, the buildings, grounds, and teaching staff of that 
institution were made available for the university as its col- 
ored department. 

The facilities there provided needed, however, to be sup- 
plemented along the line of scientific and industrial educa- 
tion. The president accordingly visited some of the friends 
of this institution at the North, and secured the funds for a 
new scientific and mechanical building. A tract of land 
adjacent to the college was provided for practical work in 
agriculture and horticulture. The new building contains a 
chemical laboratory, drawing rooms, and shops for instruc- 
tion in mechanic arts. Three new instructors were provided, 
and all the new departments were well equipped. The new 
department is called the industrial department for colored 
students, and is as immediately under the supervision of the 
trustees and president of the university as any other depart- 
ment of the institution, all of its teachers being elected by 
the trustees, and the entire expenses of the department being 
paid by them. The several professors of the university have 
supervision of the work there in their respective departments. 

It is designed to give colored men in this institution that 
opportunity for industrial education which they so much 


need. Students are encouraged and required to work in the 
shops and upon the farm, and get in this way a practical 
skill which will be of benefit to them in later life. Twelve 
apprenticeships, worth $50 per annum each, have been cre- 
ated for the benefit of these students and are available both 
in the agricultural and mechanical schools. 

The holdings and income of the university may be summed 
up as follows: 


Tennessee State certificates. Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege fund, which bear interest at 6 per cent $396,000 

Nine State certificates, which are the university's property, inter- 
est 5 per cent 9.000 

Knoxville city bonds (library), which bear 6 per cent interest. . 20.000 

Turnpike stock 1 .000 


College Hill property, 36.5 acres, and 12 large buildings 500,000 

College farm of 99.3 acres and improvements 100.000 

Unimproved land. 94.1 acres 80,000 

Equipment, live stock, machinery, etc 100.000 



Interest on Agricultural and Mechanical College fund $23,760 

Interest on 9 State certificates 450 

Interest of Knoxville bonds 1,200 

2 5.4lO 

The annual appropriations from the General Government are: 

For experiment station $15,000 

Under Morrill act (in 1891) 16.000 

~, 31.000 

The contingent income is, per annum, about 8.000 

Total income 64,000 

The following named gentlemen constitute the board of 
trustees at the present time: 

His Excellency, the Governor of Tennessee Ex-Ofncio. 

The Secretary of State Ex-Ofncio. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction Ex-Officio. 

T. F. P. Allison, Nashville, 


Frank P. Bond, Brownsville, 
John M. Boyd, Knoxville, 
Joshua W. Caldwell, Knoxville, 
James Comfort, Knoxville, 
Hit. L. Craighead, Nashville. 
Chalmers Deaderick. Knoxville, 
William C. Dismukes, Gallatin, 
Z. W. Ewing, Pulaski, 
James B. Frazier, Chattanooga, 
James W. Gaut, Knoxville, 
J. M. Greer, Memphis, 
Hal H. Haynes, Bristol, 
William A, Henderson. Knoxville, 
Hugh G. Kyle, Rogersville, 
Samuel B. Luttrell, Knoxville, 
James Maynard, Knoxville, 
Samuel McKinney, Knoxville, 
Hu. L. McClung, Knoxville, 
Thomas R. Myers, Shelbyville, 
James Park, Knoxville, 
James D. Porter, Paris, 
W'm. Rule, Knoxville, 
Edward J. Sanford, Knoxville, 
Edward T. Sanford, Knoxville, 
Frank A. R. Scott, Knoxville, 
Oliver P. Temple, Knoxville, 
Marye B. Trezevant, Memphis, 
Xenophon Wheeler. Chattanooga. 
Moses White, Knoxville. 


Charles W. Dabney President 

James Comfort Treasurer 

James W. Gaut Secretary 

The following-named gentlemen constitute the faculty of 
this university at the present time: 


Charles W. Dabney, Ph. D., LL. D., President of the 

Thomas W. Jordan, A. M., LL. D.. Dean of the College. 

Henry H. Ingersoll, LL. D., Dean of the Law Department. 

Mrs. Charles A. Perkins, A. M., Acting Dean of the Wo- 
man's Department. 


In Groups — In the Order of Official Seniority. 

William W. Carson, C. E., M. E., Professor of Civil Engi- 

Thomas W. Jordan, A. M., Professor of the Latin Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

Charles E. Wait, C. E.. M. E., Ph. D., F. C. S., Professor 
of General and Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy. 

A. M. Soule, Professor of Agriculture. 

George F. Mellen, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of Greek and 

John B. Henneman, M. A., Ph. D. (Berlin), Professor of 

Cooper D. Schmitt, M. A., Professor of Mathematics. 

Charles A. Perkins, Ph. D., Professor of Physics and Elec- 
trical Engineering. 

Andrew H. Nave (Captain Eleventh Infantry, U. S. A.), 
Commandant and Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

Charles W. Turner, A. M., Acting Professor of Constitu- 
tional History. 

James Maynard, M. A., Lecturer on International Law. 

Joshua W. Caldwell, M. A., Lecturer on the Constitutional 
History of Tennessee. 

Edward T. Sanford, M. A., B. LL. (Harvard), Lecturer on 
History of Tennessee. 

lav R. McColl, B. S., Assistant Professor of Mechanical 

H. J. Darnall, Adjunct Professor of Modern Languages. 

Ralph L. Watts. B. Agr., Instructor in Horticulture. 


Charles E. Ferris, B. S., Instructor in Drawing. 

Samuel M. Bain, A. B., Instructor in Botany. 

Charles E. Chambliss, M. S., Instructor in Zoology. 

Edwin M. Wiley, B. S., Instructor in English. 

Weston M. Fulton, B. A., Instructor in Meteorology. 

Charles O. Hill, B. A., Instructor in Pharmaceutical Chem- 

J. Bolton McBryde, C. E., Instructor in Organic and 
Agricultural Chemistry. 


Charles W. Dabney, Ph. D.. LL. D.. President of the 

Henry H. Ingersoll, LL. D., Dean and Professor of Law. 

Charles W. Turner, A. M., Associate Professor of Law. 

James Maynard, A. M., Lecturer on International Law. 

Leon Jourolmon, Lecturer on the Law of Real Property. 

Joshua W. Caldwell, A. M., Lecturer on Tennessee Law. 

James H. Welcker, A. B., B. LL., Lecturer on Torts. 

Edward T. Sanford, A. M., B. LL., Lecturer on the Law 
of Corporations in Tennessee. 


Charles W. Dabney, Ph. D., LL. D., President of the 

Paul F. Eve, M. D., Dean of the Medical Faculty and Pro- 
fessor of Principles and Practice of Surgery, Abdominal, 
Orthopaedic, and Clinical Surgery. 

J. Bunyan Stephens, M. D.. Professor of Obstetrics and 
Clinical Midwifery. 

William D. Haggard, M. D., Professor of Gynaecology and 
Diseases of Children. 

, William E. McCampbell, A. M., M. D., Professor of The- 
ory and Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine. 

T. Hilliard Wood, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Eye, 
Ear, Nose and Throat. 


Hazle Padgett, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Gen- 
eral Histology. 

W. C. Bilbro, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica, Thera- 
peutics, and Nervous Diseases. 

James S. Ward, A. B., M. D., Professor of Medical Chem- 
istry and Demonstrator of Laboratory Medical Chemistry. 

William D. Sumpter, M. D., Professor of General Descrip- 
tive and Surgical Anatomy, Microscopy and Bacteriology, 
and Demonstrator of Laboratory Microscopy, Bacteriology 
and Pathology. 

John Bell Keeble, LL. B., Professor of Medical Juris- 

Haley P. Cartwright, M. D., Professor of Physical Diag- 

John DeWitt, A. B., LL. B., Professor of Dental Juris- 

William D. Haggard, Jr., M. D., Associate Professor of 

James W. Handly, M. D., Lecturer on Genito-Urinary and 
Venereal Diseases. 

W. R. Sifford, M. D., Assistant to Chair of Surgery, Lec- 
turer on Minor Surgery, and Demonstrator of Laboratory 
Operative Surgery. 

W. S. Noble, M. D., Instructor in Ophthalmoscopy, and 
Assistant to Chair of Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat. 

Llwellyn P. Barbour, M. D., Lecturer on Tuberculosis. 

Daniel Cliff, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of Obstetrics. 

Charles A. Robertson, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics and Lecturer on Pharmacy. 

J. Herman Feist, M. D., Lecturer on Dermatology. 

Frederick R. Sandusky, D. D. S., Demonstrator-in-Chief. 

James B. Jordan, D. D. S., Assistant Demonstrator. 

George W. Seay, M. D., Demonstrator of Practical Anat- 

Perry Bromberg, M. D., Demonstrator of Practical 


F. C. Williams, D. D. S., Clinical Instructor. 

A. Sidney Page, D. D. S., Clinical Instructor. 

J. W. Bryan, D. D. S., Clinical Instructor. 

The officers of the agricultural experiment station are as 

Charles W. Dabney. president; A. M. Soule, secretary; 
Ralph L. Watts, horticulturist; J. Bolton McBryde, chemist; 
Samuel M. Bain, botanist; Charles E. Chambliss, entomolo- 
gist; Charles A. Mooers, assistant chemist; Frederick H. 
Broome, librarian. 

The following statistics pertaining to the attendance of pu- 
pils at this university are taken from the catalogue of 1897-98: 

Students in the Academic Department: 

1. College students 226 

2. University and special students 39 

Total number in the Academic Department 265 

Professional Departments: 

3. Law Department, at Knoxville 53 

4. Medical and Dental Departments, at Nashville 290 

Counted twice 10 

Total number of students in the University of Tennessee.... 598 

Hampden-Sidney Academy was established under the pro- 
visions of the congressional act of 1806, which has already 
been referred to under the history of the University of Ten- 
nessee. This act gave to the state of Tennessee 100,000 
acres of land, the proceeds of the sale of which were to be 
devoted to the endowment and maintenance of one academy 
in each county of the state, the name of the academy estab- 
lished in Knox county being as above. This academy was 
incorporated with the following trustees: Nathaniel Cowan, 
John Crozier, Thomas Humes, John Adair and George Mc- 
Nutt. To these trustees there were added the next year the 
following: Isaac Anderson, Samuel G. Ramsey. Robert 
Houston, Francis H. Ramsey, and John Sawyers. By an act 
of 181 1 the number of trustees was still further increased bv 


the addition of Thomas McCorry, George Wilson, James 
Park. Thomas Emmerson, Hugh L. White, and John Hills- 
man. The board of trustees was organized for the first time 
April 4, 1812, Hugh L. White being elected president; 
George Wilson, secretary, and Thomas Emmerson, treasurer. 
At this same meeting steps were taken to procure suitable 
teachers for the academy, and as William Park was about to 
go to Philadelphia, he was requested to select a principal 
and an assistant teacher. His instructions were as follows 
as to the kind of president he was to select: "A president 
of the academy is wanted, who must be a good scholar, 
capable of teaching the Latin and Greek languages and the 
sciences. He must, moreover, be a man of genteel deport- 
ment and unexceptional moral character. A minister of tal- 
ent and a considerable show of eloquence would be greatly 
preferred, and especially one who has heretofore taught 
with success. To an able teacher the trustees propose to 
give a salary of $800 per annum." As to the assistant he 
"must be a man of good moral character, capable of teach- 
ing reading, writing, English grammar and arithmetic. One 
who understands surveying and bookkeeping, also, would be 
preferred. To such a man the trustees will engage to pay 
a salary of $500 per annum." The reasons for offering these 
low salaries were given as follows: "The salubrity of the 
climate and the cheapness of living render the proposed sal- 
aries equal to much larger ones in most places to the east- 

These preliminaries having been taken, everything seemed 
to be in readiness for the opening of the academy, but for 
various reasons it was not opened until January 1, 1817, un- 
der the principalship of David A. Sherman, a graduate of Yale 
college. The building used was that of the East Tennessee 
College, which had been suspended then since 1809, when 
occurred the death of President Carrick. Some of the orig- 
inal subscribers to the support of this educational enterprise 
were John Crozier, Thomas Humes, Hugh L. White, Joseph 


C. Strong. Pleasant M. Miller and Calvin Morgan, each of 
whom gave $100. 

In October, 1820, when the trustees of East Tennessee 
College decided to put their institution again into operation, 
they elected David A. Sherman president, and Hampden- 
Sidney Academy and East Tennessee College were united, 
and from that time on until 1830 the academy had no sepa- 
rate existence. In October, 1830. the trustees of the acad- 
emy reorganized under a new charter granted by the 
legislature, electing Dr. Joseph C. Strong president, H. 
Brown secretary, and James H. Cowan treasurer. This re- 
organized board secured the services of Perez Dickinson as 
teacher, he being a young man then recently arrived from 
Massachusetts, and the academy was reopened in the old col- 
lege building. Mr. Dickinson remained in charge of the 
academy until 1832, when he resigned. During the following 
summer a lot was purchased on Locust street, from Hugh 
L. McClung, upon which a frame, two-story building for 
the use of the academy was erected; but the academy did 
not prosper, and in 1834 it was suspended. By an act of the 
general assembly passed in 1818 there was appropriated 
$18,000 annually for the use of county academies, and the 
trustees determined to reopen Hampden-Sidney. The build- 
ing having been repaired the academy was again opened, in 
November, 1839. with Rev. X. A. Penland as principal, who 
remained nearly two years, when he was succeeded by Will- 
iam D. Carnes. who resigned in October. 1842. From that 
time on until 1846 the principals were W. S. Williams. J. H. 
Lawrence and M. Rowley, and in May. 1846. the academy 
was consolidated with a public school which had been estab- 
lished in Knoxville. This arrangement, however, did not 
prove satisfactory, and at the expiration of one year the two 
schools were separated. In October, 1847, Rev. Mr. El well 
became the principal, remaining until 1850. when he was fol- 
lowed by John B. Mitchell. In 1850 a new charter was ob- 
tained and the board of trustees was reorganized with 


William Swan, president; Joseph L. King, secretary, and 
James H. Cowan, treasurer. In 1852 Mr. Mitchell accepted a 
position as teacher in the East Tennessee University, and 
from that time on until the beginning of the Civil war the 
academy was in session but a short time. At the close of the 
war a school was opened in the building by J. K. Payne, but 
he soon went to the university. March 22, 1866, a few of 
the old trustees met and reorganized by electing William 
Heiskell president and James Roberts secretary and treas- 
urer. September 3, 1866, the academy was once more 
opened, this time by M. C. Wilcox, who continued in charge 
until January, 1868. The property was then leased for one 
year to the university for the use of the preparatory depart- 
ment. In 1871 the lot and building were sold, and a new 
lot at the corner of State and Reservoir (now Commerce) 
streets was purchased at a cost of $2,500, and in 1876 the 
erection of a three-story brick building was begun and com- 
pleted in 1877, which was then rented to the city for the use 
of the public schools, at a merely nominal rent, and has been 
so used ever since. 

The Knoxville Female Academy was established in 1827, 
an organization being effected on April 26, by a number of 
enterprising gentlemen, of which Joseph C. Strong was. 
elected chairman and F. S. Heiskell secretary, and committees, 
were appointed to secure a suitable building and teachers for 
the proposed seminary. The school began operations in the 
following September, with John Davis principal, and Mrs. 
Davis, Miss Morse and Miss Littleford, assistants. 

In October of the same year the academy was incorporated 
by the legislature, with the following board of trustees: F. 
S. Heiskell, William C. Mynatt, William S. Howell, S. D. 
Jacobs, A. McMillan, Dr. Joseph C. Strong, Hugh L. White, 
Robert King, Robert Houston, Matthew McClung, Calvin 
Morgan, William B. Reese. M. Nelson. James King, James 
McNutt, James Park and Daniel Mcintosh. Two lots adjoin- 
ing each other on Main street were donated for the uses of 


the academy by Dr. Joseph C. Strong and Matthew McClung, 
upon which a building was erected at a cost of about $3,000, 
and which was completed in January, 1829, John Crozier and 
Charles McClung each contributing $200, and several others 
contributing $100 each. John Davis having resigned the 
principalship he was succeeded by Joseph Estabrook, a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth College, under whose management the 
institution was very successful. Principal Estabrook, in 1834. 
being elected to the presidency of East Tennessee College, 
Henry Herrick became the principal of the academy, re- 
mained in charge until 1838, and was succeeded by Rev. J. B. 

Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
having proposed to patronize the school on condition of be- 
ing permitted to share in its control, a meeting of the 
trustees was held in September. 1841, to take this propo- 
sition under consideration. The arrangement made was 
that the conference should appoint four of the thirteen 
trustees, to which number the trustees were raised, and that 
the conference should also appoint a board of nine visitors, 
the trustees and the board of visitors to constitute a 
joint board for the election of teachers, the academy being 
thus in effect transferred to the conference. Rev. J. E. 
Douglass of Alabama was elected principal and under his 
management the academy was reopened September 1, 1842. 
Rev. Mr. Douglass resigned at the end of one year and was 
succeeded by Rev. D. R. McAnally, under whose manage- 
ment the institution was unusually prosperous. In 1846 the 
charter. was so amended as to permit the conferring of de- 
grees, the name was changed to the East Tennessee Female 
Institute, and in 1847 a movement was started to sever the 
connection of the institution with the Holston Conference, 
which movement was at length successful, and the institution 
again placed under the control of the old board of trustees. 

The first graduates from the institute were Margaret H. 
White. Isabella M. White. Theodosia A. Eindlev. and Har- 


riet A. Parker, each of whom in 1850 received the degree of 
"Mistress of Polite Literature." In 1851 Rev. Mr. McAnally 
resigned the principalship, and there was considerable diffi- 
culty in securing a successor. J. R. Dean was at length 
elected, remaining in charge until 1856, in which year he 
was succeeded by R. L. Kirkpatrick, who remained in charge 
until the beginning of the war. After the war the institute 
was again opened, three trustees, Thomas W. Humes, Horace 
Maynard and George M. White accepting a proposition from 
John F. Spence to open a school, provided the building were 
restored to its former uses by the provost marshal. During 
the spring of 1866 the school was again in session, and Mr. 
Spence remained two years. From that time until 1881 the 
school was not in session, and in this year the building was 
leased by the board of education for a girls' high school, and 
was used for this purpose until 1885. From that time on 
until 1888 Mrs. Lizzie C. French conducted therein a flour- 
ishing female seminary. 

In the years 1889 and 1890 a new building for this insti- 
tute was erected on Main street, No. 702, which building is 
one of the finest school buildings in Knoxville. The building 
is of brick, the main part being three stories high above the 
basement. The rooms are large, well lighted and ventilated, 
and are well supplied with apparatus, books and maps for 
teaching languages, science, art and history. The principal 
of this institute since 1890 has been Charles C. Ross, the 
other teachers at the present time being Miss Emma Jane 
Oram, Miss Cora M. Stearns, Miss Florence Young and Miss 
Mary Ogden. There are eighty pupils in attendance. The 
departments of study are as follows: Kindergarten, primary, 
preparatory, collegiate and modern languages. The trus- 
tees of the school at the present time, together with the 
officers, are as follows: J. F. J. Lewis, president;* H. L. 
McClung, Jr., secretary; A. P. White, treasurer; C. M. Mc- 

*Since deceased and vacancy lias not been filled. 


Clung, James H. Cowan, C. S. Newman, W. W. Woodruff, 
E. J. Sanford, Lewis Tillman and C. M. McGhee. 

Knoxville College, like most other schools for the children 
of colored parents, traces its origin to the results of the Civil 
war. In September, 1862, under the auspices of three presby- 
teries of the United Presbyterian church, Rev. J. G. McKee 
opened a school for negroes that flocked into Nashville. This 
school grew and prospered until the death of Rev. Mr. Mc- 
Kee in 1868. The United Presbyterian church had also 
other schools for colored children in the South, and at this 
time it resolved to concentrate on one school, and to elevate 
the character of that one school by adding thereto the normal 
feature. In carrying out this idea the general assembly of 
the church in June, 1869, recommended its board of missions 
to freedmen to proceed as soon as possible to the establish- 
ment of a normal school somewhere in the South, and author- 
ized it to draw upon the church for the necessary funds. 
But the project was not easily realized, and it was not until 
1874 that it was revived with hopes of success. Knoxville 
appearing to be the most promising location, the Nashville 
school was removed to Knoxville in September, 1875, a °d 
was opened in a building which had been used as a freedmen's 

The new building erected for the use of this school con- 
tained nine rooms for teachers and seven for recitations and 
was dedicated September 4, 1876, the address being delivered 
by Rev. R. B. Ewing, D. D. The first principal of the 
school in Knoxville was Rev. J. P. Wright, assisted by Rev. 
S. B. Reed, Miss Aggie Wallace and Mattie M. Baldridge. 
The school opened in this new building September 5, 1876. 
The name of the institution became Knoxville College, and at 
the end of one year Rev. J. S. McCullough, D. D., became 
president and has retained the position ever since. Miss Eliza 
B. Wallace was lady principal from the opening of the school 
in Knoxville until her death, December 12, 1897. Besides 
the main building erected as above stated in 1876, other 


buildings have been erected as required by the growth of the 
school. In 1887 a Little Girls' Home and in 1890 a Little 
Boys' Home were erected, in which children from six to 
thirteen years of age are cared for. In 1891 this college had 
an enrollment of 313, ten of whom were state normal stu- 
dents. The property consists of 224 acres of land and three 
main buildings, besides other buildings, enumerated later on 
in this sketch, and it is all valued at more than $100,000, 
the chief support of the institution being received through 
the board of missions to freedmen of the United Presby- 
terian church, amounting to about $7,000 per annum. 

In 1892 this college was made virtually the colored depart- 
ment of the University of Tennessee. 

The object of this college is to fit young men and women 
with a substantial, practical education. The primary school 
with kindergarten covers three years of study. The training 
school follows with four years. The normal school occupies 
four years more and fits a student for college work, and he 
then has the choice of the literary course, two years; the 
agricultural course, three years; the mechanical course, four 
years; the scientific course, three years; the classical course, 
five years; the theological course, three years, and the med- 
ical course, three years. Besides instruction is given in music, 
art. military science, etc. 

The buildings, located on a rise of ground about two miles 
west of Knoxville on the Clinton pike, are as follows: The 
college building, 1 19x75 feet in size, with an extension 61x43 
feet, and is two stories high, contains seventeen rooms, be- 
sides a chapel, with a seating capacity of 600. 

The McCullough Hall, an L, one front of which is ninety 
feet and the other seventy-five feet, the depth being forty- 
three feet. It is three stories high, and contains forty-five 
rooms in addition to laundry and bath rooms. 

Elnathan Hall, rebuilt in 1897-98, to take the place of old 
Elnathan Hall, burned down December 15. 1896. This is 
a four-story building, with sleeping and study rooms for 


sixty girls, and kitchen and dining rooms capable of accom- 
modating 200. It is 90x40 feet, with a rear extension 47x58 
feet. Each floor of this building has bath rooms with hot and 
cold water. 

The Little Girls' Home, three stories high, is 60x40 feet 
in size, and contains study rooms, kitchen and dining room 
accommodations for fifty girls. 

The Little Boys' Home is of the same dimensions as the 
Little Girls' Home. In these two buildings children from 
six to sixteen years of age are taken care of for an almost 
nominal sum. 

The Industrial building is two stories high. 61x40 feet, and 
has a one-story rear extension 30x50 feet. It is equipped for 
instruction in agriculture and mechanics, including printing. 

Four cottages afford homes for the families of the presi- 
dent, professors and others connected with the institution. 
Four of the main buildings are heated by steam, and all 
except one cottage are lighted by electricity furnished by a 
dynamo run by the students. 

Boarding and tuition cost each student $6.50 per month, 
and during vacation $1.50 per week. The girls in this college 
are required to dress alike, in order to prevent any feeling of 
superiority or inferiority among them and to promote econ- 
omy. According to agreement with the University of Ten- 
nessee all colored students over fifteen years of age have free 
tuition, provided they are able to enter any class above the 
second normal year. 

As showing the elevation in study to which the colored 
students attain in the scientific and classical courses, the 
courses for the senior years are given, as follows: 
Senior Scientific — First term: German, Moral Philosophy, 
and Chemistry. Second term: German, 
Mental Philosophy and Chemistry. 
Third term: German, Mental Philos- 
ophy, Chemistry, and Church History 
— one :esson per week through the year. 


Senior Classical — Moral Philosophy, Political Economy and 
Science of Government, Mental Philos- 
ophy, History of Philosophy, Geology, 
Logic, and Evidences of Christianity, 
Church history — one lesson a week 
throughout the year. 
Knoxville College is under the care of the United Presby- 
terian Church of North America, and is sustained mainly by 
contributions from the various congregations through the 
board of missions to the freedmen. 

It welcomes students of good moral character, without re- 
gard to sex. color, or denomination. 


Rev. Joseph Kyle. D. D., Allegheny, Pa. 

Rev. D. A. McClenahan, D. D., Allegheny, Pa. 

J. J. Porter, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Rev. D. W. Carson, D. D., Burgettstown, Pa. 

Rev. W. H. McMillan, D. D., Allegheny, Pa. 

Rev. D. F. McGill, D. D.. Allegheny, Pa. 

H. J. Murdoch, Esq., Treasurer, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Peter Dick, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Rev. R. H. Park, Valencia, Pa. 

Rev. J. W. Witherspoon, D. D., Cor. Sec, Allegheny. Pa. 

Following is the faculty of the college at the present time 
(January, 1899): 

Rev. J. S. McCulloch, D. D., President, Professor of 
Mental, Moral, and Political Science. 

Rev. J. R. Millin. A. M., Principal of Theological Depart- 

Rev. R. J. Love, A. M., Ph. D., Principal Normal Depart- 
ment and German. 

Miss E. Belle Kerr, Principal of Training and Primary 

A. G. Boal, A. B.. Greek and Latin. 

L. M. Wright. A. B., Agriculture and Chemistrv. 


W. G. Purely, C. E.. Mechanical Arts and Mathematics. 

George LeRoy Brown (Captain Eleventh Infantry, U. S. 
A.), Military Science and Tactics. 

Mrs. Ida M. French, English. 

Miss Matilda Wishart, B. S., Physiology and Mathematics. 

Miss Agnes Wishart, B. M.. Music. 

Miss M. Irena Kerr, Teacher of Dress Making and Sewing. 

Miss Grace D. Long, Training School. 

Miss Maude Brooks, A. B., Primary Work. 

Miss Jennie McCahon, Bible Reader. 

Miss Emma Pinkerton, Matron. 

Miss Maggie McDill. Superintendent of Little Girls' Home. 

Miss Anna Rutherford, Superintendent of Little Boys' 

Mrs. Mary Wallace. Matron McCulloch Hall. 

Miss H. A. Kerr. Matron Elnathan Hall. 

R. M. Ginter. Director Printing Department. 

The faculty of the medical department of this college is as 
follows: Rev. J. S. McCullough, D. D., president; E. L. 
Randall, M. D., theory and practice of medicine and sur- 
gery; A. C. Edwards, M. D., anatomy and histology; W. H. 
Moore, M. D., physiology and obstetrics; John C. Clear, 
M. D., materia medica, therapeutics and gynecology; W. 
W. Derrick, M. D.. chemistry and physical diagnosis, and 
J. C. Ford, attorney, medical jurisprudence. 

The Lniversity School was established in 1889, by Lewis 
M. G. Baker, M. A., and Charles M. Himel. both of the 
University of Virginia, who came to Knoxville upon the invi- 
tation of several prominent citizens of the place upon a 
guarantee of $2,000 for the first year. During this first year 
the school was kept in a rented building on Main street, just 
west of High street, and a three-story brick building was 
erected on Highland avenue between Third and Fourth 
streets, which, on March 23, 1893. was destroyed by fire. 
During this year a new building was erected at the southeast 
corner of Highland avenue and Fourth street, four stories 


high, of brick, and at a cost of $12,000, including furniture. 
A large lot was purchased on the northwest corner of the 
same streets, on which a large dining hall was erected, and 
the entire property of the school is now worth $25,000. 

The object of the University School is to prepare boys for 
college, and was established to meet a demand in the South 
for a larger number of schools of this character. During the 
first year the school had thirty-three students, the second 
eighty-six, the third, 104, and the fourth, 120. Since then 
the number of students in attendance here has averaged about 
100. The boarding department had at first four boarders, 
has averaged about twelve and now has ten. The intention 
of the authorities is to largely increase the numbers in the 
boarding department. 

To this school there are two departments, the preparatory 
and the academic. The preparatory department is designed 
for boys from eight to thirteen years of age, and the academic 
department is designed to receive pupils who have completed 
the preparatory course. Students completing the academic 
course are admitted without further examination to the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, the University of Virginia, and to Har- 
vard and Yale colleges. The reputation of this school has 
become so extensive that it has attracted students from as 
far north and east as Illinois and Connecticut and as far south 
as Louisiana and Texas. 

This school was incorporated December 24, 1891, by Lewis 
M. G. Baker, Charles M. Himel, C. S. Newman, J. W. Cald- 
well and Jacob L. Thomas. Following is the faculty at 
the present time (January, 1899): Lewis M. G. Baker, M. A., 
instructor in Latin and Greek; Charles M. Himel, instructor 
in mathematics: H. D. Hoskins, instructor in history and 
modern languages; and R. W. Peatross, instructor in English. 

The main building of this institution contains three stories 
and a basement. In the first story are the assembly hall, the 
recitation rooms and cloak rooms; in the second story are 
an assembly room, recitation room, library and dormitories, 


and in the third story are dormitories, lavatories and a study 

The Tennessee Medical College was established in the 
summer of 1889, securing the use of a building on the corner 
of Gay and Main streets, which was opened for students 
September 2 of that year. Dr. C. C. Lancaster was professor 
of physiology and Dr. Cawood dean, and Dr. R. M. C. Hill 
professor of materia medica and therapeutics. When the 
term opened there were present twenty students, the number 
soon being increased to forty-seven. In March, 1890, eight 
students received the degree of doctor of medicine. A den- 
tal department was early established. At length a lot was 
secured at the corner of Cleveland and Dameron streets, in 
the northern part of the city, and in the spring of 1890 the 
erection of a building was begun on this lot. When com- 
pleted this building was four stories high above the base- 
ment, and it was opened for students December 12, 1890. 

This building was burned to the ground December 3, 1897, 
involving a loss of $40,000, the building being valued at 
$15,000 and the contents at $25,000, the whole amount of 
insurance being only $10,000. 

The Tennessee Medical College was incorporated May 
20, 1898, the incorporators being Michael Campbell, M. D.; 
Charles P. McNabb, M. D.; S. M. Miller, M. D.; J. L. 
Howell, M. D., and B. B. Cates, M. D. The capital stock of 
the corporation was $20,000 at which it still remains. Under 
its charter the college was authorized to purchase or receive 
by gift in addition to the personal property owned by the 
corporation, real estate for the transaction of its business, and 
also to purchase and accept any real estate in payment of 
any debt. The special business for which the incorporation 
was effected was to open and maintain and operate a medical 
college in Knoxville in which to teach the knowledge, science 
and business of medicine and surgery, dentistry and kindred 
professions, to grant diplomas, confer degrees, and to exer- 
cise all other powers lawfully belonging to a medical college. 


On June 17, 1898, Dr. M. Campbell made application to 
the board of mayor and aldermen of Knoxville for the use 
of the Rose avenue school building for the use of the college, 
which, after the renewal of the application on July 1, by Dr. 
Miller, was granted, at an annual rental of $250, and occupied 
October 1, 1898. 

In the first class of students in this college there are forty- 
six students; in the second, twenty-four, and in the third, or 
highest class, twenty. 

Following are the names of the several members of the 
faculty of the college, together with the chairs which they 
respectively fill: 

Chas. P. McNabb, M. D., Dean. 

S. M. Miller, M. D., Registrar. 

Michael Campbell, M. D., Professor of Mental Diseases. 

Benj. B. Cates, M. D., Professor Anatomy. 

S. M. Miller, M. D., Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 

Harry K. Wingert, B. S., Ph. D., M. D., Adjunct Professor 
Ophthalmology, etc. 

J. H. Morton, M. D., Professor Physiology. 

S. L. Jones, M. D., Professor Hygiene. 

Henry R. Gibson, M. A., LL. D., M. C, Professor Juris- 

John L. Howell, M. D., Professor Surgery. 

J. W. Slocum, Ph. D., Professor Chemistry. 

S. R. Miller, M. D., Professor Materia Medica and Thera- 

E. R. Zemp, M. D., Professor Dermatology and Pediatrics. 

H. P. Coile, M. D., Professor Clinical Medicine. 

Chas. P. McNabb, M. D., Professor Practice of Medicine. 

Henry J. Kelso, B. A., M. D., Professor Operative Surgery. 

Benj. F. Young, M. D., Professor Ophthalmology, etc. 

\Y. S. Nash, M. D., Professor Regional and Surgical Anat- 

W. R. Cochrane, M. D., Professor Bacteriology, Histology. 

Olof Olofsson, Secretary and College Clerk. 


The Slater Training School for the manual training of col- 
ored children was opened in 1885 and incorporated with the 
following board of trustees: Rev. Dr. Thomas W. Humes, 
president; E. E. AlcCroskey, vice-president; Miss Isa E. Gray 
of Boston, Mass., treasurer; Miss E. L. Austin, secretary; 
W. S. Mead, C. Seymour, A. S. Jones' of Washington, D. C, 
and Rutherford B. Hayes of Fremont, Ohio. The work of 
raising funds for the erection of a new building was begun, 
the citizens of Knoxville contributing $1,000 and friends of 
the cause in the North contributing nearly $5,000. In 1886 
a three-story house was erected and furnished with all the 
modern improvements. In September of that year the school 
was opened with 200 pupils, three grades of the city schools 
being taught in the building, these pupils being required to 
take a course in the industrial department. A carpenter 
shop and a printing office were fitted up, and the girls were 
taught sewing, cooking and housekeeping. There were also 
established in connection with the school a Young Men's 
Christian Association and a Shakespeare Club, composed of 
the teachers of the colored school. 

The first year of the existence of this school there were 
four teachers, who were paid $1,385. The total receipts were 
$2,821.24 and the expenditures $2,398.34. J. B. Williams of 
Knoxville was the principal; the sewing school was under 
the control of Jennie McCahen, and the cooking school un- 
der Mrs. N. Bedout. The receipts for the year 1886 were 
$1,534.35 and the expenditures the same. The new building 
was erected this year, the funds for which were contributed 
by friends in Knoxville to the amount of $983; by colored 
people, $97.23; by Boston people, $2,501; Philadelphia, 
$1,076; New York, $670, a total of $5,327.23. The build- 
ing was of wood. 40x50 feet in size and three stories above 
the basement. S. L. Dickson was principal of this school in 
1886-87; George W. Deaderick, 1887-88; S. L. Dickson, 

The receipts of the treasurer of this school, Miss Isa E. 


Gray, for the year ending April 1, 1888, were $3,712.17, and 
the expenditures $2,625.65; for the year ending April 1, 1889, 
the receipts were $4,199.67, and the expenditures, $2,873.19; 
for the year ending April 1, 1890, the receipts were $4,520.87, 
and the expenditures $3,166.46, and for the year ending April 
1, 1891, the receipts were $4,910.05, and the expenditures 

The year 1891 was the last of the Slater Training 

Miss Emily L. Austin had then been working as teacher 
among the colored pupils of Knoxville for a little more than 
twenty years, coming here in 1870. From the nature of the 
case and the preconceived sentiments and opinions of the 
people in reference to the education of colored people, her 
labors for the first few years were not of the most pleasant 
kind; but she persevered and her devoted and self-sacrificing 
work was continued until she saw the Austin School a suc- 
cess, and the Slater Training School firmly established. The 
building in which this latter school was held became, in 
1891, the property of the American Missionary Association, 
which association has carried on the same work so nobly be- 
gun by Miss Austin. During the year 1890-91 the little 
housekeepers' class was under the control of Mrs. Green- 
wood; the cooking school under Julia A. Williamson, and 
the carpenter shop was conducted by Mr. Whisenant, who 
came here from Talladega, Ala. There were also given les- 
sons in vocal music and in drawing. 

Miss Austin, in her farewell report on the Slater School, 
said: "I came a stranger to Knoxville a little more than 
twenty-one years ago. and man}- persons there know how it 
was in those days, and what the feeling was toward the 
'Yankee teacher,' but it has been many years since I have 
felt that any one regarded me in any way different from a 
native Tennesseean." She spoke very kindly of J. A. Ravi, 
E. E. McCroskey, Albert Ruth, Charles Seymour, Dr. J. H. 
Frazee. S. C. Roney and the Young Men's Christian Asso- 


ciation for the manner in which they had all aided her and 
tried to make her labors lighter. 

Miss Austin died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 4, 1897. On 
June 20, 1897, memorial services were held in her honor in 
Logan Temple, the building filled with colored people who 
wished to testify their appreciation of her labors for them. 
The meeting was presided over by Principal J. W. Manning 
of the Austin School, and addresses were made by Dr. John 
H. Frazee, E. E. McCroskey, S. C. Roney, Rev. Isaac Emory 
and J. W. Manning. A series of resolutions was adopted 
expressive of the loss the colored people had sustained, and it 
was resolved to place in the Austin building a tablet to her 
memory inscribed as follows: 

In Memory of 
Born October 1, 1829; died May 4, 1897. 

Founder of the Austin School of Knoxville, Tenn., and for 
thirty years a devoted friend of the freedmen, fearless 
of criticism, shrinking from no duty, unswerving in fidel- 
ity, coveting on Divine approval. She is gratefully 
remembered by those whose elevation she sought by 
educating mind and heart. 

"She has done what she could." 

Knoxville public schools had their origin in 1870, on the 
1 6th of December of which year the mayor and board of 
aldermen appointed a committee, consisting of W. A. Hen- 
derson, J. A. Rayl, and J. R. Mitchell, to take into con- 
sideration the propriety of establishing a system of free 
schools. At the next meeting of the mayor and board of 
aldermen the committee made a favorable report, and on 
January 21, 1871, the matter was submitted to the people 
and was carried by a vote of 433 to 162. A tax of one mill 


on the dollar was levied for the support of the public schools, 
and a board consisting of J. A. Rayl, chairman; W. A. Hen- 
derson, and Dr. John M. Boyd was appointed to inaugurate 
the system. Although much pressed with their own private 
affairs, these gentlemen gave the subject thorough study, and 
frequently met for consultation, being assisted in their delib- 
erations by John K. Payne, professor of mathematics in 
East Tennessee University. Aided by Rev. Dr. Thomas W. 
Humes the committee procured aid from the Peabody fund 
to the extent of $2,000, and as soon as suitable buildings 
could be procured the schools were opened September 4, 
1871, in nine houses situated in various parts of the city, 
with about 1,000 children in attendance. 

During the first year the schools were in session ten 
months, fifteen teachers being employed. In the summer 
of 1872 the Bell House, originally erected for hotel purposes, 
at 220 Main street, was secured at a cost of $5,500. The 
necessary- repairs and alterations were made, and with greatly 
improved facilities for grading, the school was opened in 
this building in September, 1872. Twenty teachers were 
employed, several of whom had taught during the preceding 
year. Until December, 1873, the schools were conducted 
by a committee appointed by the mayor, this committee con- 
sisting of members of the city council holding their offices 
for one year. On the 12th of December of this year the 
council passed an ordinance creating a board of education, 
consisting of five persons, to be elected by the city council 
for a term of five years, one member retiring each year, there 
being thus at all times a board of education experienced in 
the management of the schools, and familiar with their needs. 
The first board consisted of J. A. Rayl, chairman; Charles D. 
McGuffey, secretary; J. \Y. Gaut, treasurer; F. A. Reeve and 
W. W. Woodruff. ' 

On July 24, 1874, F. A. Reeve tendered his resignation 
as a member of the board of education, and Matthew Mc- 
Clung was elected to fill the vacancy thus caused. Septem- 


ber 19, 1874, a petition was received from Catholic citizens 
calling attention to the fact that they had erected a school- 
house on Summit Hill, capable of accommodating a large 
number of children, which building had been erected at great 
expense, and as they did not expect any aid from the city 
in the shape of donations or salaries of teachers, fuel, etc., 
they would ask the board of aldermen to make them a dona- 
tion from the city funds to aid them in providing furniture 
suitable for said building. Upon motion of Alderman Albers 
the board appropriated $400 toward said purpose, and ap- 
pointed a committee of three — Lewis, Albers and O'Connor 
— to supervise the disbursement of the money thus donated. 

In 1874 a new schoolhouse was erected at 311 Morgan 
street, at a cost of $6,000, and a school named the Peabody 
School was established, and in 1877 the trustees of the 
Hampden-Sidney Academy erected a new building at 304 
State street, which they tendered to the board of education 
for the use of the public schools, in which the next year a 
school for girls was opened. In 1881, the schools again hav- 
ing become crowded, the trustees of the East Tennessee 
Female Institute offered their building on Main street to 
the board of education, and in it a girls' high school was 
opened. This building was thus used until 1885, when the 
girls' high school was transferred to a business block at the 
corner of Church and Gay streets. In 1886 a very fine public 
school building was erected at 431 Walnut street for the 
accommodation of girls from the third to the tenth grades 
inclusive. This is a three-story brick building, well-fitted and 
furnished, and cost $35,000. 

January 1, 1883, when the ninth ward was admitted into 
the corporation, graded schools were opened therein in a 
building previously erected, and this is now a part of the 
system of public schools. 

It was doubtless greatly to the advantage to the public 
school system of Knoxville that they had at the beginning 
such a clear-headed and broad-minded man as president of 


the board of education. In his report to the board of mayor 
and aldermen, submitted August 15, 1874, he presented the 
following paragraph on the character of the schools: 

"From the first day that the schools went into operation 
it has been an inflexible rule with those having them in 
charge, and fully endorsed by the people, 'that no teacher 
shall be allowed to teach sectarian views in religion or partisan 
or sectional views in politics.' ' If any violation of this rule 
has occurred it has not been with the knowledge or consent 
of the board of education. On the other hand, while thor- 
oughly in sympathy with the idea that all children should be 
fully instructed in moral and religious truth, yet the main 
idea in public free schools is to give to every child the oppor- 
tunity of getting a good practical secular education, leaving 
to the parents and the churches the duty of training up 
their children in the principles of our holy religion, and espe- 
cially of teaching the peculiar tenets of their denomination. 
With such teaching the schools can have nothing to do, and 
it is the sense of every friend of popular education that they 
should not attempt it. But educate white and black, rich 
and poor. Catholic and Protestant, exactly alike, giving no 
advantage to the one that you do not give to the other, 
and making all conform to exactly the same rules." 

The several superintendents of the schools of Knoxville 
have been as follows: Alexander Baird, 1871-75: H. T. 
Morton, 1876-77: R. D'S. Robertson. 1877-81; Albert Ruth, 
1881-97: J. H. McCallie, 1897 to the present time. 

The members of the board of education since the first 
election, thus recorded, together with the dates of the expira- 
tion of their several terms of office, have been as follows: W. 
P. Washburn, 1877 and 1881; J. W. Gaut, 1878: J. A. Ravi, 
1 87 1 to 1874, 1879, 1 881, 1883, 1893 and 1896; James Com- 
fort, 1880: J. L. Lloyd. 1881; T. L. Moses. 1879 and 1884; 
Leon Jourolmon, 1880: E. J. Sanford, 1882 and 1887: E. E. 
McCroskey, 1885, 1890, 1895 and 1900: H. H. Ingersotl, 
1886 and 1891; N. S. Woodward, 1888: J. H. Cruze, 1889, 


1894 and 1899; William H. Lillard, 1892; Sam House, 1893; 
William M. Baxter, 1896; John Williams, 1897; M. J. Con- 
don, 1898 and 1902; William Epps, 1901. 

The officers of the board of education have been as follows: 

Presidents— J. A. Ravi, 1871-1881; E. J. Sanford, 1881-85; 
Henry H. Ingersoll, 1885-87; E. E. McCroskey, 1887-99. 

Secretary-Treasurer — James Comfort, 1871-76; W. P. 
Washburn, 1877-81: E. E. McCroskey, 1881-87. 

Secretary— H. H. Ingersoll. 1888-89; William H. Lillard. 
1889-93; John Williams, 1893-97; W. H. Lillard, 1897-99. 

Treasurers— N. S. Woodward, 1887-88: J. A. Ravi. 1888- 
93; James H. Cruze, 1893-99. 

The school known as the John Sevier School, mentioned 
above, has a seating capacity of 450. The principals there 
since 1876 have been as follows: S. A. Craig, 1876-77; E. P. 
Moses, 1877-81; Douglass Caulkins, 1881-82; J. H. Pitner, 
1882-83, Mr. Pitner dying July 7. 1883; W. T. White, 1883- 
86; Miss J. L. Gammon, 1886-92; James A. Andes, 1892-99. 
This school was named the John Sevier School October 22, 
1897, and dedicated January 30, 1898, a new two-story brick 
building having been erected. 

The Peabody School, located at 311 Morgan street, has 
had the following principals: W. L. McSpadden, 1875-76; 
Grace Kimball, 1876-77; S. A. Craig, 1877-79; W. T. White, 
1879-83; W. M. Rogers, 1883-86: W. B. Carty, 1886-99. 

The Hampden-Sidney School, located at 304 State street, 
has had the following principals: Mrs. C. A. Lancaster, 1877- 
78; Miss S. A. Hoadley, 1878-80; Miss M. A. Fletcher, 
1880-81; Miss Ida M. Lee, 1881-86; W. M. Rogers, 1886-91; 
John W. Hyden. 1891-97; W. A. Cate, 1897-98. and J. W. 
Bryan, 1898-99. 

The Ninth Ward School, located at the corner of Tulip 
and Deaderick streets, has had the following principals: A. 
O. Roehl, 1883, the year in which Mechanicsville was ad- 
mitted to the corporation of Knoxville, to 1886; J. H. Mc- 
Callie. 1886-1897. and J. W. Trotter. 1897-99. 


Park Street School, located at No. 304 Park street, West, 
has had the following principals: Miss Sallie J. Mann, 
1883-84; Miss Mary Odell, 1884-93; Miss Minnie Lichten- 
wanger, 1893-99. This school, since October 22, 1897, has 
been known as the Jesse A. Rayl School, and the building 
was dedicated November 23, 1897. 

The Girls' High School, located at 431 Walnut street, 
formerly in the East Tennessee Female Institute building, 
from 1881 to 1885, and then in the Barton block at the cor- 
ner of Gay and Church streets from 1885 to 1886, when it 
was transferred to its own new building at 431 Walnut street, 
has had the following principals: Miss M. A. Fletcher, 1881- 
83; Mrs. M. A. Bowen, 1883-84; Miss Francis M. King, 
1884-85; Mrs. M. S. Cummins, 1885-86; W. T. White, 

The numbers graduated from this high school have been 
as follows: 1882, 17; 1883. 19; 1884, 11; 1885, 9; 1886, 13; 
1887, 15; 1888, 16; 1889, 18; 1890, 16; 1891, 14; 1892, 15; 
1893, 15; 1894, 13; 1895, 25; 1896, 16; 1897, 22; 1898, 
32; 1899, 44. 

The Austin School for colored children, named in honor 
of Miss Emily L. Austin, and located at No. 327 Central 
avenue, originated in the following manner: 

On June 20, 1879, Chairman Rayl of the board of educa- 
tion stated to the board of mayor and aldermen that Miss 
Emily L. Austin of Philadelphia, Pa., and Miss Isa E. Gray of 
Boston, Mass., had informed him of the fact that certain gen- 
erous citizens of Philadelphia, Boston. New York, Newark 
and other places in the North, had subscribed $6,500 with the 
view of aiding the citizens of Knoxville in building a school- 
house for colored children, and that this money was forth- 
coming as soon as the city had complied with the terms 
of the subscription. It was therefore resolved by the board of 
mayor and aldermen that the money be accepted in trust and 
that the honor of the city be pledged to the donors that the 
whole amount should be used for the purpose of completing 


the building already commenced by the city of Knoxville, to 
be used for a school building for colored children residing 
within the corporate limits of the city, and that the city would, 
as previously, furnish the said children free tuition in the 

This school has had the following principals: J. J. O'Shea, 
1876-78; J. S. Fowler, 1878-81; J. W. Manning, 1881-99. 

Fairview School, for colored pupils, located at No. 1624 
Dora street, has had the following principals: Joshua S. 
Cobb, 1883-85; Mrs. Blanche V. Brooks. 1885-91; W. H. 
Hannum, 1891-95; Joshua S. Cobb, 1895-98, and W. J. 
Causler, 1898-99. A new building was erected on Clinton 
street for this school in 1897, and the name of the school 
changed to the Horace Maynard School, in honor of the 
Hon. Horace Maynard. This new building was dedicated 
November 18, 1897. 

King's Chapel School, for colored children, located at No. 
606 Payne street, has had the following principal: S. L. 
Dickson, 1891-99. A new building was erected for this school 
in 1897, at the corner of Kentucky and Campbell streets, and 
named Heiskell School, in honor of Hon. S. G. Heiskell, then 
mayor of the city. It was dedicated November 11, 1897. 

In 1887 it was determined to give such colored pupils as 
were prepared for it a course of high school study, and in 
1888 the first class of such pupils was graduated from the col- 
ored high school. The class was composed of four members, 
viz.: Augustus David Hodge. William Lineas Maples, Pris- 
cilla Blount Manning and Mary Lelia Moffet. To this class 
E. E. McCroskey, president of the board of education of the 
city of Knoxville, delivered an address, full of historical 
knowledge and of good advice not only to the class itself, but 
also to the race to which it belonged. After paying a high 
tribute to Miss Emily L. Austin, Mr. McCroskey said: "You 
are indebted to her in an obligation of gratitude you will 
never be able to discharge. She raised the larger part of the 
money that is assigned exclusively to your people, and has 


given much of her time to bring about practical methods of 
instruction in the line of useful education. Some years ago 
she established an industrial school, now called the Slater 
Training School, and although some of your race have said 
that it was a white man's trick to get a nigger to work, yet 
it is the place where the young people can learn something 
that will be of lasting benefit to them." Mr. McCroskey 
said much that would be of interest to quote, but want of 
space forbids. 

In 1889 there were no graduates from this high school. 
In 1890 there were 3; in 1891, 1; 1892, 5; 1893, 6; 1894, 
5; 1895, 2; 1896, 6; 1897, 5; 1898, 9, and in 1899, 6. 

The West Knoxville public schools were organized March 
18, 1888, with one principal and six teachers, and 215 pupils, 
and for the remainder of that school year were under the 
control of a board of five school commissioners ap- 
pointed by the mayor and consisting of W. H. 
Simmonds,' William Rule. W. W. Woodruff, J. F. 
Gallaher, and James H. Cowan. An organization was 
effected by the election of W. H. Simmonds, president, 
and James H. Cowan secretary and treasurer. The above- 
named commissioners were elected a board of education 
March 16, 1889. but soon afterward Dr. H. P. Coile 
succeeded W. H. Simmonds as a member of the board, and 
their respective terms expired as follows, together with their 
successors: J. F. Gallaher. 1891; William Rule, 1892; W. W. 
Woodruff, 1893; Dr. H. P. Coile, 1894, and James H. Cowan, 
1895; J. F. Gallaher, 1896; Dr. J. M. Masters, successor to 
James H. Cowan, resigned, 1895; E. H. Flenniken, 1897; 
F. K. Huger, successor to Dr. H. P. Coile, 1894; E. C. 
Scaggs. successor to Dr. J. M. Masters, moved out of the 
city, 1895; J. E. Piatt, successor to E. H. Flenniken, de- 
ceased, 1897; Leon Jourolmon, 1898; F. K. Huger, 

The officers of the board of education were as follows: 
Presidents — W. H. Simmonds. as above stated: W. W. 



Woodruff, 1889-91; H. P. Coile, 1891-93; Leon Jourolmon 
1893. Secretary-Treasurer — James H. Cowan, 1888-9 
Secretary — J. C. Tucker, 1892-93, and Treasurer — J. M. Mas- 
ters, 1892-93; E. C. Scaggs, 1893. 

The superintendents of the schools have been as follows: 
J. C. Tucker, 1888-94; R. Porter, 1894 to 1897; W. M. 
Rogers, 1897 to 1899. 

These schools were free to all persons between the ages 
of six and twenty-one years living within the corporate limits 
of West Knoxville, and were divided into primary, inter- 
mediate, grammar and high schools, and also into white and 
colored schools, during the first full year of their existence 
there being seven teachers for the white schools and one for 
the colored school. From September 1, 1889, to June 6, 
1890, the entire cost of the schools was $4,193.75, the aver- 
age salaries paid the teachers being $341.87. 

During the second year the schools were kept in a build- 
ing on Highland avenue, with an overflow school in the old 
building, the total cost of the schools for this year being 
$5,1 18.52, the average wages paid the teachers, of whom there 
were ten, including the principal of the entire system and the 
teacher of the colored school, being $338.53. In 1890-91 the 
Highland Avenue School had six teachers, the Rose Avenue 
School, four teachers, and the Riverside School (colored), 
one. The same numbers prevailed during the next succeed- 
ing year. In 1891-92 the schools cost $6,492.97, and in 
1893-94, $5,946.94. 

At the beginning of the year 1893-94 the Riverside School 
was discontinued, the pupils being sent to the Knoxville City 
schools and to Knoxville College, thereby effecting a saving 
to West Knoxville of $200. 

North Knoxville public schools were organized in Septem- 
ber, 1889, by Prof. Charles Mason, and for most of the first 
year were taught in three small buildings on Gratz street, 
which had been turned over to the city by the school com- 
missioners of the Second district of Knox countv. In this 


work of organization Prof. Mason was assisted by Mrs. Kate 
C. Callaway, Miss Mary McDonough, and Miss Jennie B. Ir- 
win. These three buildings proving too small to accommo- 
date the number of pupils desiring to attend, and hence the 
board of education purchased two lots on the corner of Alex- 
ander and Tennor streets, upon which a new school building 
was erected and which was used for the schools during the 
last six weeks of the school year of 1889-90. As this build- 
ing furnished room for most of the pupils the previous prac- 
tice of receiving them for half-day sessions only, in order that 
all might attend during a portion of the day, was abandoned, 
and the following additional teachers employed: Miss Miri- 
am Cocke, Miss Jennie B. Ramsey, and Miss Josie Stans- 
berry. The twenty colored pupils of the city of North Knox- 
ville were sent to the Austin School in Knoxville. 

Prof. Mason having at the close of the first school year 
resigned was succeeded by Prof. J. M. McCallie,who remained 
principal of the schools until the close of the school year 
1893-94, and was then succeeded by the present principal, 
Prof. J. R. Lowry. 

The several members of the board of education of North 
Knoxville were as follows, together with the years in which 
their terms expired: W. L. Welcker, 1891 and 1896; W. R. 
Cooper, 1892, 1897, and 1902; John W. Ward, 1893 and 
1898: Frank A. Moses, 1894: J. S. McDonough, 1895; D. L. 
Ross, 1896 and 1901; J. P. Haynes, 1898: W. A. Wray, 1899, 
and J. E. Johnson, 1900. The terms of the several members 
all terminated upon the consolidation of the three corpora- 
tions and the consequent consolidation of the schools. De- 
cember 31, 1897, when the three corporations were about to 
become one, the board of mayor and aldermen of North 
Knoxville resolved that the superintendent, teachers and jan- 
itor of their schools and other employes of North Knoxville 
were entitled to receive their salaries and wages for January, 
1898. and of course subsequent months, from the corporation 
of Knoxville, and thev urged the board of education of West 


Knoxville to unite with them in a demand upon the mayor 
and aldermen of Knoxville for such compensation. 

The officers of the board of education of North Knox- 
ville were as follows: Presidents — J. S. McDonough. 1889- 
94; W. A. Wray, 1894-97. Secretary-Treasurers — Frank A. 
Moses, 1889-94; D. L. Ross, 1894-95; W. R. Cooper, 

The scholastic population of North Knoxville was as fol- 
lows for the years given: 1891, 765; 1892, 818; 1893, 831; 
1894, 851; 1895, 865; 1896, 982; 1897, 1,110. 

The average monthly wages paid the teachers in these 
schools were as follows: 1890-91, $38.75; 1891-92, $40.56; 
1892-93, $45-45: IS93-94. $43: I894-95- $43-3-2; 1895-96, 
$42.37; 1896-97, $38.82. 

The following table covering the last twenty years of the 
public schools, including the statistics for the first year of the 
consolidated schools, will be found both comprehensive and 














C P 





er cent o 
ment on S 

verage Nu 




C p 

-a — 
= o 

CD r* 




p :* 


: B 
. CD 

: B 

• c 

• to 




p D 
CO -1 






OD -, 





<c "J. 












1879-80. . 









1SS0-S1. . 











































1884-85. . 





























































39. 4S 



























1892-93. . 











1893-94. . 











1894-95. . 






















lsW-97. . 











1897-98. . 













•Including Tenth Ward. 


Jesse Addison Rayl, one of the founders and always a 
strong friend of the public schools of Knoxville, was born 
near Russellville, Hamblen county, Term., in 1825, and grad- 
uated at Tusculum College in 1840. From the time of his 
graduation until 1849 ne was engaged in teaching, and then 
removing to Knoxville, he entered the mercantile house of 
Cowan & Dickinson, at the corner of Gay and Main streets. 
In 185 1 or 1852 he formed a partnership with F. W. Van- 
uxem, under the firm name of Rayl & Vanuxem, they keep- 
ing a large stock of miscellaneous books. Mr. Rayl remained 
in the book business until the beginning of the war, when 
he went to Lexington, Ky., and was there engaged in the 
same business as a member of the firm of Rayl & Taylor 
until the close of the war, when he returned to Knoxville, 
and here became engaged in the general merchandise business 
with S. B. Boyd. Selling his interest in this firm, he became 
part owner of a paper mill at Middlebrook. in which he was 
interested until 1888, when he sold out and retired. 

In connection with a few others, Mr. Rayl secured the 
first tax levy for the public schools of Knoxville, was a 
member of the first board of education and was a member 
of the board for twenty-three years, and served as president 
of the board ten years. He was also active in the work of 
the associated charities and for forty years was a ruling 
elder in the First Presbyterian Church. For six years he 
was superintendent of the Sunday-school, and in all his 
work he was enthusiastic and efficient. His death occurred 
January 13, 1897. When it became necessary, on account 
of physical inability to longer perform the duties of his 
position, for him to resign as a member of the board of 
education, in 1897, the board passed a series of resolutions, 
of which the following may be copied here: 

"Resolved, That the people of Knoxville owe to Mr. Rayl 
a lasting debt of gratitude for the able and efficient manner 
in which he has served their interests without compensation, 
and that he should ever be held in grateful recollection for 
these services." 



The Pioneer Presbyterians — Rev. Samuel Doak — Knoxville's First 
Church — Early Methodists — Bishop Asbury's First Visit — First Bap- 
tist Organization — Good Works of Rev. Samuel Carrick — Rev. Isaac 
Anderson — Knoxville Churches Grow and Multiply — Many Large 
and Flourishing Churches Now in the City. 

THE effects of the religious sentiment and of religious 
teaching upon the minds of men are often great and 
occasionally astonishing. These effects are equally 
astonishing when we contemplate the higher end of the dia- 
pason of this sentiment as when we contemplate the lower 
end. At the lower end of this range of sentiment are seen 
many persons cruelly beaten, or scourged or burned to death, 
by their contemporaries, merely for the reason that they en- 
tertained opinions and sentiments upon religious and theo- 
logical subjects that differed from those entertained by their 
persecutors; while at the other or higher end of the scale are 
found men and women who so construe the beautiful doc- 
trines of "Peace on earth and good-will toward men," to 
mean absolute non-resistance to all forms of oppression and 
wrong against individuals, communities and nations, and to 
be so thoroughly imbued with this construction as to refuse 
to defend themselves against any kind of attack, and to 
believe that war in any of its forms and for any possible 
purpose is wholly unwarranted because wholly un-Christian. 
The fate of the Moravian Indians, so familiar to all students 
of American history, is a most impressive commentary upon 
the practical workings of a non-resistance creed. The 
Quaker religion of peace, which had been taught them by 
zealous and indefatigable German missionaries, followers of 
Count Zinzendorff, and which forbade them to play a true 
man's part in defending themselves against aggressions on 



the part of the white man, led to the most dire results, which 
fell not only upon themselves, but also upon their white 
foe. No greater mistake can be made than to place a good 
man at the mercy of a bad one, the good man having had 
it instilled into his mind until the doctrine becomes a part 
thereof, that he must not on any account defend himself 
against the encroachments and aggressions of the bad; for 
entire loss of property, family and friends and even life itself 
may be the result. 

But on the other hand it may be said that if all men were 
alike indoctrinated and actuated at all times by the spirit 
of peace and good will toward men, there would be no 
aggression or wrong of any kind to resist, which is certainly 
true. To bring about this condition of things is perhaps the 
great mission of religion and religious institutions. To so 
teach mankind that there shall be as little aggression as 
possible, to so develop and build up the character that men 
will not do unto others as they would not have others do unto 
them, and to do unto others as they would have others do 
unto them, is a grand and noble work, but so- long as a 
large portion of mankind, even in those countries which are 
included within the realm of Christendom, is actuated by 
what may be termed human and selfish motives, so long as 
the rights of others are so frequently and flagrantly violated 
and trampled under foot, just so long must every man, no 
matter what his theories may be, be ready at all times to 
defend himself and family, and others that may be suffering 
from aggression, and to recognize the fact that sometimes in 
order to act on the defensive he must act on the aggressive. 
Men can not all live in the world which is to a great extent 
as it ought not to be. as if it were as it ought to be. 

It was about the time of the beginning of the French and 
Indian war of 1758-60 that the great wave of emigration, 
which has since then swept over the entire territory of the 
United States to and even beyond the eastern shores of the 
Pacific Ocean, first reached the eastern portions of what 


is now the state of Tennessee. In the chapters devoted to the 
settlement of that part of Tennessee more immediately tribu- 
tary to Knoxville, the sources whence sprang the emigration 
to this state and the character and characteristics of the early 
settlers have been sufficiently dwelt upon. In this chapter 
an attempt is made to depict their religious characteristics 
only. From the time of the beginning of settlements in the 
then wilderness of Tennessee until the Indian tribes were 
completely dispossessed, the dangers were numerbus and 
great. Many of the brave and hardy pioneers were killed 
from ambush and in open warfare; but it is altogether prob- 
able that the question of danger was of secondary considera- 
tion. It was in 1766 that Col. James Smith made his famous 
exploration of the valleys of the Cumberland and the Ten- 
nessee rivers, and upon his return to his home in Western 
North Carolina, by his graphic accounts of the beauty and 
fertility of the valleys which he had visited he excited in 
the minds of the people of North Carolina, Virginia, Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania an urgent desire to emigrate to this 
new El Dorado of the West. The settlers who first came 
to this state were to a considerable extent hardy backwoods 
pioneers from the four states above named. From the 
watershed that separates the headwaters of the streams that 
flow into the Atlantic from those that flow into the Ohio 
river, the emigrants to a great extent from one state resem- 
bled those from another. The backwoodsmen from Pennsyl- 
vania had little in common with the peaceful Quakers that 
lived between the Delaware and. Susquehanna rivers; nor 
had their near kinsmen of the Blue Ridge and Hawks moun- 
tains any closer affinity of disposition and manners with the 
aristocratic planters that lived near the Atlantic coast in 
Eastern Virginia and Eastern North Carolina. The back- 
woodsmen above mentioned were by birth Americans, but 
of mixed race, the dominant strain being that of the Penn- 
sylvania Irish, often called Scotch-Irish, and they were in the 
main believers in the doctrines of John Calvin and John 


Knox. They were in the main descended from the Scotch, 
yet there were among them Englishmen, a few French 
Huguenots, and some of the ancient Milesian Irish. Andrew 
Jackson, Samuel Houston, David Crockett and James 
Robertson were of Presbyterian Irish ancestry; John Sevier 
was of French Huguenot descent; Shelby was of Welsh 
extraction, and Daniel Boone and George Rogers Clarke 
were of English blood. 

The early Presbyterians were extremely obstinate in their 
views. They despised the Catholics, whom their ancestors 
had conquered, and had but little affection for the Episco- 
palians, by whom they had themselves been oppressed. They 
took especial pride in the warlike renown of their forefathers 
who had fought under Oliver Cromwell, and who had taken 
part in the battle of the Boyne. The great fact in connection 
with the early settlement of East Tennessee and Western 
North Carolina was this — that the immigrants to those two 
portions of these two states came principally from Western 
Pennsylvania and secondarily from the Carolinas, and that 
they differed essentially from the inhabitants of the seacoast 
counties of the states in question, Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
North Carolina. They were in the main Irish Presbyterians. 
They were related to the Covenanters; they interpreted the 
Bible to suit themselves, and chose their own clergymen. 
In the stern warfare of the frontier they may have lost much 
of their religion, but still they had meeting houses and school 
houses. The Episcopalians, the Baptists and the Methodists 
did not begin to appear in these frontier Western settlements 
until about the time of the breaking out of the American 
revolution, and when they did appear they were of a different 
mold from their Presbyterian predecessors, who were often 
gloomy, zealous and earnest, often narrow-minded and even 
bigoted, but still they were a great power for good in the 
communities in which they labored. 

Perhaps there was nowhere greater necessity for the exer- 
cise of their influence, for in the backwoods there were many 


lawless people, who hated that which was good because it 
was approved of by others, and did wrong for the sake of 
doing wrong. They lived lives of abandoned wickedness, and 
often formed themselves into half-secret organizations and 
drove out both magistrates and ministers and killed without 
scruple those who dared to interfere. Under such circum- 
stances the good men of the communities found it necessary 
to form similar associations and to put down the wicked 
with ruthless severity. In such cases had the peaceful prin- 
ciples of the Quakers been allowed by the good people to 
have full scope, the good people themselves would have 
been exterminated. But when the true nature of the great 
majority of these backwoodsmen was discovered it was 
found that they were at heart deeply religious as well as to a 
great extent superstitious. Many of their cabins contained 
Bibles and most of them refrained from labor and even 
hunting on Sunday. As has been stated, they generally pre- 
ferred Calvinism to Episcopalianism, and they preferred the 
latter to Catholicism; but with all of this their hearts were 
not stirred to the depths until Methodism worked its way 
into the wilderness. 

The early preachers, in common with the other early set- 
tlers, tilled their fields, with rifles in their hands, and on Sunday 
they delivered their discourses with as much earnestness and 
eloquence, if not with as much scholarship and elegance, 
as do their successors of the present day. They firmly be- 
lieved they were carrying out the will of the Lord in dispos- 
sessing the Canaanites in the form of the Red Man, and 
that they were conquering the country for the occupancy 
of the truly chosen people and the only true believers in the 

If we are to follow Phelan, the first minister that came to 
live in East Tennessee was the Rev. Samuel Doak, who 
was a son of Samuel and Jane (Mitchell) Doak, who had 
emigrated from Ireland, settled in Chester county, Pa., re- 
moved thence to Augusta county, Va., and who were "old 


side" Presbyterians. Rev. Samuel Doak was born in 1749, 
married Esther Montgomery, sister of Rev. John Mont- 
gomery, and was for two years tutor in Hampden-Sidney 
College of Prince Edward county, in which institution he 
studied theology. Having been licensed by Hanover Presby- 
tery, and having preached for some time in Virginia, he 
removed to Sullivan county, Tenn., and thence in a short 
time to Washington county, where he purchased a farm 
upon which he built a church, which some say was the first 
church building erected in the state. He founded Salem 
congregation and preached in the eastern part of the state 
for many years. 

Other early Presbyterian preachers were Rev. Samuel 
Houston, Rev. Hezekiah Balch and Rev. Samuel Carrick, 
all of the Hanover Presbytery, and all of them of Scotch-Irish 

"In 1788 the Presbytery of Abingdon, formed in 1785, was 
united with the synod of Carolina. Here we see the first 
introduction of Presbyterianism into Tennessee, for the 
Abingdon Presbytery lay almost entirely in this state. It was 
first upon the ground and in it were leading figures of the 
state. The} - were men of strong characters and the minds 
of men had not yet been turned to spiritual affairs. Besides 
this they were practical school-teachers. Subsequent events 
alone prevented the complete ascendancy of Presbyterianism 
in Tennessee and the Southwest."* 

The Rev. Charles Cummins (Cummings) deserved men- 
tion earlier in this sketch. His experience was similar to 
that of other early pioneer preachers. According to Ramsey, 
it was the custom of Mr. Cummins on Sunday morning to 
dress himself neatly, put on his shot pouch, shoulder his 
rifle, mount his horse and ride to church, where he would 
meet his congregation, each man with his rifle in his hand. 
Entering the church he would walk gravely through the 



crowd, ascend his pulpit, and after depositing his rifle in 
one corner of it, so as to be ready for any emergency, com- 
mence the solemn services of the day. 

When Knoxville was laid out a lot was reserved for the 
site of a church, which church was built in 1810. 

In 1788 the members of Abingdon Presbytery were 
Charles Cummins. Hezekiah Balch. John Cossan. Samuel 
Houston, Samuel Carrick and James Balch. Rev. Samuel 
Doak joined in 1793 and Gideon Blackburn in 1794. 

One of the first difficulties in connection with religious 
opinion arose in 1792, when "the General Assembly deter- 
mined, in answer to a question from the Synod of North 
Carolina, that those who professed a belief in universal salva- 
tion through the mediation of Jesus Christ, should not be 
admitted to the sealing ordinance." In 1796 great excite- 
ment existed in Abingdon Presbytery because of the publica- 
tion by Hezekiah Balch of certain articles of faith which 
greatly scandalized many members of the church. The result 
of this excitement was that Charles Cummins, Edward Craw- 
ford, Samuel Doak, Joseph Lake and James Balch withdrew 
from Abingdon Presbytery and formed an independent pres- 
bytery. Later when Hezekiah Balch had been suffered to go 
without discipline, by merely apologizing for certain abusive 
epithets, the Independent Presbytery withdrew, but afterward 
by submission was reinstated. 

Abingdon Presbytery was then divided into two, Doak, 
Cummins, Lake, and James Balch being members of Abing- 
don, and Hezekiah Balch, Cossan, Carrick, Henderson and 
Blackburn being members of L "nion Presbytery. 

This division in the Presbyterian church showed that when 
men had time to think for themselves upon doctrinal points, 
uniformity of belief on theological subjects is uniformly dis- 
pelled, because men are differently constituted and differently 
educated. It was in this way that the Reformation came, 
afterward the Presbyterian Covenanters, later the Methodist 
revival in England, and still later the Cumberland Presbv- 


terian Church in Tennessee. All of these were perfectly 
natural movements or evolutions of thought in the minds 
of men, and yet none of them perhaps is the ultimate belief 
of mankind upon religious or theological subjects. 

In 1783 when Holston circuit embraced East Tennessee 
and a portion of Virginia, Rev. Jeremiah Lambert was 
appointed thereto, the first Methodist preacher in this state. 
At the end of his first year he reported seventy-six members. 
In 1784 Rev. Henry Wills succeeded Mr. Lambert, and 
although he did not increase the membership, yet he was a 
useful man. In 1785, the year in which Methodism in Amer- 
ica was placed upon an independent footing, Mr. Wills was 
elder in the district embracing Holston, and Richard Swift 
and Michael Gilbert were on the circuit. Other early Meth- 
odists were Revs. Mark Whitaker and Mark Moore. In 
1787 Holston circuit was divided into Holston and Nol- 
lichucky circuits, and the next year two more were added. 

The general history of the times fully informs us as to 
the tumult and discord into which the people were thrown 
over the question of the continued existence of the state of 
Franklin, and it was in 1788, while these troubles were pend- 
ing, that one of the great historic characters of the religious 
world opportunely arrived on the scene. This man was- 
Francis Asbury, who reached the head of Watauga, April 28,. 
and who in his journal says: "The people are in discord 
about the old and new state, two or three men having been 
killed," etc. Bishop Asbury arrived at Nelson's, and 
preached from Hebrews vi:i 1. 12. Later he reached Owen's, 
and Huffacre's and Keywood's, holding conference 
at the latter place for three days. This was the first con- 
ference west of the mountains. Ramsey says: "The novelty 
of such an assemblage in the wilds of Watauga, its mission of 
benignity and peace, the calm dignity and unpretentious sim- 
plicity of the venerable Bishop, all conspired to soothe and 
quiet and harmonize the excited masses, and to convert 
partisans and factionists into brothers and friends." 


The influence of the Methodist preacher upon the early 
and later life of the people in Tennessee is thus depicted by 

"The observant traveler who passes through Mexico and 
who sees the little shrines along the roadside, the smooth- 
faced priests, or the mendicant friar with pendent rosary 
and bare feet upon the streets, need not be told the religious 
life of the people. In like manner the signs of Methodism, 
though in a measure now fading away before the incoming 
tide of a general laxity of faith, are equally apparent to him 
who studies the history of the present. What the Catholic 
church is in Mexico, the Methodist church is in Tennessee. 
To follow its footsteps would be foreign to our purpose, 
but it would be impossible to understand the inner life of 
the people and the organization of society unless we know 
the great instruments which first gave bent to the religious 
impulses of the early settlers. Perhaps it would be proper 
to say instrument, for without doing injustice to the able 
and learned successors of Craighead, and without overlooking 
the Tennesseeans who added a powerful branch to the already 
numerous Protestant denominations in America, it may be 
said that the religious life of the state is to-day the direct 
outcome of the exertions of the early Methodist itinerants. 
Other denominations have followed in the wake of civiliza- 
tion. The Methodist circuit rider led it. What the friar, 
the adventurous padre, was in the early day of Mexican settle- 
ment, the circuit rider has been in this state, and the evidences 
of his work and influence are upon every hand. The Sunday 
of to-day is the Sabbath which we inherit. The silent theater, 
the houses from which the sound of music and mirth are 
banished, the empty streets, the calm stillness of the day, in 
these things we see the signs of his influence. The career 
of the circuit rider both individually and collectively renewed 
in a great measure the romantic memories of the medieval 
church militant. * * * The circuit rider was the embodi- 
ment of a sacred and enthusiastic zeal which held in light 


esteem both the dangers and allurements of the world. And 
indeed he was a man whose like has not often been seen. His 
limitations were decided and palpable, but they were not re- 
pulsive. He was bigoted as a Christian, but tolerant as a 
churchman. He believed in the Bible with a literal faith, 
which in the present day of Renan and Strauss seems to have 
disappeared from the face of the earth," etc.. etc. 

The Baptists were also early on the ground. Rev. Tidence 
Lane organized a congregation in the eastern part of the 
state in 1779. But it was not until about 1790 that they 
began the work of organizing churches in Knox county. 
The oldest Baptist church in Knox county, still in existence, 
is Little Flat Creek Church, which was organized in 1796. 
Among the earliest Baptist ministers in Knox county the fol- 
lowing names are given: Revs. William Johnson, Isaac Bar- 
ton, Richard Wood, Elijah Rogers, Thomas Hudiburgh, 
Duke Kimbrough, Robert Fristoe, Thomas Hall, Richard 
Newport and West Walker. These men, like their Meth- 
odist brethren, were of limited education, but their religious 
zeal and fervid eloquence were well adapted to the majority 
of their congregations, and the numbers in these congrega- 
tions increased probably more rapidly than they would other- 
wise have done. In fact, the membership of the Baptist 
churches, in the aggregate, soon outnumbered that of both 
the Presbyterians and Methodists, and it is still in the lead. 

But as the Presbyterians were first in- evidence in East 
Tennessee, and as they have for this reason been given the 
preference in treating of the various religious denominations 
in this work, the history of the individual Presbyterian 
churches will now be briefly traced, the other churches 
coming in their regular chronological order. 

With reference to the organization of the first Presbyterian 
church in Knoxville. Ramsey says: "With pious regard and 
consideration for the church and religion of his fathers, the 
proprietor of Knoxville designated a lot for the erection of 
a house of public worship. The barracks, the court house. 


the grove above the mouth of White creek, on the river 
bank, were at first substituted for this purpose, and it was 
not until 1810 that a church edifice was erected on this lot. 
An adjoining square was afterward designated to a purpose 
scarcely less important — the instruction and education of 
youth — the entire square between Gay and State streets, and 
State and Boundary streets, being appropriated to Blount 

In 1789 or 1790, Rev. Samuel Carrick preached to a very 
large congregation at the Indian mound which stood at 
the fork of the French Broad and Holston rivers. A second 
sermon was preached there immediately after the conclusion 
of the first, the second by Rev. Hezekiah Balch. Soon after- 
ward other religious services were held at the same place, 
and a church was organized there by the Rev. Samuel Car- 
rick, which was named Lebanon-in-the-fork. which name was 
later abbreviated to Lebanon. Soon after becoming pastor of 
the Lebanon Church, Rev. Mr. Carrick organized the First 
Presbyterian Church at Knoxville, most of the first members 
of this church having been members of the Lebanon Church. 
The first ruling elders of the Knoxville Church were James 
White, George McNutt, John Adair, Archibald Rhea, Sr.. 
Dr. James Cozby and Thomas Gillespie. Rev. Mr. Carrick 
continued pastor of this church until his death, in 1809, and 
the church was then without a pastor until 1812, when Rev. 
Thomas H. Nelson was installed. Religious services had 
up to this time been held in the barracks and in the court 
house, but during the year 181 1, under the inspiration of a 
sermon preached by Rev. Samuel G. Ramsey, three com- 
missioners were appointed to contract for and superintend 
the erection of a church edifice, these commissioners or build- 
ing committee being John Crozier, Joseph C. Strong and 
James Park. This duty they performed, the work upon the 
meeting house, which was of brick, beginning in the fall 
of 1812, and the work upon the building being sufficiently 
far advanced to permit of the occupancy of it that fall, though 


it was not completely finished and furnished until 1816. 
When thus completed there was a debt upon the congrega- 
tion of $529.17, which was assumed by the three members 
of the building committee mentioned above. The lot, as 
stated earlier in this chapter, had been donated by Col. 
James White. 

Rev. Mr. Nelson remained in charge of this church as 
pastor until his death in 1838, under his ministrations 204 
names being added to the rolls. The following elders had 
been elected during his incumbency: Thomas Humes, 
James Campbell, John Craighead, Moses White, Robert 
Lindsey, James Craig, Dr. Joseph C. Strong, James Park 
and William Bark. 

During this long pastorate, however, all had not been 
peace and harmony in this congregation. Soon after the 
completion of the house of worship, as above narrated, a 
disaffection arose among the members, and in 1818 those 
thus dissatisfied sent up a petition to Union Presbytery for 
permission to organize a new congregation, giving as a 
reason the insufficient accommodations of the church build- 
ing. By the other members of the church this was con- 
sidered as a mere pretext, the real reason being, as they saw 
it. the tendency in the minds of those desiring to withdraw 
being toward "Hopkinsianism." 

Hopkinsianism is a peculiar form of Calvinism, which, 
though it embraces most of the doctrines of Calvin, yet it 
entirely rejects the doctrine of imputation, both the imputa- 
tion of the sin of Adam and of the righteousness of Christ. 
But the fundamental doctrine of Hopkinsianism is that all 
virtue and true holiness consist in disinterested benevolence, 
and that all sin is selfishness. That form of self love which 
leads men to give their first regard to their own eternal 
welfare is condemned by those who hold to this system as 

The petition for a separate church organization was re- 
fused by the presbytery, and it then went up to the synod 


of Tennessee on appeal. A remonstrance was also sent up, 
which the synod disregarded, overruled the decision of the 
presbytery and ordered the petitioners to organize the Second 
Presbyterian Church. An appeal was taken by the First 
Presbyterian Church to the General Assembly of 1820. but 
the decision and order of the synod were allowed to 

After the death of Rev. Mr. Nelson, as related above, the 
pulpit of the First Church was supplied successively by the 
Revs. Samuel Y. Wyley, Joseph I. Foot. Charles D. Pigeon 
and Reese Happersett, but none of them remained more than 
a few months. In 1841 Rev. Robert B. McMullen, at that 
time a professor in the East Tennessee University, became 
pastor, and remained with the church until the latter part of 
1858, when he resigned to become president of Stewart 
College at Clarksville. In 1859 the Rev. W. A. Harrison was 
elected pastor and he remained until February, 1864, when 
he was sent South by the Federal military authorities. 

In March, 1855, a new church edifice, which had been 
begun in 1852, upon the site of the old building, was com- 
pleted and dedicated, and this building was .used by the 
United States military authorities from November, 1863, to 
May 1, 1866, first as a hospital, then as barracks, next as 
quarters for refugees from upper East Tennessee, and finally 
for the necessities of the Freedmen's Bureau, by whom it 
was used as a school house for colored children. 

Rev. James Park was invited to preach to this congrega- 
tion in February, 1866, he having then recently returned from 
Georgia. Upon his own responsibility he rented the Baptist 
church building, then vacant, and in this building continued 
to hold services until the succeeding May, at which time 
the church belonging to the congregation was restored to it. 
It is natural to suppose that because of the war the member- 
ship of the church had been reduced, thirty-nine being the 
number that greeted Rev. Mr. Park's return, and the elders 
at that time were David A. Deaderick, William S. Kennedy 


and George M. White. Dr. Park was, however, a successful 
pastor, and under his care the membership steadily increased. 
The church building was repaired and refurnished in 1869, 
and the lot was improved, all at a cost of upward of $5,000. 
Dr. Park was again elected pastor May 21, 1876, and still 
remains in charge. The membership of this church at the 
present time is 380. and of the Sunday-school, of which Dr. 
A. R. Melendy is superintendent, 250. 

John H. Crozier wrote as follows of the Rev. Samuel 

"Rev. Samuel Carrick was the first clergyman who also 
ministered to one or more churches in the country. He was 
an accurate Greek and Latin scholar, and was president of 
Blount College. He was a Calvinistic Presbyterian of the 
strictest sect; believed in predestination and election, and 
that infants who died without baptism would suffer eternal 
perdition on account of this neglect of their parents. * * * 
He was a brave, honest, upright man and a sincere Christian, 
and had great influence over his congregation, though many 
of his tenets would not at the present day be very cheerfully 
acquiesced in by numbers of his own denomination." 

Following is the inscription in full upon the monument 
erected to his memory: "Sacred to the memory of the 
Rev. Samuel CZR. Carrick, who died August 17, 1809. 
aged forty-nine years 1 month. He first planted the Presby- 
terian religion in the wilds of Tennessee; he was the founder 
and the first pastor of this church, and the first president 
of E. T. College." 

The Second Presbyterian Church of Knoxville was organ- 
ized in the manner mentioned in connection with the sketch 
of the First Presbyterian Church; but in this place it is 
proper to present more of the details. Near the close of the 
last century the Rev. Dr. Isaac Anderson, one of the ablest 
men that ever preached the Gospel in Tennessee, organized 
Washington Presbyterian Church on Rosebury creek, and 
he also established a school known as Union Academy, for 


it was the custom then of the Presbyterian ministers to teach 
as well as preach. In 1803 Rev. Samuel Carrick resigned 
the pastorate of Lebanon Church, and from that time on until 
181 3 Rev. Dr. Anderson preached to both Washington and 
Lebanon congregations. Rev. Dr. Anderson was the prin- 
cipal agent in establishing the Southern and Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, which was in 1821 incorporated as Maryville 
College. Dr. Anderson was one of those in East Tennessee, 
Rev. Hezekiah Balch being another, who had adopted the 
peculiar form of Calvinism known as Hopkinsianism, men- 
tioned in the history of the First Presbyterian Church, and 
under his preaching many of his hearers, not only of his own 
congregation, but also of the members of neighboring 
churches, were converted to his belief. By some of the 
members of the First Presbyterian Church in Knoxville he 
was invited to preach to them, in 1818, and accepting the 
invitation, the result was the petition elsewhere referred to, 
and the organization of the Second Presbyterian Church, 
which was effected October 24, 18 18. The elders chosen at 
that time were Archibald Rhea, John McCampbell, Thomas 
Craighead, Joseph Brown and John Taylor. A piece of 
ground containing one acre was purchased of Gideon Mor- 
gan, and the erection of a house of worship immediately 
begun, and the work was so far completed that the building 
was dedicated by Dr. Anderson in April, 1820. The walls 
remained unplastered for nearly ten years. 

Dr. Anderson continued with the church until 1829, the 
membership being increased by the addition of 153 new 
names. The next regular pastor was the Rev. Jefferson E. 
Montgomery, who was with the church from 1831 until 1838. 
and in October, 1840, the Rev. William Mack became pastor, 
remaining until 1843, when he resigned. In February, 1845, 
Rev. John W. Cunningham was installed, remaining about 
one year, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. H. Meyers, 
who remained until April, 1847. Rev. J. H. Martin was 
then pastor from July. 1847, until October. 1863, the present 


church being erected in the meantime at a cost of $14,236.84, 
the dedication occurring November n, i860. During this 
year a chapel was built from the materials of the old church, 
for the purpose of holding prayer meetings, Sunday-school, 

For two years during the war the church was without a 
pastor, but in October, 1865, Rev. Nathan Bachman became 
pastor and remained until 1876, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. F. E. Sturgis, who, in 1885, was succeeded by Rev. 
T. S. Scott, who was called here from Rockford, 111., came 
and remained about two years. On September 11, 1887, Rev. 
Dr. R. R. Sutherland began his pastorate here, being in- 
stalled October 2, and remained nine years, preaching his 
last sermon March 15, 1896. An incident worthy of note 
occurred in this church November 4, 1894, when Mrs. Julia 
Ward Howe addressed the congregation, during her address 
saying there was once a time when women were obliged to 
leave the church before the benediction was pronounced, 
because it was thought they had no souls, but "now they are 
permitted to remain and pronounce the benediction." After 
the resignation of Dr. Sutherland several ministers occupied 
the pulpit with a view of becoming pastor, until at length 
the present pastor, Rev. Robert L. Bachman, then of Utica, 
N. Y., a native of Tennessee and a graduate of Union The- 
ological Seminary, was called, preaching his first sermon 
September 2j, 1896, and being installed December 2, fol- 

The membership of this church is now 425, and of the 
Sunday-school, of which E. G. Oates is superintendent, 350, 
including a membership of 100 in the home Sunday-school. 
The elders of the church are W. P. Washburn, A. A. Barnes, 
Judge S. T. Logan, Judge T. A. R. Nelson, N. D. Barrows, 
W. E. Gibbins, John L. Rhea, James Lynn and J. B. Minnis. 
Among the distinguished Tennesseeans who have in the 
past been elders of this church are Hon." Horace Maynard, 
James H. Cowan, Dr. James Rodgers. whose father was 


also an elder, and Judge T. A. R. Nelson. The property 
of the church is valued at $200,000. 

At a meeting of the Presbytery of Knoxville held at 
Sweetwater, December 18, 1873, a petition of several mem- 
bers of the First Presbyterian Church and of others not 
members of that church, was presented, asking that they be 
organized as the Third Presbyterian Church of Knoxville. 
A committee was appointed to attend at Knoxville on Jan- 
uary 16, 1874, hold a meeting to continue over the 18th of 
the month, that being Sunday, to organize the new congre- 
gation. During the same month the church was constituted 
with twenty-nine communicants, four ruling elders and four 
deacons. Services were held in the Caldwell school house 
until a church edifice could be erected, and in 1876 a fine 
brick structure on Fifth avenue was completed and dedicated. 
Rev. J. P. Gammon was stated supply of this church for 
about eighteen months, when he was succeeded by Rev. W. 
A. Harrison, who remains pastor even to the present time, 
though on December 1. 1897, Rev. Dr. J. M. P. Otts reached 
the city to take the position of associate pastor and was in- 
stalled November 13, 1898, the two reverend gentlemen still 
remaining co-pastors of the church. The membership of this 
church is now 375 and of the Sunday-school, of which George 
R. Jackson is superintendent, 150. The property owned 
by the church society is worth about $75,000. 

Central Presbyterian Church was the result of a division 
within the Third Presbyterian Church. After worshiping in 
several places for some time, one of these places being 
Patterson's Hall, the Central Presbyterian Church decided 
to have a church building and a pastor of their own, and on 
Sunday. July 12, 1891. extended a call to Rev. J. M. La Bach 
to act as stated supply until the meeting of the synod in the 
fall. This church was regularly organized November 8, 1891, 
the membership being mainly from the Third Presbyterian 
Church. The society procured a lot on the corner of Broad 
and Jacksboro streets, and on November 15 there was sub- 


scribed toward a building fund $4,452.75. November 6, 
1892, the church building was dedicated, the sermon being 
delivered by Rev. Dr. T. H. McCallie of Chattanooga. 

Rev. Mr. La Bach remained pastor of this church until 
March 3, 1895, when his pastoral relations were dissolved. 
The membership of the church at that time was about 300. 
After being served by different pastors temporarily, at length 
on May 10, 1896, Rev. George T. Chandler was installed 
as pastor, remaining until September 17, 1898, when he 
resigned, and a few months later became pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church at Kosciusko. Miss., in which state 
he had formerly labored. Rev. Paul F. Brown is the present 

The membership of this church at this time is about 175, 
and of the Sunday-school, of which J. L. Cooley is super- 
intendent, about the same. The value of the church property 
is now about $12,000. 

The Fourth Presbyterian Church was organized April 25, 
1886, in the Edgewood school house, with eighteen mem- 
bers, most of whom had been for some time members of 
other Presbyterian churches, but wanted a church of their 
own denomination nearer their homes. The elders chosen 
at this time were W. O. White, C. E. Lucky and Robert 
Irvin, and the deacons, Charles Champion and Charles Evans. 
The sermon on the occasion was preached by Rev. T. S. 
Scott. A church building was erected during the same year, 
on the corner of Coleman and Luttrell streets, which cost 
about $4,000, and was dedicated November 6, 1887, but the 
first services held therein were held November 7, 1886. The 
present membership of the church is about 275, and of the 
Sunday-school, 140. The value of the church property, in- 
cluding the parsonage, is $10,000. Rev. E. A. Elmore has 
been pastor of this church ever since its organization. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized in 
the spring of 1883, and is located on Broad street. The 
principal movers in the work of organizing this church were 


Rev. E. J. McCroskey, J. R. Butt and T. W. Kellar. Rev. 
Mr. McCroskey undertook the work of raising the amount 
of money needed to purchase a lot, which he accomplished, 
and the erection thereon of a church building was soon 
afterward begun. In the spring of 1885 the work had so 
far progressed as to permit of the occupancy of the building, 
and the organization of the church was effected by the 
election of J. R. Butt and T. W. Kellar as elders, and J. B. 
Malcolm and T. W. Carter, deacons. Rev. W. H. Baugh 
was installed pastor, remaining until June, 1886, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. J. V. Stephens, who remained until 1888, 
when Rev. A. W. Hawkins became pastor. 

The church building begun, as above stated, in 1885, was 
dedicated February 2, 1890, the sermon being preached by 
Rev. Solon McCroskey, the society at that time being free 
from debt. June 14, 1891, Rev. Mr. Hawkins preached his 
farewell sermon, and left the charge in a very prosperous 
condition. On May 21, Rev. P. M. Fitzgerald preached his 
first sermon as pastor of this church and remained until 
April 10, 1897, when he was succeeded by Rev. James A. 
McKamey. The Sunday-school was reorganized January 2, 
1898. with Walter M. Bonham superintendent. The Florida 
Street mission of this church was also reorganized, and be- 
came a prominent feature of the work of the church. Sep- 
tember 30, 1898, Rev. Mr. McKamey left Knoxville to take 
charge of the Sunday-school department of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian, published at Nashville, and was followed by 
Rev. T. A. Cowan, who preached his first sermon October 9, 
1898. The membership of this church at the present time 
is 310, and of the Sunday-school, of which T. W. Carter is 
superintendent, 180. The property of the church is now- 
worth about $10,000. 

The Fort Sanders Presbyterian Church was organized in 
the Highland Avenue school building. May 19, 1895, with 
twenty-six members. For about eighteen months the con- 
gregation worshiped in various buildings and rooms, the 


pastors or ministers who preached being- Revs. Elmore, Daw- 
son, Wilson, Moore, Newman, Duncan and the present pastor 
of the church, S. A. Coile, the latter being installed as 
regular pastor in 1895. The lot upon which the church 
building stands was purchased in January, 1896, at a cost of 
$1,700, and active work looking to the erection of a church 
edifice immediately began. The building stands at the corner 
of Laurel avenue and Eighth street, and the total cost of 
the church property, including lot, buildings and furnishings, 
was $5,240.33. The building was dedicated on Sunday, De- 
cember 18, 1898, by Rev. E. A. Elmore, D. D., pastor of 
the Fourth Presbyterian Church, and after the dedicatory 
sermon was delivered there was raised almost enough money 
to pay off the indebtedness upon the property, which was 
$1,514.42. Dr. J. M. P. Otts, pastor of the Third Presby- 
terian Church, called attention to the memorial window in 
the west side of the church, given by the soldiers of Camp 
Poland in memory of the soldiers of both armies that fell 
in the attack upon and defense of Fort Sanders, November 
29, 1863, and said also that it was the first monument to 
piety and to the fallen of both sides in the Civil war ever 
erected in the world. Rev. S. A. Coile, the first pastor of 
this church, was the pastor at the time of dedication and still 

The South Knoxville Presbyterian Church was established 
January 26, 1890, with eleven members, and during the fall 
and winter of 1890-91 a frame church building was erected at 
a cost of $4,350. which was dedicated March 29, 1891. The 
first and only pastor of this church was and has been Rev. 
W. R. Dawson, who is well equipped for his work. The 
membership of the church is now 108, and of the Sunday- 
school, 125. R. E. Jones is superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which is in a flourishing condition, and the value of 
the church property at the present time is $3,500. 

Bell Avenue Presbyterian Church was organized Septem- 
ber 7, 1890. as the outgrowth of a mission established about 


1870 by the Second Presbyterian Church, at the corner of 
Bell avenue and Bertrand street. Preaching services were 
held in the chapel of the mission during the summer of 
1890 by Rev. J. M. Davies, D. D.. synodical superintendent 
of home missions for Tennessee, and on July 11, of that 
year, Rev. A. J. Coile came to the city from Mount Bethel 
Church, presbytery of Holston, and the church was organized, 
as above stated, with twenty-two members. In 1891 a lot 
was purchased on the corner of Howard and Olive streets, 
upon which a commodious frame church building was erected 
at a cost of $4,000, capable of seating 300 persons, and which 
was dedicated October 6, 1891, Dr. R. R. Sutherland preach- 
ing the sermon. Rev. A. J. Coile was ordained minister of 
the church April 24, 1892. having up to that time been stated 
supply. He is still pastor of the church, which now has 150 
members, and the Sunday-school, of which A. H. Daily is 
superintendent, has 150 scholars. The property of the 
church is now worth $4,500. 

Shiloh Presbyterian Church, colored, was organized in 
the following manner: In May, 1865, at a meeting of the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, held in New 
York, Rev. Henry H. Garnett and Rev. John B. Reeve were 
appointed to look after the interests of such colored people 
in the South as might desire to identify themselves with 
the Presbyterian Church. Rev. Mr. Garnett came to Knox- 
ville, finding here eleven colored communicants connected 
with the Second Presbyterian Church who were desirous of 
organizing a separate church. Letters having been granted 
these eleven colored Presbyterians, they, together with one 
colored member from the First Presbyterian Church, were 
organized into the First Colored Presbyterian Church, Sep- 
tember 4, 1865, the name being later changed to that given 
above. The sermon at this time was preached by the Rev. 
Mr. Reeve. For a short time Rev. Mr. Reeve was pastor of 
the church, then returning to Philadelphia. Not long after- 
ward Rev. G. \Y. LeYere, who had been chaplain of the 


Twentieth U. S. Colored volunteer infantry, during a portion 
of the war, accepted a position as missionary to Knoxville, 
arriving in the city February 9, 1866, and found twelve 
of the original members of this church, and held services in 
the First Presbyterian Church (that being still vacant), until 
the owners again desired it for their own use. For some 
time it was exceedingly difficult to find a place in which 
the church could hold services, for there was then a decided 
prejudice against colored churches, but at length Mr. Perez 
Dickinson offered Mr. LeVere the use of his rear porch and 
lawn. Afterward the services were for a time regularly held 
at the house of William Nelson, until a lot was purchased on 
Clinch street, upon which a building was erected, the entire 
cost being $3,300, and the building was completed within 
the next twenty-two months. The church then kept on with 
its work regularly and with success, and in 1883 Rev. Job 
Lawrence became pastor, remaining until 1891, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. John R. Riley, the present pastor. 
The membership now is 120, and of the Sunday-school, of 
which Mitchell Burks is superintendent, is seventy-five. The 
church property is worth about $3,000. 

The First Baptist Church of Knoxville was organized 
January 15. 1843, m tne upper room of the court house, the 
organization being completed on the 22A of that month. The 
ministers present on the latter occasion were as follows: 
Rev. Mr. Kennon, Duke Kimbrough, Mr. Milliken, Mr. 
Bellue, Mr. Coram and Mr. Ray. The membership at first 
was quite small, being composed of twenty-six white persons 
and twenty colored. During the first few months of the 
existence of this church the membership grew quite rapidly 
and by August the enrollment reached eighty-five. Thirty 
had been added by experience and seventeen by letter, seven 
had been dismissed and one had been excommunicated. This 
large increase in the membership was due to two revivals, one 
in the spring and one in the summer, the first having been 
conducted in the First Presbvterian Church bv Rev. Dr. 


Baker of Texas, and the other by Rev. Israel Robards, who 
remained for several successive days and nights, arousing a 
deep religious interest in the community. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. Joseph A. Bullard, 
who remained one year. Those most prominent among his 
successors were the Revs. G. W. Griffin, Matthew Hillsman, 
L. B. Woolfolk. S. H. Smith. Dr. Brenker, D. D., J. L. 
Llovd, J. B. F. Mays, George B. Eager, C. H. Strickland 
and E. A. Taylor. Rev. E. A. Taylor at the end of a three 
years' pastorate, lasting from 1885 to 1888, had one of the 
strongest congregations in the state of Tennessee, and a 
large, handsome brick church building, with his congrega- 
tion out of debt. His labors in Knoxville are remembered 
with pleasure by his former parishioners. The membership 
at that time amounted to about 650. and the Sunday-school 
had a membership of more than 500 scholars. 

The new brick church above mentioned is 72x88 feet in 
size, its audience room being 62x65 ^ eet nl s i ze - an< ^ ' ts 
spire 176 feet high. The corner stone was laid July 1, 1886, 
and it was dedicated April 8, 1886. The audience room and 
the gallerv have a seating capacity of from 850 to 1,000 

After the retirement of Rev. E. A. Taylor toward the 
latter part of 1888, a call was extended January 23, 1889, 
to Rev. Carter Helm Jones, who began his labors here 
about February 1. 1889, remaining until April 30, 1893, upon 
which day he preached his farewell sermon, having accepted 
a call from the McFerrin Memorial Baptist Church of Louis- 
ville, Ky. During the four years of his pastorate in Knox- 
ville he baptized 243 persons and admitted to the church 435. 
On May 14. 1893, Rev. R. R. Acree of Roanoke, Va., 
preached a sermon for the congregation, was afterward 
called to the church, and arrived to take charge on Septem- 
ber 8. that vear. The present pastor is Rev. M. W. Egerton. 
The membership of this church at the present time is 748, 
and of the Sunday-school, of which John McCoy is superin- 


tendent, 500. The value of the church property now is 

In November, 1873. a second congregation of Baptists 
was organized in Knoxville, their church building being 
erected on McGhee street, but the location did not prove 
satisfactory, and in November, 1880, the congregation was 
disbanded. Some time afterward a mission was established 
in the northern portion of the city and at this mission, in 
November, 1885, a church was organized which was named 
Calvary Baptist Church. This church was incorporated 
March's, 1886, by W. C. McCoy. G. W. Peters, Lafayette 
Huddleston, James A. Galyon. John J. Martin, W. A. J. 
Moore and J. R. Dew. The first pastor of the church was 
Rev. O. L. Hailey. The church was highly prosperous during 
the first years of its existence, the membership increasing in 
one year from fifty-three to 115. On February 6, 1890, the 
charter of this church, upon the petition of W. C. McCoy, 
L. Huddleston, J. B. Williams, W. A. J. Moore, W. R. 
Cooper and J. A. Galyon, was so amended as to permit the 
change of name of this church to the Second Baptist Church 
of Knoxville. and the name was changed in accordance there- 
with. Since Rev. Mr. Hailey's time the Rev. M. D. Jeffries 
has been the only pastor, he commencing his pastorate March 
1. 1893. The church edifice is a two-story pressed brick 
structure, of the Romanesque style of architecture, having 
an auditorium capable of seating 700 persons, and ample class 
rooms, ladies' parlor, etc.. and cost $31,000. The member- 
ship of the church at the present time is 534, and of the 
Sunday-school, of which \Y. A. J. Moore is superintendent, 
360. The property of the church is now worth $25,000. 

The Third Baptist Church, located south of the Tennessee 
river, was organized February 17, 1889, with eighteen mem- 
bers, the first pastor being Rev. W. R. Grace, who remained 
from June, 1889, to June, 1891. Rev. S. E. Jones became 
pastor in July, 1891. and remained until July, 1893, after 
which the church was without a pastor six months, during 


which time Dr. C. C. DeArmond acted as moderator at all 
business meetings. In January, 1894, Rev. Mr. Lightfoot 
became pastor, remaining until the following July, from which 
time until September, 1894, Rev. John M. Anderson acted as 
supply pastor. Then followed Rev. W. C. McPherson, who 
remained from October. 1894, until January 1. 1898, on 
which date the present pastor, Rev. R. M. Murrell. began 
his labors. On June 11, 1893, when the church building 
was dedicated by Rev. T. T. Eaton, the membership of the 
church was 175, while at the present time it is 200. The 
Sunday school, organized February 24, 1889, has continued 
without interruption. It had at first forty scholars, while 
now it has 200. The superintendents have been Dr. C. C. 
DeArmond and served eight years; W. B. Ford served six 
months; J. C. Ford, six months; J. G. Johnson, one year, 
and Dr. T. O. McCallie is now superintendent. The church 
property is worth about $7,000. 

The Centennial Baptist Church was the outgrowth of a 
mission Sunday-school organized April 6, 1890, at the home 
of Alexander Meek at 1200 Asylum street, and on the 13th 
of the same month a meeting was held at a store room on 
Asylum street at which seventy-seven persons were present 
and Rev. J. Pike Powers elected superintendent, and served 
as both superintendent of the Sunday-school and pastor for 
the people until July 12, 1891. The First Baptist Church 
took charge of the mission July 15. 1891, and elected Thomas 
L. Moses superintendent, and engaged Rev. J. K. Pace as 
pastor. The Sunday-school about this time moved to a 
store room on Asylum and Clinton streets, and \Y. W. Wood- 
ruff presented to the mission a lot on Deaderick street, upon 
which a church building was erected by the First Baptist 
Church, which building is 34x80 feet in size and cost $5,800, 
and was dedicated free from debt on June 5. 1S92. It has a 
seating capacity of 500 persons, and is a very handsome 
church edifice, somewhat on the Moorish order of archi- 
tecture, nicely situated on a fine street. The pastor at the 


time of dedication was Rev. J. K. Pace, he remaining until 
October, 1892, when he was succeeded by the present pastor, 
Rev. J. H. Snow, who has had a very successful pastorate". 
The value of the church property is about $6,500. 

Mount Zion Baptist Church (colored) was organized in 
1864, in the basement of the First Presbyterian Church, with 
three members, by Rev. T. Embry. Soon afterward they 
removed to M. E. Zion Church, remaining there for some 
time, and then removed to the colored school house in East 
Knoxville, remaining there until 1866. Rev. William Howell 
about this time came down from Ohio, was invited to become 
pastor of the church, accepted and remained until 1869. 
In 1873 there were about 150 members in this church, which 
had previously purchased a lot on Patton street in East 
Knoxville, and erected thereon a church building at a cost 
of about $2,000. 

The Second (Colored) Baptist Church was organized by 
Rev. William Howell with eight members from the First 
Colored Baptist Church, and with Rev. J. P. Jay as pastor. 
After about four months a lot was purchased on an alley 
leading off from Cumberland street in East Knoxville, upon 
which lot a church building was erected at a cost of about 
$900, in which the congregation still worships. After a one 
year's pastorate, Rev. Mr. Jay was succeeded by Rev. A. B. 
Cross, and in 1873 there were 173 members in the church. 
Succeeding pastors so far as could be ascertained have been 
as follows: Revs. Bigbee, Robert Howard, Robert Mills, 
Allen Nickerson, Brown, Bain, John Richardson, Shields, 
C. J. Reed, W. M. Maskerson, Martin Jones, James Barney, 
John Richardson, R. P. Rumney, John G. L. Crippins and 
William Armstrong, the present pastor. The church mem- 
bership now is 157. This church is now called the Mount 
Carmel Baptist Church. 

In 1897 a division in the church occurred, 76 members 
withdrawing and forming the Guilfield Baptist Church, pur- 
chasing the old Clinton A. M. E. chapel, and worshiping 


therein. The first pastor of this church was Rev. R. P. 
Rumney, the second and present pastor being Rev. Mr. Clark, 
from Kentucky. The membership is about the same as that 
with which the church was organized. 

Other colored Baptist churches are the Central, at 1019 
Payne street, and the Second Baptist at 616 Central avenue, 

The Church of the Immaculate Conception was established 
in 1 85 1, when the claims of the Roman Catholics settled 
throughout East Tennessee were presented to the Rt. Rev. 
Richard Pius Miles, then Bishop of Nashville. In obedience 
to the command of the bishop. Rev. Father H. V. Brown, a 
pious and zealous missionary, came to Knoxville and organ- 
ized the Catholics into a congregation, named as above, and 
under his supervision a church building was erected on Wal- 
nut street near Vine, which was of stone and neat in style and 
architecture. The Catholics then numbered about one hun- 
dred families and with them Father Brown, who was a com- 
petent artist, labored until 1855, when he was called to Chat- 

Rev. Father J. L. Biemans, noted for his learning and 
humility, succeeded to the pastorate of this church, and 
served faithfully until 1857, when he was called back to Eu- 
rope to receive his mother into the faith of her son. Rev. 
Father J. Bergrath then filled the pastorate until 1865, when 
on account of failing health he removed further south. Rev. 
Father Abram J. Ryan then took charge, and was soon en- 
deared to all denominations in Knoxville. because of his lov- 
ing care and devoted zeal. The increasing congregation 
could no longer be accommodated in the little stone church, 
the capacity of which was tested every Sunday, so much so 
that on many occasions the Catholics were compelled to stand 
in the aisles or even outside of the building itself by the 
open windows, in order to accommodate their non-Catholic 
friends, who desired to listen to the eloquent words of the 
poet priest. It was during his pastorate here that Father 


Ryan wrote that immortal poem, "The Conquered Banner," 
which has endeared him to the heart of every Southern man 
and woman. 

Rev. Father Joseph S. Kean was next in charge, but was 
soon followed by Rev. Father M. J. Finnegan, who was 
appointed in June, 1868, and it was during his administra- 
tion that the addition was built to the church. 

Rev. Father F. T. Matron, the present incumbent, was 
appointed pastor in 1872, and finding that his charge was 
not confined to the city of Knoxville, but that in fact it 
extended all over East Tennessee, over an area of 180x100 
miles, he was at first quite discouraged, but after completing 
his first pastoral visit, that which seemed almost if not quite 
impossible of accomplishment, became comparatively easy 
and a pleasant duty, and his efforts were soon crowned with 
success. Many of those who lived in the country followed 
his advice and moved to Knoxville, and such was the in- 
crease in the Catholic population of the city that a new 
church building became a necessity, the present fine brick 
structure at the southeast corner of Walnut and Vine streets 
being soon afterward erected, all of Tennessee material and 
the work all done by Knoxville contractors and workmen. 
This church has a seating capacity of about 800, and was 
dedicated September 19, 1886, by Rt. Rev. Joseph Rade- 
macher, bishop of Nashville, assisted by Rev. Father Marron 
and Rev. Father M. J. Ryan. The membership of this parish 
at present is about 1,500, and the Sunday-school has about 
350 scholars. 

(Since the foregoing was written Father Marron has been 
transferred to Memphis, Tennessee, and has been succeeded 
by Father Gleason, who came from Nashville.) 

Bishop Asbury, on November 1, 1790, while on his way 
from the Cumberland settlements to North Carolina, paid a 
visit to Knoxville, being accompanied by Bishops Whatcoat 
and William McKendree. Here they were entertained by 
Joseph Greer, a friend of Asbury. The bishop preached in 


the "State House." to about 700 persons, many of whom, 
however, could not get inside the building. In the autumn 
of 1802 Bishop Asbury again visited Knoxville on two sep- 
arate occasions, but did not preach here in either case. He 
was entertained by Joseph Greer and Francis A. Ramsey. On 
November 25, 1802, he preached at the house of Justus 
Huffaker, a local preacher, living near the Seven Islands in 
the French Broad river. That year the French Broad circuit 
was formed, extending westward from the west line of Greene 
county on both sides of French Broad and Holston rivers, 
and including Knox county. To this circuit from that year 
to 181 1 inclusive the following appointments were made: 
Luther Taylor in 1802; John Johnson in 1803; E. W. Bow- 
man and Joshua Oglesby in 1804; Ralph Lotspeich in 1805; 
James Axley in 1806; Benjamin Edge in 1807; Nathan 
Barnes and Isaac Lindsey in 1808; James Trower in 1809; 
William Pattison in 18 10, and George Ekin and Josiah 
Crawford in 181 1. 

In November, 1812, Bishop Asbury, accompanied by Will- 
iam McKendree, visited Knoxville once more and for the last 
time, being the guest of Father Wagoner. The conference 
from which the bishop was returning had established Knox- 
ville circuit and had assigned thereto Samuel H. Thompson. 
The next year Samuel H. Thompson was succeeded by 
Richard Richards, a strong and popular man, but who later 
became addicted to strong drink and was expelled from the 
church. Still later he reformed and was again received into 

James Dixon was assigned to Knoxville circuit in 1814, 
a man of remarkable intellect, and in that day of controversy 
over religious doctrines, defended the doctrines of his church 
with great ability. In a long debate in which he was en- 
gaged with Dr. Isaac Anderson, founder of Maryville College. 
he acquitted himself to the full satisfaction, at least, of his 
church. He was again sent to Knoxville in 1819 and in 
1820 had charge of the church in Greeneville as well as of 


that in Knoxville. About this time he was afflicted with 
epilepsy in a most remarkable manner, being helpless and 
almost unconscious for several weeks. Upon again regain- 
ing full consciousness he had forgotten everything he had 
ever known, and was compelled to learn to read over again. 
The Church Street Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
was organized early in the present century, but it could not 
be ascertained that there was a church building erected here 
previous to 18 15. Knoxville was first mentioned as a preach- 
ing place at a conference held at Fountain Head, Middle 
Tennessee, November 12, 181 2, with Samuel H. Thompson, 
preacher in charge. Col. John W. Gaut being authority for 
this statement. Rev. Mr. Thompson having charge of a cir- 
cuit. In 1813 Richard Richards was preacher in charge, and 
in 1814 James Dixon, an Irishman, learned, cultured and 
eloquent, who engaged in a controversy with Rev. Dr. Ander- 
son of Maryville, a Presbyterian divine. Next came John 
Henegar. in 18 15, the year in which was in all probability 
erected the first frame church building on Methodist Hill, 
John Haynie being instrumental in its erection. Up to this 
time those who had been in this part of the state as circuit 
riders were James Axley, Thomas Wilkerson, and John 
Kelly. In 181 6 the preacher in Knoxville was Nicholas Nor- 
wood; in 1817, Josiah B. Doughty, and in 1818, George 
Atkin, father of S. T. Atkin, an esteemed member of this 
church at the present time. In 18 19, Robert Hooper; in 
1820, David Adams; in 1822, James Axley, with John Doan, 
assistant; in 1823 Thomas Stringfield was presiding elder, 
Thomas Madden, preacher in charge, and F. A. Owen, assist- 
ant. While the church remained on Methodist Hill the mem- 
bership was about 100, and in 1834 a new church edifice was 
erected and known afterward as "The Old Methodist 

In 1824 Holston Conference was organized at a meeting 
held in Knoxville, Bishop Roberts presiding, the new con- 
ference comprising Southwest Virginia, East Tennessee, 


Western North Carolina, and a small portion of North 
Georgia. The whole number of white members was 13.443; 
colored, 1,491, and preachers, 42. George Horn was the 
preacher in Knoxville. In 1825 the preacher was J. Y. Craw- 
ford; in 1826, James Cummings and W. T. Senter; in 1827, 
Isaac Lewis; in 1828, John Craig and O. F. Johnson; in 1829, 
John B. Doughty and Harry Cummings; in 1830, Abraham 
Murphy and J. Nutty: in 1831, David Fleming and R. Bird- 
well; in 1832, David Fleming: in 1833, David Adams; in 
1834-35, Joseph Pryor; in 1836, Timothy Sullins; in 1837, 
J. M. Kefiey; in 1838-39, John Barringer; in 1840, John M. 
Kelley: in 1841-42, Timothy Sullins; 1843-44, James Atkins; 
1845, Samuel Patton; 1846, Miles Foy; 1847, W. G. E. Cun- 
ningham; 1848, E. F. Sevier; 1849, C. W. Charlton; 1850, 
Timothy Sullins and D. R. McAnally; 1851J. C. Pendergrast; 
1852, E. E. Gillenwaters; 1853. William M. Kerr; 1854, 
Timothy Sullins and W. H. Bates (interchange); 1855-56, 
E. C. Wexler; 1857, R. M. Hickey; 1858-59, David Sullins; 
i860, David Sullins and E. C. Wexler; 1861, W. E. Munsey; 
1862, Grinsfield Taylor, and 1863, David Sullins. From this 
time on for a few years on account of the occupation of the 
city by Union soldiers, religious services were not regularly 
held, but in November, 1866. the society was reorganized 
and as the old church building on Church street had been 
taken possession of by the members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, the members of the M. E. Church. South, occu- 
pied the basement of the First Presbyterian church, remain- 
ing there until their own new brick chapel was erected and 
completed, in 1867. 

The first pastor of this church after the cessation of hos- 
tilities was Rev. T. C. Carroll, who was followed by Rev. 
W. H. Bates. Next came Rev. Grinsfield Taylor, in 1869; 
E. E. Hoss in 1870-71; R. H. Parker, 1872; W. G. E. Cun- 
ningham. 1873-74; J. S. Burnett, 1875-77; George C. Ran- 
kin. 1878-81; John H. Keith, 1882-83; H. H. Carlock. 1884- 
85; R. G. Waterhouse. 1886-89; W. W. Hicks, 1890-91; H. 


D. Moore, D. D., 1892-94, and the present pastor, Rev. James 
A. Duncan, D. D., 1895-99. 

In 1875 the society regained possession of its church lot, 
with the old church, and upon this lot, in 1877, the present 
brick church edifice was completed and dedicated in Febru- 
ary, 1878, by Bishop Wightman, assisted by Dr. R. A. Young. 
In 1886 or 1887 fifty-six feet of land was purchased adjoin- 
ing the church on the west and upon this land a Sunday- 
school chapel was erected. In 1893 the parsonage was 
erected on the front of this lot, and at the present time the 
property of the church is worth some $40,000. 

Broad Street Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was or- 
ganized in 1 87 1 and a lot was purchased by D. A. Carpenter, 
M. J. Reams, James Hayley, J. L. Nelson, and A. J. Price, 
trustees, for its use, the price paid being $500, the owners of 
the lot at the time being Peter Staub and Lewis Tillman. 
The location of this lot, on which the church building was 
erected, is the southeast corner of Fifth avenue and Broad 
street. The building was dedicated June 5, 1871, Rev. Bishop 
H. H. Kavanagh preaching the sermon, and on this occasion 
about $1,200 was raised to apply on the indebtedness. About 
the time of the dedication of this building Rev. George D. 
French became pastor and remained until 1873, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. B. O. Davis, who was himself suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. L. M. French. Rev. W. W. Bays became 
pastor in 1879, anc l w as followed by Rev. J. H. Keith. Then 
followed Rev. J. F. Frazier, Rev. D. Sullins, D. D., and Rev. 
J. H. Keith, who this time remained until October 13, 1889, 
on which day he preached his farewell sermon. In the mean- 
time the first building erected for a church, which was a 
plain, rectangular structure, in the style of the old-fashioned 
country meeting-house, became too small, and in 1880 a new 
and more commodious building was resolved upon, and was 
erected at the corner of Fifth avenue and Broad street, the 
first work being done on this new edifice July 22, 188(1. The 
corner-stone was laid September 21. and the building, com- 


pleted. was dedicated September 9, 1888. It is 72x80 feet 
in size, has an auditorium 59x75 feet, and a spire -150 feet 
high. Rev. Dr. J. H. Keith, mentioned above, was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. T. C. Carroll. D. D., he by Rev. W. M. Dyer, 
and he by Rev. F. Richardson, who was himself succeeded 
by Rev. W. S. Neighbors. The present pastor is Rev. J. L. 
Orr. The present membership of the church is 547, that of 
the Sunday-school, of which J. E. Johnston is the superin- 
tendent, 340. and the value of the property owned by the 
church is $37,500, including the parsonage, at No. 528 West 
Fifth avenue. 

Highland Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church. South, 
was organized in 1893, the first pastor being Rev. YY. Wis- 
dom Newberry, who remained from 1893 to 1896, and during 
his pastorate the little frame church building, which was and 
is still designed for the use of the Sunday-school, was erected. 
This building was dedicated July 14, 1895, by Rev. Dr. Rich- 
ardson, and after the regular dedicator)- sermon had been 
delivered Dr. Moore announced that when the remaining 
debt was assumed he would pronounce the sentence of ded- 
ication. Dr. Moore's appeal was almost immediately 
responded to and the debt assumed, the church building, 
which cost about $1,500 being then fully dedicated free from 
debt. This church building stands on a large lot on Highland 
avenue immediately northwest of the site of Fort Sanders. 
Since the Rev. Mr. Newberry the pastors have been as fol- 
lows: Rev. A. B. Hunter, 1896-97; Rev. E. S. Bettis, 1897- 
98. and Rev. Frank Jackson, 1898 to the present time. The 
membership of this church on March 1, 1899, was 181, and 
of the Sunday-school 160, the superintendent of the Sunday- 
school being Joel Seaton. The entire value of the church 
property is $3,500. 

May 2"j, 1864, a call was issued for a convention of mem- 
bers and preachers of the Holston conference who were loyal 
to the government of the United States, the convention to 
be held in Knoxville July 7 following, by William G. Brown- 


low, J. A. Hyden, E. E. Gillenwaters, William T. Dowell, 
James dimming, Thomas H. Russell. William H. Rogers, 
and David Fleming. On the day appointed fifty-four dele- 
gates assembled in the Episcopal church, organizing by the 
selection of E. E. Gillenwaters chairman and Robert G. 
Blackburn secretary. A report was adopted favoring a return 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church subject to the approval of 
its general conference, which latter body ratified the action 
of the Knoxville church. At its next meeting the Holston 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
at Athens, June 1, 1865. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Knoxville was 
established during this same year, under the pastorate of the 
Rev. Dr. John F. Spence, the trustees being William G. 
Brownlow, R. D. Jourolman, E. N. Parham, and C. W. De 
Pue, and the stewards S. P. Angel, William Rule, H. C. Tar- 
water, F. W. Wheeler, and J. T. Ambrose. For three years 
this church organization worshiped in the court-house and 
in the First Baptist Church, and in 1867 began the erection 
of a church building on Clinch street, which was completed 
in 1869. It was a large and commodious brick structure, 
capable of seating 600 people. 

Dr. Spence labored with this congregation, which held 
services in Temperance Hall, East Knoxville, and afterwards 
as above stated, for one year, and in June, 1866, was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. B. Ford, who reorganized the society at 
the court-house with thirty members. In the Baptist church 
Rev. Mr. Ford then held a protracted meeting and after this 
came to an end the congregation returned to the court-house. 
By this time the old Methodist church on Church street was 
repaired and taken possession of, and it was in this building 
that the congregation remained until the new building at 
the corner of Clinch and Prince streets was finished. In 1867 
Rev. Mr. Ford was succeeded by Rev. J. S. Petty, who re- 
mained one year, and was followed by Rev. J. W. Mann, 
during whose pastorate the new church building was dedi- 


cated by Rev. Dr. Cobleigh. Rev. J. L. Mann next became 
pastor, remaining one year, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
J. R. Eads, who was followed by Rev. J. B. Ford. In 1872 
the membership of this church was 275. Succeeding pastors 
were Revs. L. H. Carhart, J. F. Goldman, J. J. blanker, 
William McKinley, N. G. Taylor. C. B. Sparrow, R. J. Cooke, 
I. A. Pearce, L. E. Prentiss and T. C. Warner, during whose 
pastorate the present fine church building was dedicated, the 
dedicatory services being conducted by Bishops J. N. Fitz- 
gerald and I. W. Joyce, the former preaching the sermon. 
The old church stood at the corner of Clinch and Prince 
streets, the new one standing at the southeast corner of 
Clinch and Locust streets. This new structure is in the 
Romanesque style of architecture, the plans for which were 
supplied by Weaver & Kramer of Akron, Ohio. It is 71x130 
feet in size, is built of marble, and when the auxiliary rooms 
are thrown open in connection with the auditorium, has a 
seating capacity of 1.800. It cost about $50,000, the larger 
part of which sum was derived from the sale of a house on 
the lot where the building itself stands ($1,000), and the sale 
of the property at Clinch and Prince streets ($35,000). The 
organ in this new building is very fine, consisting of six stops 
of fifty-eight pipes each; the swell organ having six stops, 
four of which have each fifty-eight pipes, one forty-six pipes, 
and one sixty pipes, and the pedal stop, which has twenty- 
seven pipes, or a total number of 713 pipes. There is a 
memorial slab in this church upon which is engraved. "Will- 
iam Gannaway Brownlow, born August 29, 1805, and died 
April 29, 1878." The church was dedicated on Sunday, June 
10. 1894. 

The trustees of the church at the time of the erection of 
this fine edifice were E. W. Adkin. W. A. Galbraith, C. A. 
Benscoter. G. L. Maloney. C. T. Stephenson, S. P. Fowler, 
William Rule, Eugene Young and L. Godfrey. 

After the retirement of Rev. Mr. Warner, who went to the 
Bethany Methodist Episcopal Church of Baltimore. M«L. 


Rev. J. W. Jones became pastor, preaching his first sermon 
August 30, 1896, and still remains. The membership of the 
church at this time (March 1. 1899) is about 700, and of the 
Sunday-school, 350. Of the Sunday-school, C. W. Searle is 
superintendent, and in all there are thirty teachers and offi- 
cers. Prof. C. A. Garratt has charge of the orchestra. The 
library contains 700 volumes, Charles W. Whittle and Frank 
W. Biddle being librarians. The Woman's Home Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church employs Miss Rhoda Sigler as 
deaconness; she devoting all her time to visiting and assisting 
the poor, and receiving a regular salary. 

Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 
1884, and as that year was the "centenary" of organic 
Methodism in America, that name was chosen. This church 
is the successor to the old Mabry Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church, the property of which was sold and the proceeds 
invested in Centenary Church. The present church building 
was completed in 1885, costing about $2,500. The follow- 
ing pastors have served this church: Rev. J. N. Lotspeich, 
October, 1884, to October, 1885; Rev. R. G. Waterhouse, 
October, 1885, to October, 1886; Rev. S. H. Hilliard, Oc- 
tober, 1886, to October, 1889; Rev. J. A. Lyons, October, 
1889, to October, 1891; Rev. J. A. Burrow, 1891 to 1895; 
Rev. J. W. Perry, 1895 to 1897, and Rev. W. R. Bamett, 
1897 to 1899. The present pastor is Rev. C. W. Kelley. 

Centenary Church has two Sunday-schools. The trustees 
of this church hold a lot in the vicinity of Brookside Cotton 
Mills, upon which a church is now (February, 1899) being 
erected, and here for more than a year a Sunday-school has 
been held, formerly in a tent, but now in the unfinished 
church building. It is anticipated that during the present 
year the church building will be completed. Altogether 
there are 350 Sunday-school scholars. The superintendents 
of the two Sunday-schools are Crew Webb and W. C. Pope. 
The entire value of the property owned by the church is 
about $3,500. 


Luttrell Street Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
in the summer of 1889, but in the form of North Knoxville 
.Mission Sunday-school, which was established by Rev. L. E. 
Prentiss of the First or Clinch Street M. E. Church, in Patter- 
son's Hall, at the corner of Broad and Crozier streets, with 
about twenty-five scholars. Rev. J. S. Jones was pastor about 
two months, and was succeeded by Rev. H. J. Van Fossen. 
The church building erected stood at the corner of Luttrell 
and Walnut streets, and cost about $6,500. The auditorium 
was 44x44 feet in size, and the pews arranged in a circular 
form. The class room was 16x30 feet in size and the pastor's 
study 12x12 feet. The church was dedicated December 21, 
1890. Rev. J. S. Jones became pastor of this church in 
1894, and remained until 1897, preaching during his pas- 
torate numerous powerful sermons against sin and vice as he 
saw it in the city, thereby earning the name of the "Knoxville 
Parkhurst." After Rev. Mr. Jones retired from this pulpit 
to take charge of temperance work he was succeeded by the 
present pastor. Rev. J. M. Melear, who preached his first 
sermon here on October 3, 1897. The membership of the 
church at the present time is 215, and of the Sunday-school, 
of which YY. C. Bradley is superintendent, is 250. The value 
of the church property is now $6,000. 

The East Main Street Methodist Episcopal Church was 
established in the following manner: On February 7, 1893, 
Miss Rhoda Sigler, at the suggestion of Rev. T. C. Warner, 
went into East Knoxville to seek a place for the establish- 
ment of a mission, and found next day a vacant store on 
Mabry street, which she rented for the purpose. In this store 
religious services were held for nearly four years, and at the 
close of protracted services a Sunday-school was organized 
and also an Epworth League. In 1896 ground was broken 
for a new church building, on the very spot where Matthias 
Householder had many a time stood and prayed for the 
erection of a church thereon for his children and grandchil- 
dren, and in this church building religious services were held 


for the first time July 12 of that year, but in the basement, as 
the auditorium was not then completed. The new building 
was dedicated February 7, 1897, by Rev. Dr. Moore and on 
that day $400 was raised to liquidate the indebtedness of the 
society. At that time the trustees of the church were J. L. 
Falconer, John Davis, J. L. Householder, W. D. Sanders, 
S. H. Scott and Frank Biddle. The pastors of this church 
have been Rev. J. M. Durham, from 1895 to 1898; Rev. 
Robert Parham, 1898-99. and Rev. I. H. Miller, 1899 to the 
present time. The membership of the church is now sixty- 
four, an increase of twenty-seven in the four months closing 
March 10, 1899; the Sunday-school has no members, an 
increase of sixty within the same time, the superintendent 
being Thomas Pettie, and the church property is worth 
$4,000. On the left side of the altar of this church is a large 
marble tablet to the memory of Matthias Householder, a 
devoted Methodist and a religious man, and in the center of 
the tablet is placed his photograph. 

The Asylum Street Methodist Episcopal Church was or- 
ganized in 1885. with about twenty-five members. A church 
building was erected on Asylum street and Deaderick 
street, which cost about $5,500. It is of brick and is often 
called the "Red Cross Church," because in the roof there are 
slates painted red in the form of a cross. The pastors of this 
church have been as follows: Rev. J. J. Robinet, D. D., and 
Rev. Mr. Holden in 1885 and 1886; Rev. T. W. Salt. 1887; 
Rev. J. A. Ruble. 1888-89; Rev. J. N. Kendall part of 1890, 
Rev. Mr. Holden filling out the term; Rev. William C. 
Miller, 1891-92; Rev. E. C. Avis, [893-94; Rev. I. H. Miller, 
1894-98, and Rev. W. A. Saville, D. D.. Ph. D., 1898 to the 
present time. The present membership of the church is 320, 
and of the Sunday-school, of which J. C. Roberts is superin- 
tendent, is 200. The church property, including the parson- 
age, which is worth $1,500, is worth $8,000. 

Logan Chapel. M. E. Church (colored), was established 
in 1865 by the Rev. A. E. Anderson, who remained until 


1869. His successor was Rev. J. P. Jay, who remained two 
years, and was followed by Rev. H. De Bose. In 1873 there 
were 160 communicants in this church. For some years a 
small building served the purposes of this congregation; but 
in 1885 a new and larger building became a necessity, and 
it was begun in December of that year, being completed in 
September. 1886. It is located on what was then called 
Reservoir street, now Commerce street, just below State 
street. It is 54x85 feet in size, and has a seating capacity of 
nearly 1,000. at the time of its being completed being the 
third largest in the United States owned by colored people. 
It was dedicated September 19, 1886, by Rev. A. L. Cowan 
of Maryville, the pastor at the time being Rev. A. G. Warner. 
He was succeeded in 1887 by Rev. A. Walters, who remained 
until succeeded by F. R. White. The succeeding pastors 
have been Revs. R. T. Anderson, J. H. Manley, F. M. Jacobs, 
E. D. W. Jones, F. R. White, F. M. Jacobs, F.'R. White and 
W. B. Fenderson, present pastor. The membership of this 
church at the present time is 600. and of the Sunday-school, 
250. The church property is valued at $10,000. 

The Clinton Street M. E. Church (colored), located on 
Clinton near Asylum street, was established in 1881, and a 
frame chapel building erected at a cost of about $2,000. The 
pastors of this church have been as follows: Revs. A. L. 
Green, Lewis Baker, William Walton, A. S. Monroe, B. J. 
Jones, T. J. Braxton. H. B. Moss. G. W. Brazelton, G. W. 
Hampton and the present pastor. F. R. White. The mem- 
bership is now about 450, and of the Sunday-school. 150. 
The property is worth about $2,000. 

Other colored Methodist Episcopal churches are the First, 
on Mabry street; Little Zion, at 203 McGhee street, and St. 
Paul's Independent M. E. Church, on Patton street, among 
the pastors of which have been Revs. R. H. Miles, J. W. 
Valentine, R. A. Payne. A. Lindsey. and J. W. Randolph, the 
latter of whom recently resigned, leaving the church without 
a pastor at the time. 


St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church was really estab- 
lished by Rev. T. W. Humes, in March, 1844. who was then 
a candidate for the ministry, and who began to serve as lay 
reader on Sunday mornings. On June 9, following. Rev. 
Charles Tomes of New York, by appointment of the bishop, 
took charge of the parish, conducting the services at first in 
a dwelling house, but soon afterward transferred them to a 
small building at the corner of Gay and Church streets, do- 
nated for the purpose by Andrew R. Humes. This building, 
neatly fitted up as a chapel, was used for about two years, 
and in the meantime the corner stone of a new church edi- 
fice was laid with appropriate and impressive ceremonies by 
the bishop of the diocese on July 22, 1845. The location of 
this church is at the southeast corner of Cumberland and Wal- 
nut streets. Rev. T. \Y. Humes about this time became 
assistant to the rector. Rev. Mr. Tomes, who remained until 
September 21, 1846, when he resigned, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. Mr. Humes, who remained rector of the church, 
with the exception of two years in the early part of the war, 
until 1869, those two years being filled in by Rev. William 
Vaux of London. Rev. William Graham succeeded to the 
rectorship in January, 1869, remaining until the fall of 1870. 
when he was succeeded by the Rev. John Howard-Smith, 
who remained nearly four years. Rev. Thomas Duncan was 
the next rector, and he remained nearly six years. Rev. Mr. 
Duncan was succeeded by Rev. H. M. Morrell, D. D., who 
remained until 1887. when the present rector. Rev. S. S. 
Ringgold, took charge. His has been a very successful 
rectorship and the present membership is about 425. The 
Sunday-school contains 200 scholars, and is under the super- 
intendency of James Maynard. The value of the church 
property is estimated at $100,000. 

The Church of the Epiphany, Protestant Episcopal, was 
organized in the following manner: In 1867 Rev. T. W. 
Humes, then rector of St. John's Church, invited Rev. Will- 
iam Mowbrav to assist him in his church, having in view at 



the same time the establishment of a mission in North Knox- 
ville. Early in October of this year services were held by 
Rev. Mr. Mowbray at Gray Cemetery, only a few persons 
being present. Afterward the use of a brick mill was granted 
to these few worshipers by Col. C. M. McGhee, the mill 
standing on Broad street. North Knoxville at that time 
contained but one Episcopalian, and that a lady, and there 
was one prayer-book only that conld be found. Mr. Mow- 
bray, under the circumstances, experienced considerable diffi- 
culty in organizing his church, but by holding meetings in 
the evening at different houses he succeeded at length in 
awakening an interest, and on October 22, 1867, at a meet- 
ing in the brick mill, a subscription was started for the pur- 
pose of building a church. A building committee was ap- 
pointed, and a contract signed February 27, 1868, the work 
was begun March 4. the corner-stone was laid March 28, the 
church was completed June 21, and dedicated June 29, 
1868, by Rev. Mr. Mowbray. The first meeting to organize 
the church was held December 22, 1868. and Rev. Mr. Mow- 
bray was chosen rector. When Rev. Mr. Mowbray went to 
Chattanooga the church was served by Rev. Dr. Humes, and 
in July, 1872, Mr. Mowbray returned. He then remained 
until 1878, when he was succeeded by Rev. A. A. McDon- 
ough, who remained about eight years. The rectors since 
then have been Revs. A. Buchanan, Dr. William Graham, 
T. J. L. Hynes, W. J. Morton and Henry Easter, the present 
rector, who came to the church in November, 1896. This 
church at this time has 126 communicant members, and the 
Sunday-school, of which William H. W. Lucas is superin- 
tendent, has seventy-five scholars. The value of the church 
property is $10,000. 

The First German Evangelical Lutheran Church was or- 
ganized October 12, 1869, Rev. John Heckel of Mendota, 
111., being induced by Hon. W. A. Passavant of Pittsburg. 
Pa., to visit Knoxville to look after the spiritual welfare of 
this class of Christians, ami an organization was effected in 


the hall over the store of Peter Kern, at the corner of Prince 
and Union streets. A constitution was drawn up and signed 
by twenty-two members, and the first board of church of- 
ficers was composed of the following gentlemen: Dr. Goetz, 
Charles Baum, trustees; J. A. Aurin, St., and Stephen G. 
Fuchs, elders, and Ferdinand Aurin and Peter Kern, stew- 
ards. Rev. Mr. Heckel became the pastor and immediately 
took steps looking toward the erection of a church building, 
a lot having been already purchased by a few of the Germans 
of the place, with the object in view of erecting such an edi- 
fice. Rev. Mr. Heckel entered upon his duties in December, 
1869, services being temporarily held in the "Old Method<st 
Church." and in Hampden-Sidney Academy. In May or 
June, 1870, on the day of Pentecost, the congregation for 
the first time held services in the basement of their new 
church building, which was completed and dedicated in Sep- 
tember following. On the day these services were held a 
debt of $2,200 was almost entirely canceled by subscriptions 
among the congregation, and in 1871 the remaining $100 
due was paid off by the treasurer of the church. In Decem- 
ber, 1872, there were 118 parishioners and 73 communicants. 
In November, 1873, on the first Sunday after October 31, a 
peculiar custom of the German Lutheran Church was cele- 
brated, in commemoration of the 31st of October, 15 17, on 
which day Martin Luther nailed on the door of the Castle 
Church the famous ninety-five declarations in opposition to 
the rule of indulgences and the power of the Pope or priest 
to forgive sins, and an historical sermon was delivered by 
Rev. John Heckel, pastor of the church. Rev. Mr. Heckel 
remained in charge four years, and about eighteen months 
after his retirement he was succeeded by Rev. J. George 
Schaidt, a graduate of the Philadelphia Theological Semi- 
nary. Under his pastorate the church greatly prospered, 
having in 1887 a membership of 180. Rev. Mr. Schaidt re- 
mained until 1881. and during his pastorate a pipe organ was 
purchased. He was succeeded by Rev. John R. Lauritzen, 


who remained until 1892, and it was during his pastorate 
that the unusual scene was witnessed of the admission of a 
Hebrew into a Christian church, this event occurring- July 6, 
1890, John M. Wise being on this day received into the 
church and baptized. In 1892 Rev. J. A. Friedrich became 
pastor of this church, remaining until the present time. 

St. John's English Lutheran Church was incorporated Jan- 
uary 13, 1890, by J- A. Henson, J. C. Kinsel, P. C. Ottinger, 
Uriah Krider, David L. Smith and M. M. Newcomer, "for 
the purpose of worshiping Almighty God in accordance 
with the doctrines of the Bible as taught by the English 
Lutheran Church." The number of members of this church 
at the time of organization, in December, 1888, was twenty- 
seven, and a church edifice, together with the lot on which 
it stood, was purchased from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, at a cost of $6,060, and since then there has 
been spent upon the building $2,000 additional. This church 
building was dedicated June 7, 1890, by Revs. A. J. Brown, 
D. D., and Edward T. Horn, D. D. The Rev. L. K. Probst 
was the first pastor of the church and was succeeded by Rev. 
R. B. Peer)-, Ph. D., as supply. The next supply was the 
present pastor, Rev. A. D. R. Hancher, each of these two 
pastors remaining five weeks. Then Rev. George S. Diven 
was supply for five months, and then Rev. Mr. Hancher was 
called to the pastorate, accepting the call May 7, 1893, re_ 
maining to the present time. There are now eighty-six com- 
municant members, and in the Sunday-school, of which Prof. 
Cooper D. Schmitt is superintendent, there are sixty-five 

The First Welsh Congregational Church was organized in 
this manner: In April, 1866, five Welshmen named Joseph 
and David Richards, Daniel Thomas, and John and Daniel 
Jones, paid a visit to Knoxville, and being pleased with the 
place determined to make it their home. Handing their 
letters to the Second Presbyterian Church, they became 
members of that congregation, and in June following their 


families, together with other Welsh people, came to Knox- 
ville, and also gave in their letters to the same church. In 
July they formed a prayer meeting of their own, continuing 
to hold meetings of this kind for about three and a half 
years, still retaining their membership in the Second Presby- 
terian Church. 

About June, 1869, they decided to organize a church so- 
ciety and erect a building of their own, a lot being donated 
to them by Col. C. M. McGhee and the Knoxville Iron 
Company, near the corner of McGhee and Atkin streets. In 
the basement of their new building erected on this lot, ser- 
vices were held on October 24, 1869, for the first time, and 
the members then withdrew from the Second Presbyterian 
Church, forming a congregation of their own under the name 
given above. The following officers were elected: Trus- 
tees and deacons— Joseph Richards, John Jones and Thomas 
Davis; secretary, David Lewis, and treasurer. William J. 
Richards. On February 12, 1870, Rev. Thomas Thomas 
reached Knoxville, having come here direct from Wales, was 
called to the pastorate, and filled that position for nearly two 
years, about thirty members being admitted to the church. 
In April, 1872, Rev. R. D. Thomas came to Knoxville from 
Pennsylvania and became pastor in September following, at 
which time there were fifty members. He added thirty mem- 
bers, and had a flourishing congregation; but the building 
was not completed until 1875. Rev. R. D. Thomas returned 
to this church in 1877, having been absent two years, and 
remained pastor the second time until 1882, when he resigned. 
In November, 1883, he was succeeded by Rev. D. D. Davis, 
who remained until December, 1885, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Robert D. Thomas, who this time remained until 1890, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. L. Lake. In April, 1895, at a 
meeting of the congregation, it was resolved that thereafter 
services be held in English only, and that the name of the 
church be changed to the First Congregational Church. Rev. 
T. Francis Davies, who had for some time been located in 


Lima, Ohio, came to Knoxville and began his labors as pas- 
tor of this church on Sunday, July 7, 1895. In January, 
1896, the plans for a new church edifice were completed, 
which was to be erected at the corner of Oak and Atkins 
streets. Toward the erection of this new building $10,000 
was raised by March 15. 1896. Rev. Mr. Davies resigned his 
pastorate in June, 1896, to accept a call to the First Congre- 
gational Church of Springfield, 111., and was succeeded by 
Rev. G. James Jones July 12 following. March 5, 1897, 
this church was received in the Union Presbytery of the 
synod of Tennessee, and thus became a Presbyterian church, 
known since that time as the Atkin Street Presbyterian 
Church. June 2~, 1897, R ev - Mr. Jones resigned his pas- 
torate here to accept the presidency of a college and the 
pastorate of a church in Wisconsin, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Dr. W. S. Pryse from that state. Rev. Dr. Pryse re- 
signed in December, 1898, to accept a call to a Presbyterian 
church in Humboldt, Nebraska. 

The Pilgrim Congregational Church is somewhat of an 
exotic in the South, and for this reason it may be permissible 
to briefly set forth what Congregationalism is and has done 
for the country. This church at large represents the Pil- 
grims and Puritans, who came hither from England in the 
seventeenth century. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, 
Mass.. in 1620, the Puritans came in 1628, to Massachusetts 
Bay. Each sought freedom to -worship God, and they soon 
merged into one body. In 1628 the First Church of Salem 
was organized, and in 1630 the First Church of Boston. New 
England thus became the home of Congregationalism. From 
that source its colonies have gone abroad, carrying along their 
distinctive doctrines and zeal for personal liberty and gen- 
erous education. The bravest and best men known among 
our settlers were among the Pilgrims and Puritans. Con- 
gregationalism gave the country the common school, and 
the most noted among American institutions of learning, 
viz.: Harvard, Yale. Dartmouth, Williams, Bowdoin and 


Amherst, owe their origin to these people. From New Eng- 
land Congregationalism spread to the West and Northwest. 
Its recognition of individual rights, its vigor in earnest mis- 
sionary work, its faith in the Bible as the word of God, its 
harmony with the doctrines on which all evangelical denom- 
inations are agreed, its breadth of purpose and readiness to 
enter upon new work, are all characteristic features of this 

In the Southern states Congregationalism has as yet but 
limited representation: but its polity is adapted to the spirit 
of independency and soundness of faith which are the strong- 
est features of Southern character. And these characteristics 
would seem to be the strongest prophecy of its future growth 
and development in this section of the country. 

Pilgrim Congregational Church was organized in June, 
1886. by Superintendent C. C. Creegan, the organization 
being the result of a visit to Knoxville of about six weeks' 
duration of Rev. John H. Frazee, who came here at the 
request of the Congregational Board of Home Missions. 
Rev. Mr. Frazee was at the time settled in New York and 
could not then well come to Knoxville, hence Rev. Lyman E. 
Hood became pastor of the church, and remained from Sep- 
tember, 1886, until March, 1887. In December, 1886, the 
church was fully organized with twenty-three members. Ser- 
vices were held in the rooms of the Young Men's Christian 
Association and several other public halls, but at length the 
society erected a church building at the corner of Vine and 
Broad streets, the edifice being of brick and having a seating 
capacity of about four hundred. It is a unique structure, 
having the modern features of annex rooms for Sunday- 
school and social purposes. The building was formally 
opened for. services September 27, 1891, and the cost of the 
building and lot on which it stands was about $15,000, hav- 
ing been erected in "boom" times. 

In June, 1887. the present pastor. Rev. J. H. Frazee, re- 
turned to the church, and after a short residence in Knox- 


ville the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by the 
University of Tennessee. The membership of the church is 
now (January I, 1899) nearly one hundred, having been re- 
cently reduced somewhat by restrictions in business and re- 
movals. The Sunday-school and Bible classes have a mem- 
bership of about fifty. The superintendent of the Sunday- 
school is Samuel C. Roney. The value of the church 
property at the present time is about $12,000. 

The Second Congregational Church (colored) is located at 
627 Mabry street, where the society owns quite a fine frame 
church building. 

The First Church of Christ had its origin in 1870, when 
a few people, believing in the doctrines of the Bible as 
taught by Alexander Campbell, began holding meetings in 
rooms hired for the purpose and in private dwellings from 
time to time for Bible study and prayer. Their number hav- 
ing sufficiently increased they united in a covenant to worship 
God according to the Holy Scripture on September 6, 1874, 
under the direction of L. H. Stine, a young minister then 
just out of Bethany College, West Virginia. They became 
a regularly organized congregation with A. C. Bruce as 
elder and N. R. Hall and George T. Rhoades as deacons. 
At this time there were eighteen of them, but this number 
gradually increased until in 1887 there were seventy-six 
names on the roll of membership, and their officers were N. 
R. Hall and Lewis Tillman, elders, and T. P. McDaniel, 
George T. Rhoades, and M. O. Cooley, deacons. Up to that 
time they had had but about two years of preaching, owing 
to the difficulty of supporting regular ministers; but the 
elders during the other years conducted services and the 
congregation met almost every Sunday, as did also the Sun- 
day-school. The ministers who had preached to this congre- 
gation previous to the last mentioned year were E. F. Tay- 
lor. A. S. Johnson and N. G. Jacks. 

For some years the congregation met at the corner of 
Depot and Broad streets, then at their church on McGhee 


street, and finally, in 1886, they erected a neat frame church 
edifice at the northeast corner of Gay and Park streets, which 
has a round tower, cathedral windows in front and a seating 
capacity of 500. Since the erection of this new building the 
ministers of this church have been as follows: S. Turner 
Willis, from June, 1887, to October, 1888; Gilbert J. Ellis, a 
few months in 1889; Henry ,W. Stewart, the latter part of 
1890: J. B. Briney from April, 1892, to April, 1893; J. B. 
Mayfield, from June 1, 1893 to February, 1895; R. M. Gid- 
dens, from November 1, 1895, to September, 1897, and Rob- 
ert Stewart, from August 1, 1S98, until the present time. 
When the church was without ministers the elders thereof 
conducted Sunday services and Sunday-school work. The 
present membership is about 100 and of the Sunday-school 
about 50. This church is now known as the Park Street 
Christian Church. 

The Third Christian Church was organized October 13, 
1896, with fifty-three members. Rev. J. P. Holmes became 
pastor at the time of the organization of the church, and 
has remained ever since. The membership at the present 
time is 143, and of the Sunday-school, of which T. A. Hays 
is superintendent, seventy-five. The congregation is wor- 
shiping in Prince's Hall, on the corner of Asylum and 
Arthur streets, and a fund is being collected with which to 
purchase a lot and build a church, both of which will be done 
as soon as the fund is sufficiently large. 

The Ramsey Memorial Church, unique in its history, was 
organized in 1889. The movement leading up to the estab- 
lishment of this church was conducted by A. G. Scott, whose 
desire was, as was the desire of those associated with him in 
the movement, to establish a church which should be prac- 
tically free from doctrinal teaching. In the summer of 1889 
a few names were secured to a paper proposing the establish- 
ment of a church of this kind, but for some time prominent 
men hesitated to sign because the name "Southern," or 
"Northern" was not placed before the name of the proposed 


church, those approached being in some cases Presbyterians 
or Methodists or Baptists. At length in the fall of the year 
mentioned, Rev. R. N. Thompson, D. D., held a series of 
revival meetings in the Third Presbyterian Church, and a 
short time before he was to leave the city he was driven over 
the ground occupied by Fort Sanders during the late Civil 
war, and remarked: "I see everything here except some- 
thing for the Lord — schools, electric lights, street cars, etc. 
Mr. Scott informed Rev. Mr. Thompson of the efforts he had 
made to establish an undenominational church, and seeing 
about ioo young men playing base-ball near the Woolen 
mills. Mr. Thompson offered to remain three weeks in case 
a suitable room could be secured for holding meetings. The 
Highland Avenue school-house was secured and meetings 
were held, during which meetings the money was raised to 
build a church, which was erected complete in precisely two 
weeks, and was occupied on the fifteenth day from that on 
which its construction was begun. This church, used ever 
since, stands on the corner of Highland and Eighth avenues, 
in what was formerly West Knoxville. 

The church was organized December 24, 1889, and then 
named Ramsey Memorial Church, in honor of W. B. A. Ram- 
sey, who was secretary of state of Tennessee for eight years, 
his daughter having donated the lot on which the church 
building stands. Rev. R. N. Thompson was called to the 
pulpit and accepted the call, with the understanding that no 
doctrinal sermon should be preached, this understanding hav- 
ing obtained with each subsequent minister. Members of 
seven different churches became members of this church at 
the time of its organization, and hence it is plain that only the 
essential doctrines of Christian faith can be insisted upon, as 
faith, repentance, prayer, and the guidance of the Holy Spirit. 
At the time of Dr. Thompson's retirement, in 1892, there 
were 155 members. His successor was Rev. Dr. W. L. 
Richardson, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, who remained until 1895, and was succeeded in 1895 


by Rev. I. A. Pierce, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, who remained until June, 1898, and on September 1, 
1898, Rev. Dr. R. R. Sutherland became pastor, he being' 
from Danville, Ky. At the present time (November, 1898) 
there are 140 members in this church, and in the Sunday- 
school, of which W. B. Henderson is superintendent, there 
are 130 scholars. The church building is capable of seating 
about 450 persons. 

The First Universalist Church of Knoxville was estab- 
lished in 1895, services being held in the Harris building on 
March 10, that year, by Rev. W. H. McGlauflin of Harriman. 
At the conclusion of this meeting a committee was appointed 
to prepare a constitution and by-laws of church government, 
looking to the organization of a church of this denomination 
in this city. The committee consisted of Mrs. E. M. Brown, 
Mrs. Washburn, C. F. Borden, C. A. Greenwood, Mr. Estes, 
Mr. Heabler and Rev. Mr. McGlauflin, the latter gentleman 
having been preaching in Knoxville occasionally for those 
who accepted the doctrine of universal salvation. Arrange- 
ments were then made by which the reverend gentleman 
should in future preach here twice each month. In Febru- 
ary, 1896, Rev. O. H. Shinn and Rev. G. S. Weaver, D. D.; 
conducted a series of meetings with the view and hope of 
strengthening the society and ultimately erecting a church 
edifice, which they felt confident would be done. In order 
to enlighten the people of Knoxville, to whom the doctrines 
of this denomination were little known, Rev. Mr. Shinn 
said: "We believe more, not less; we believe in a God of 
eternal love, not a Father of vindictiveness; we believe in 
Christ's victory, not defeat." Rev. Mr. Weaver and Rev. Mr. 
McGlauflin held services in Harris's block. On June 21, 
1896, Rev. C. S. McWhorter of Baltimore, an able lay min- 
ister of the Universalist Church, addressed the Universal- 
ists of Knoxville in Patterson's Hall, one of his subjects 
being: "Does the Bible teach endless punishment?" Mr. 
McWhorter answered this question most emphatically in the 


negative. He said that St. James' version of the Bible was a 
collation of other translations, and while it is in the main 
correct, yet it should be remembered that the translators 
had a preconceived belief in favor of eternal punishment, and 
that they could not always be depended upon. He gave as 
instances three words: Everlasting, damnation, and hell, 
not one of which he said ought to stand in the English Bible, 
because they are mistranslations, etc. 

In July, 1896, Rev. Richard M. Smith preached for this 
church on the same lines as those mentioned above in con- 
nection with the ministrations of Mr. McWhorter. In No- 
vember following, Rev. Harry L. Veasey became pastor of 
the church, remaining here until 1898, when he went away, 
having been the only regular pastor to serve the congrega- 
tion; but the organization is still maintained. 

The Unitarian Church of Knoxville was organized Febru- 
ary 17, 1895, by Rev. Henry Westall, though the Unitarians 
had previously held meetings among themselves, and had 
listened to sermons delivered by Rev. Seth Saltmarsh; by Mrs. 
Ednah Dow Cheney, who preached November 4, 1894; by 
Mrs. Botume; Miss Channing, daughter of the great Chan- 
ning; Mrs. Bigelow of Massachusetts, and Mrs. L. C. French, 
at whose home at No. 620 Cumberland avenue. West, meet- 
ings were for some time held. When the organization was 
effected, as above narrated, about twenty members joined, 
mostly Northern people, and the church continued to pros- 
per for about two years, meeting sometimes in private houses 
and sometimes in public halls. When their numbers became 
too few to enable them to hire public halls, they met at the 
home of Mrs. J. C. Tyler, on West Clinch street, and finally 
ceased altogether to hold meetings, some time in 1897. after 
about eighteen months of labor in the city, which is not 
ready for Unitarian doctrines. 

Beth El Congregation (Reformed) was organized about 
1866 with twenty-five members, which number is now re- 
duced to fourteen. Religious worship has been conducted 


in different halls from that time, except since the last Hebrew 
New Year's day, in September, 1898. Those who have acted 
as rabbis have been numerous, mostly young men from the 
Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati, Ohio. While Julius 
Ochs was a resident of Knoxville he delivered the weekly 
sermon, but since then there has been no regular pastor. 
The officers at the present time are E. Samuels, president; 
J. Spiro, vice-president; F. Heart, secretary, and L. David, 
treasurer; trustees: A. Arnstein, A. Lobenstein, D. Blaufield. 

Haske Hamuna Congregation (Orthodox Hebrew) was 
organized in September, 1890, by L. Schwartz, and with ten 
members, which number has increased to thirty. The first 
Rabbi of the congregation was Rabbi Michaelof, who re- 
mained from 1890 to 1 89 1 ; the second was Louis Tigris, who 
remained from 1891 to 1894; and the third, Isaac Winnick, 
who came in 1894, and still remains. The property of this 
congregation is located on the corner of Mabry and Temper- 
ance streets, and consists of a large lot on which is a mod- 
erate-sized frame building used as a synagogue and residence 
for the Rabbi. It cost $2,000, all of which has been paid 
except $800. It is now the design to build a new synagogue 
during the year, 1899, to cost, perhaps, $2,000. The officers 
at this time are as follows: L. Schwartz, president; H. Kreitz- 
man. vice-president; Solomon Kreitzman, secretary; and 
Mauritz Deutsch. treasurer. The trustees are I. Volinski, 
B. Jaffa and D. Coplin. 

The First Church of Christian Scientists made application 
for a charter December 21, 1898, the incorporators being 
Mrs. Harry H. Ainsworth, Emma A. Thurston, Charles A. 
Ralston, Addie B. Moore and Calvin Humphreys. The char- 
ter filed specifies that the organization seeks all the privileges 
and rights of a religious organization granted under the con- 
stitution of the state, its principal object being to heal the 
sick as Jesus' disciples healed, and as taught in their text 
book, "Science and Health, with the Key to the Scriptures," 
by Mary G. Eddy. 




First Court in Tennessee — First Court in Knoxville, 1792 — The Courts of 
Knox County and Judges who Held Them — Courts of Chancery — 
Clerks of the Courts — Sketches of Members of the Knoxville Bar 
in the Past Hundred Years. 

THE first ever held in Tennessee consisted of five mem- 
bers: John Sevier, John Carter, Zach Isbell, Charles 
Robertson and James Robertson. It continued to ex- 
ercise authority from 1772 until 1777, in April of which year 
the general assembly of North Carolina established courts of 
pleas and quarter sessions, and passed laws for the appointing 
and commissioning of justices of the peace and sheriffs for 
the several courts in the district of Washington, as the 
Watauga county was then called. In 1777 the district of 
Washington was organized into a county. The courts of 
pleas and quarter sessions had original jurisdiction in all 
cases when the debt exceeded £5, in all misdemeanors of an 
inferior nature, etc., and appellate jurisdiction in all cases 
tried before a jingle justice. The court was composed of 
all the magistrates within its jurisdiction, but any three of 
them were authorized to transact the business of the court. 
The first court of this kind in Washington county, then 
a part of Salisbury district, met in February, 1778. In 1782 
the district of Salisbury was divided and the district of Mor- 
gan, including Washington and Sullivan counties, established, 
its first court session being held in August of the latter year, 
and the Hon. Spence McCay presiding. This court, how- 
ever, failed to accomplish the purpose for which it was 
created, and soon afterward the general assembly of North 
Carolina organized the counties of Washington, Sullivan, 




Davidson and Greene into a judicial district, and appointed 
an assistant judge and an attorney general for the superior 
court. This court was directed to be held at Jones- 

In May. 1788, courts were held under the authority of 
North Carolina in Greeneville. and the following lawyers 
admitted to practice: Andrew Jackson, John McNairy, David 
Allison, Archibald Roane and Joseph Hamilton. In 1792 
the governor of the territory removed the seat of his gov- 
ernment to White's Fort, now Knoxville, and the first session 
of the court of pleas and quarter sessions for Knox county 
was held here July 16, of that year, James White being the 
chairman, and there being' four other justices. The following- 
named lawyers were admitted to practice: Luke (Lew?) 
Bowyer. Alexander Outlaw, Joseph Hamilton, Archibald 
Roane, Hopkins Lacy. John Rhea and James Reese. 

When the territory south of the Ohio river was organized, 
the courts were permitted to remain practically as they had 
been, while this country was governed by North Carolina, 
and the two judges of the superior court — David Campbell 
and John McNairy — were reappointed by the President, 
and Joseph Anderson was added as the third judge. Judge 
McNairy. however, does not appear to have taken any active 
part in administrative affairs, as authorized by the act of 
congress creating the territory. These three judges held 
their offices until the state was admitted into the Union, in 

Among the remarkable facts connected with the first con- 
stitution of Tennessee one was that it established no courts, 
leaving that duty to the legislature: and the first general 
assembly of the state, which assembled at Knoxville March 
28. 1796, established a superior court of law and equity and 
courts of pleas and quarter sessions, defining their jurisdiction 
and modes of procedure, which did not materially differ from 
those of the courts previously existing under the authority 
i if North Carolina and the territory. 


Congress passed an act January 31, 1797, making the 
state a judicial district. Under the act of April, 1796, estab- 
lishing the superior court, John McNairy, Archibald Roane, 
and Willie Blount were elected judges. Blount declined to 
serve, and in his stead \Y. C. C. Claiborne was appointed 
September 2, 1796. McNairy resigned to accept the federal 
judgeship, and to succeed him Howell Tatum was appointed 
in May, 1797. McNairy served as district judge until 1834, 
and was succeeded by Morgan \Y. Brown, who served until 
1853, being then succeeded by "West H. Humphreys. In 
1861 Judge Humphreys accepted the office of confederate 
states judge for Tennessee, was impeached by the house 
of Representatives at Washington, and was convicted and 
deposed by the senate. Connolly F. Trigg was appointed 
by President Lincoln, in Jul}*, 1862, serving until his death 
in 1880, and being succeeded by D. M. Key, appointed in 
August of that year by the President and holding the position 
until his retirement January 26, 1894. His successor was 
Charles D. Clark, the present judge. 

November 16, 1809. an act was passed abolishing the 
superior court, and establishing circuit courts, and a supreme 
court of errors and appeals. The judges of the superior court 
were as follows: David Campbell. 1797 to 1807: Andrew- 
Jackson. 1798 to 1804; Samuel Powell, 1807 to 1809; John 
Overton, 1804 to 1809; Parry W. Humphreys, 1807 to 1809; 
Hugh L. White. 1801 to 1807; Thomas Emmerson. 1807 
to 1809. 

The act of November 16, 1809, mentioned above, as estab- 
lishing circuit courts, established five circuit courts for the 
state, each court to consist of one judge, and to be held 
twice annually in each county. The circuit court was given 
the same jurisdiction in all matters of common law and 
equity as previously belonged to the superior court; it had 
exclusive jurisdiction in criminal cases, and appellate juris- 
diction in case from the court of pleas and quarter sessions. 
The judge and solicitor-general were elected by a joint vote 


of the general assembly. The second circuit was composed 
of the following counties: Anderson, Bledsoe, Blount, Cocke, 
Jefferson, Knox. Rhea. Roane and Sevier. 

The supreme court of errors and appeals under this act 
consisted of two judges in error and one circuit judge, and 
was to be held annually at Jonesboro, Knoxville, Carthage, 
Nashville and Clarksville. This court had only appellate 
jurisdiction. The judges of this court were Hugh L. White, 
1809 to 1815; George W. Campbell. 1809 to 181 1; John 
Overton, 181 1 to 1816; W. W. Cooke, October 19, 1815 
to 1816. and Archibald Roane, 1815 to 1818. In 1815 the 
number of judges of the supreme court was increased to 
three, Archibald Roane being appointed as the third judge. 
In 1823 a fourth judge was added, and in 1824 a fifth. Shortly 
afterward, however, the number was reduced to four, as it 
remained until 1834, when a new constitution was adopted. 
Under this constitution there was established a supreme 
court, of which William B. Turlev, William B. Reese and 
Nathan Greene were elected judges. Judge Reese resigned 
in 1848. Judge Turley in 1850 and Judge Greene in 1852. 
Their places were severally filled by the election of Robert 
J. McKinney, A. W. O. Totten and Robert L. Caruthers, 
all three of whom were elected again in 1853. Judge Totten, 
who resigned in 1855, was succeeded by William R. Harris, 
who, upon his death in 1858, was succeeded by Archibald 
Wright. Upon the resignation of Judge Caruthers in 1861, 
William F. Cooper was elected to the vacancy thus caused. 
During the Civil war no term of this court was held, and 
when the war ceased Governor Brownlow declared the 
supreme bench, appointing thereto Samuel Milligan, J. O. 
Shackleford, and Alvin Hawkins. Judge Shackleford re- 
signed in 1867, Horace H. Harrison holding the office about 
a vear, when Judge Shackleford was reappointed. In 1868 
Milligan and Hawkins resigned, their places being filled by 
the appointment of Henry G. Smith and George Andrews. 
In May, 1869, George Andrews, Andrew McLain and Alvin 


Hawkins were elected judges of this court, serving until the 
new constitution of 1870 went into effect. 

Because of the suspension of this court during the four 
years of the Civil war and the large accumulation of litiga- 
tion growing out of the war. the dockets of the supreme 
court were much crowded when the constitutional conven- 
tion met in 1870. It was therefore ordered that temporarily 
there should be six judges of the supreme court, two from 
each grand division of the state; but that after the first 
vacancy occurring after January I, 1873, the court should 
consist of five members only. The members of the court 
elected in 1870 were: From East Tennessee, Thomas A. R. 
Nelson and James \Y. Deaderick; from Middle Tennessee, 
A. O. P. Nicholson and Peter Turney, and from West Ten- 
nessee, John L. T. Sneed and Thomas J. Freeman. Judge 
Nelson resigned December 5, 1871, and was succeeded by 
Robert McFarland. Judge Nicholson, who was chief justice 
from the establishment of the court, died March 23, 1876, 
and was succeeded by James W. Deaderick. In 1878 all 
the members of the court were re-elected except Judge Sneed, 
who was succeeded by William F. Cooper, and four of these 
judges served the full term. Judge Deaderick being chief 
justice. Judge McFarland died in October, 1884, and was 
succeeded by J. B. Cooke, by appointment. 

In 1886 the following court was chosen: Peter Turney and 
W. C. Caldwell for the state at large; D. L. Snodgrass for 
East Tennessee; Horace H. Lurton for Middle Tennessee, 
and W. C. Folkes for West Tennessee. Judge Folkes died in 
1890, and was succeeded by W. D. Beard of Memphis, wdio 
served until the August election of that year, when B. J. 
Lea was elected. Upon the death of Chief Justice Lea, in 
1894, Judge Snodgrass became chief justice, the former chief 
justices having been Judge Turney and Judge Lurton. In 
January, 1893. Judge Turney having been elected governor, 
his place on the bench was filled by the appointment of John 
S. Wilkes, and when Judge Lurton accepted the United 


States circuit judgeship his place was filled by the appoint- 
ment of W. K. McAlister, April 1, 1893. Upon the death of 
Judge Lea in 1894, the vacancy thus caused was filled by 
the appointment of A. D. Bright. 

In 1894 the following gentlemen were elected to the bench 
of the supreme bench: For East Tennessee, D. L. Snodgrass, 
who was re-elected chief justice; for Middle Tennessee, John 
S. Wilkes; for West Tennessee, W. D. Beard, and for the 
state at large, W. C. Caldwell and W. E. McAlister. 

It was soon discovered that even the enlarged supreme 
court could not dispose of the cases in arrears on the docket, 
and in 1873 temporary courts with limited powers were 
created to assist in the work, the first of these courts being 
the arbitration court of Middle Tennessee, which expired by 
limitation September 1, 1873. In 1875 and in 1877 the 
experiment was tried again, in the latter year being extended 
to West Tennessee. In 1879 a similar court was created 
for East Tennessee, its members being Henry H. Ingersoll, 
J. B. Cooke and William V. Deaderick. 

In 1883 there were created courts of referees, composed of 
three members from each grand division of the state, 
appointed by the judges of the supreme court. These courts 
were authorized and instructed to report on the facts and 
the law of each case, except revenue cases filed in the supreme 
court for their respective divisions before January 1, 1885. 
The members of the court for East Tennessee were John 
Frizell, John L. T. Sneed and S. J. Kirkpatrick. The reports 
of the referees were final unless excepted to in writing with 
assignments of error within fifteen days after they were filed. 

During recent years the appealed cases have steadily grown 
in number, those of the East Tennessee docket having in- 
creased from an average of about two hundred to more than 
five hundred. The labors of the supreme court, therefore, 
are constant and incessant, and for this reason it became 
necessary in 1895 to devise additional means of clearing the 


The court of chancery appeals was therefore created, 
composed of three members, one from each grand division 
of the state. This court hears chancery cases such as may 
be assigned to it by the supreme court, but cannot determine 
causes affecting state revenue. It has only appellate juris- 
diction. Upon all questions of fact its findings are conclusive, 
but on questions of law an appeal in the nature of a writ of 
error to the supreme court may be taken within ten days 
after decree. By every one this court is considered the most 
satisfactory experiment yet made to relieve the supreme 
court. In 1895 R- M- Barton, Jr., was appointed from East 
Tennessee, and was elected in 1896. 

The circuit court, as stated elsewhere in this chapter, 
dates back to 1793. on March 13 of which year Governor 
Blount established the district of Hamilton, including Jeffer- 
son and Knox counties, in which district a superior court of 
law and equity was held at Knoxville twice each year, begin- 
ning on the second Monday of April and October. To trace 
the succession of judges that have held the circuit court with 
anything like accuracy would be a very difficult matter, hence 
it is attempted only to present a tolerably complete and 
accurate list of the judges that have held court in this dis- 
trict, which was denominated the third judicial circuit at 
least from 1853 down to 1870. when the criminal court was 
established. The first judges that held court were John 
McNairy, David Campbell and Joseph Anderson, and suc- 
ceeding them have been Edward Scott, who was judge from 
as early as 1818 and down to 1847; Samuel Powell, from 
1823 to 1838; Charles F. Keith, from 1826 to 1850; Robert 
M. Anderson. 1840 to 1850; S. J. W. Lucky. 1845 to 1847; 
E. Alexander, 1845 to l %5&'< William C. Dunlap, 1846; 
William G. Swan, 1857; Thomas C. Lyon, 1858; George 
Brown, 1859 to 18G3; E. T. Hall. 1865 to 1878; S. A. 
Rodgers, 1878 till Knox county was made a separate circuit. 

In 1885 the judge of the criminal court was authorized by 
law to hold the circuit court, and as Judge S. T. Logan was 


then judge of the criminal court he also held the circuit court 
from 1886 to 1891, but in 1891 the two courts were again 
separated and Joseph W. Sneed was appointed judge of the 
criminal court, presiding in this court until he became judge 
of the circuit court in 1894, succeeding Judge Logan, Judge 
Sneed's term expiring in 1902. 

The clerks of the circuit court have been in part as follows, 
the records in the early part of the century not giving the 
names of all the clerks: I. Hamilton, in 1793, and how long 
is not shown by his record. George M. White was clerk at 
least from 1838 to 1847 anc ' possibly to 1853, when M. L. 
Hall was clerk, serving until he resigned April 11, 1864; 
S. H. Smith, 1864-66; YY. R. McBath, 1866-70; E. W. 
Adkins, 1870-82; William B. Ford, 1882-98, and R. A. 
Brown, 1898-1902. 

The chancery court, first established in what is now Ten- 
nessee by an act of the legislature of North Carolina in 
1784, was a general law and equity court combined. 
In 1787 this court was divided and the chancery branch called 
the court of equity, a clerk and master being appointed for 
each equity court, but both courts being held by the same 

The North Carolina session act of 1790 provided that the 
laws of North Carolina should remain in force in the terri- 
tory until changed by the territorial legislature, and the first 
act of this legislature 1794, chapter 2, section 1, continued 
the superior court as established by North Carolina, and the 
same act confirmed the division of the territory south of the 
River Ohio, into Washington, Hamilton and Mero districts, 
and conferred upon each district a superior court of law and 
equity. Knox county was in Hamilton district. The state 
of Tennessee adopted the same system in April. 1876. 

By an act of the legislature passed in 1809 these superior 
courts were abolished, and a superior court and five circuit 
courts were established, the circuit courts being invested 
with all the original equity jurisdiction of the superior courts. 


In 1811 this equity jurisdiction was taken away from the 
circuit courts and conferred upon the supreme court. In 
1813 the circuit courts were given concurrent jurisdiction 
with the supreme court in equity cases, and in 1822 an act was 
passed to amend the judiciary system of the state, by which 
it was provided that there should be held by one of the 
supreme court judges a court of equity in each of the places 
in which the supreme court was then held in each circuit, 
said courts to be confined entirely to matters of equity. 
Under this act the chancery court was held once a year in 
Rogersville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Sparta, Nashville and 
Columbia, sitting two weeks at each place except at Nash- 
ville, where it sat six weeks. 

In 1824 it was enacted that the chancery court should sit 
twice a year in each circuit, and finally in 1827 it was enacted 
that two chancellors should be elected, the state being 
divided into two chancery divisions, with one chancellor for 
each, having jurisdiction over the entire state, and the right 
to interchange. 

The first legislature under the constitution of 1834 in- 
creased the chancellors to three, since which time the num- 
ber has been enlarged at the will of the legislature. The first 
chancellor under the act of 1827 was Nathan Green, who was 
chancellor of the Eastern district from 1827 to 183 1, the 
second chancellor for this district being William B. Reese, 
who served from 1831 to 1836. The first record found in 
the office of the clerk and master of Knox county is of a 
court held at the court house on Monday, April 16, 1832. 
for the chancery division, composed of Sevier, Knox, Ander- 
son, and Campbell counties, by \Y. B. Reese. W. B. A. 
Ramsey was appointed clerk and master. The next record 
is dated October 15. 1832, on which day R. H. Hynds. 
William Swan, Jacob F. Foute, S. R. Rodgers and E. Alex- 
ander were admitted to practice. 

On April 11. 1S39, the court was presided over by Judge 
Thomas L. Williams, for the sixth chancerv district of the 


Eastern division of Tennessee, and W. B. A. Ramsey was re- 
appointed clerk and master. Chancellor Williams served 
from 1836 to 1854, when he was succeeded by S. J. W. Lucky, 
who held the office'until 1865, in which year S. R. Rodgers 
was appointed and served one year. He was succeeded in 
1866 by Oliver P. Temple, who served until 1878, in which 
year W. B. Staley was elected and served until 1886. Henry 
R. Gibson was then elected and served until 1894, when the 
present incumbent, H. B. Lindsay, was elected, his term 
expiring in 1902. Judge Lindsay's chancery division was 
abolished by the legislature in 1899. 

The clerk and masters of this court have been as follows: 
W. B. A. Ramsey, April 16, 1832 to 1848; Hu. L. McClung, 
appointed January 29, 1848; Samuel A. White, appointed 
October 7, 1857; David A. Deaderick, appointed January 
18, 1859; M. L. Patterson, appointed October 3, 1870; S. 
P. Evans, appointed November 10, 1882; W. L. Trent, 
appointed November 10, 1888; John W. Conner, appointed 
November 10, 1894, and J. F. Chumbley, appointed Decem- 
ber 31, 1898. 

The criminal court for Knox county was established by 
an act of the legislature in 1870, second session, chapter 100, 
which provided that there should be a court in the city of 
Knoxville for the county of Knox, which should "have ex- 
clusive jurisdiction for the indictment, or presentment, trial 
and punishment of all crimes and offenses in said county 
against the state." This court was also given common law 
jurisdiction, the practice and pleadings therein to be the 
same as prescribed for circuit courts. 

In 1873 the style of the court was prescribed as "The 
Criminal court for the District of Knox," and the judge of 
this court was granted the privilege of interchange with 
other judges, and the judges of the criminal court were not 
disqualified from the practice of their profession in other 
courts. In the same year it was also provided that there 
should be a district attornev for the district of Knox and a 


clerk, both of whom should be elected at the regular August 
election. In 1875 it was enacted that there should be three 
terms per year, beginning on the first Monday in January, 
May and September. • 

The first term of this court was begun on Monday, Sep- 
tember 26, 1870, that being the day prescribed by law for 
the first term of the court. Hon. M. L. Hall was judge of 
this court, elected in August preceding, and H. C. Tarwater 
was clerk, he having been elected by a majority of 534 votes. 
Judge Hall's commission was signed by Governor D. W. C. 

The several judges of this court have been Hon. M. L. 
Hall. 1870-86; S. T. Logan. 1886-91; Joseph W. Sneed, 
1891-94; and T. A. R. Nelson, the present incumbent, elected 

The district attorneys have been as follows: J. M. Thorn- 
burgh. 1870-72; John M. Fleming, 1872-73; J. C. J. Williams, 
1873-78: D. D. Anderson, 1878-86; T. A. R. Nelson. 1886- 
94, and E. F. Mynatt, 1894-1902. 

The clerks of this court have been as follows: H. C. Tar- 
water. 1870-73: W. H. Swan, 1873-74: G. L. Maloney. 1874- 
82; W. F. Gibbs, 1882-94, and A. G. French, 1894-1902. 

ARCHIBALD ROANE, second governor of the state 
of Tennessee, and one of the early lawyers and judges of 
Knoxville. was born in Lancaster county, Pa., in 1760. He 
was a thoroughly educated man, and appears to have been 
admitted to the bar both at Jonesboro and at Greeneville 
in 1788. He was the territorial attorney-general for the 
district of Hamilton, comprising originally the counties of 
Jefferson and Knox, and he was a delegate to the consti- 
tutional convention of 1796 from Jefferson county. He was 
one of the first three judges of the superior court of the 
state, the other two being John McNairy and Willie Blount. 
In 1 80 1, John Sevier having served three consecutive terms 
as governor, the length of time permitted by the constitution, 


Archibald Roane was elected, and served one term, became 
a candidate for a second term, but was defeated by John 
Sevier. The reason for this defeat is probably to be found 
in the enmity aroused in the mind of Governor Sevier, who 
during Roane's term of office had been a candidate for the 
office of major-general of the militia of the state, against 
Andrew Jackson. The electors of the major-general were 
the field officers of the militia, but upon the vote being cast 
and counted there was a tie as between Sevier and Jackson. 
The law in this case gave the deciding vote to the governor 
of the state, who cast it in favor of Andrew Jackson. 

The casting of this deciding vote by Gov. Roane was fol- 
lowed directly by his own defeat for re-election, by the election 
of John Sevier instead, and to the subsequent career of Andrew 
Jackson, military and civil, fraught with such tremendous 
consequences to the people of the United States, with which 
all readers of American history are familiar. Archibald Roane 
was a most scholarly man, and at one time the tutor of Hugh 
Lawson White. From 181 1 to 1815 he was judge of the 
Second circuit, and in the latter year he was made one of 
the judges of the supreme court of errors and appeals, serving 
in this capacity until his death in 1818. 

According to Joshua W. Caldwell, from whose longer 
sketch of the' subject this sketch is condensed, Archibald 
Roane was, in all probability, with the exception of Haywood 
and possibly also Felix Grundy, the most cultured man of 
his time in the state. He was fond of literature, well versed 
in the classics, of affable manners, and next to Sevier in favor 
with the people, the superiority of the latter in this regard 
being because of his services in the war of the Revolution and 
in Indian wars. Among the common people courage upon 
the field of battle is more easily appreciated than mere 
scholarly attainments, and for this reason, in part, Sevier, 
the determined man of action, the partisan, the inveterate 
hand-shaker, the lavishly hospitable Sevier, defeated the 
thoughtful, careful, scrupulous scholar, Archibald Roane. 


THOMAS L. WILLIAMS, formerly a chancellor and 
also a judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, was born 
in Xorth Carolina, and came to Tennessee early in the pres- 
ent century. He was a skillful and successful lawyer, and 
in 1826 was made a judge of the supreme court, being 
appointed to a vacancy by the governor, but the legislature 
declined to permanently fill the place, thereby reducing the 
number of judges. From the time of his retirement from 
the supreme court he practiced law in Knox and adjoining 
counties until 1836, when he was elected chancellor for the 
Eastern division, and held the position until 1854, having 
been twice re-elected. He presided in nineteen counties, 
holding thirty-eight courts each year, and being absent from 
home forty weeks of the fifty-two. To all of these courts 
Judge Williams rode on horseback, there being then no 
railroads in Tennessee until the fifties, and this riding was 
over rough roads, in summer and in winter, in all kinds of 
weather, and he endured hardships which few men now. or 
even then, could have endured. And it is to this endurance 
and to the fidelity of Judge Williams that the lawyers of the 
state attribute in large measure the preservation of the 
chancery system. Judge Williams was a man of strong 
convictions and will, and, though not without prejudice, vet 
he was essentially honest and just, and he holds a prominent 
and honorable place in the judiciary of the state. His death 
occurred December 2, 1856, at Nashville, and his portrait 
hangs in the chancery court room at Knoxville. showing 
him to have been a dignified, handsome, refined looking man. 

JOHN WILLIAMS, one of the pioneer lawyers of East 
Tennessee, and later a United States senator from this state, 
was born in Surry county, N. C, January 29, 1778. That he 
was well educated in his youth appears evident from the fact 
that he was a man of culture and refinement, as well as 
strength, and he was admitted to practice law in North 
Carolina, though he did not enter upon the practice until 


he came to Tennessee, this date not being certainly known, 
but it must have been prior to 1813, as in that year he was 
commissioned colonel of the Thirty-ninth regiment United 
States infantry, and was in command of that regiment in the 
Creek war. In this sketch, for want of space, it can only be 
stated that he came out of that war with great credit, and in 
1S15 he was elected to the United States senate, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of George W. Campbell. 
At the end of this short term he was re-elected and served 
until 1823, when he was again a candidate for re-election, but 
was defeated by Andrew Jackson, the friends of Jackson hav- 
ing resolved to defeat Williams, unless he would promise to 
support Jackson for the presidency. Mr. Williams had 
already committed himself to the support of Crawford, and 
so could not comply with the demands of Jackson's friends. 
In 1825 he was appointed by President Adams minister to 
Guatemala, and after returning home he was an active pro- 
moter of the projected Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston 
railroad, which was intended to extend from the Ohio river 
through Kentucky, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, 
to the Atlantic ocean, on substantially the same route now 
in contemplation for the Black Diamond railway. From this 
time on until his death, which occurred August 10, 1837, he 
devoted his time mainly to the law, though twice after 
coming home he was elected to the state senate. 

His son, Colonel John Williams, probably the most inti- 
mate friend of Andrew Johnson, was the father of J. C. J. 
Williams, and Thomas L. Williams, both members of the 
Knoxville bar, and of Rufus W. Williams, of the New York 

HUGH LAWSON WHITE, a man remarkable for the 
high order of his mental and moral endowments, was for 
many years one of the most prominent leaders in East Ten- 
nessee. He was a son of James White, the founder of Knox- 
ville, and hence whatever pertains to his life is of unusual 


interest to the people of this city. But in this sketch, as in 
all others in this chapter, he is treated of mainly as a lawyer 
and a judge. When he was sixteen years of age, Hugh L. 
White began the study of the classics under Rev. Samuel 
Carrick, the first president of what is now the University of 
Tennessee. Occasionally he was assisted by Archibald Roane, 
who is described as a "scholar of eminence." Young White 
was in the battle of Etowah, which closed the career of Gov- 
ernor John Sevier as an Indian fighter, and in this battle he 
shot and killed the Indian leader. King Fisher, an act which, 
though committed in open and honorable warfare, yet so 
overwhelmed him with grief that he would not permit it 
to be mentioned in his presence, and he even went so far that 
he forbade Dr. Ramsey to relate it in his "Annals of Ten- 

About 1794 he went to Philadelphia to study mathematics, 
and about a year later to Lancaster, Pa., to study law. In 
1796 he began the practice of the law in Knoxville, meeting 
with almost immediate success. In 1801 he was elected a 
judge of the superior court, then the highest judiciary in the 
state. In 1807 he resigned to enter the state senate, and in 
1809 he was appointed United States district attorney, re- 
signing this office also to go into the state senate. At the 
close of his second senatorial term he was appointed a judge 
of the supreme court of errors and appeals, holding this 
office until 1815. In 1812 he was elected president of the 
Bank of Tennessee, and he retained this office until 1827, 
in the meantime having been for the third time elected to 
the state senate. In 1807 he had compiled the land laws of 
Tennessee, and in 181 7 he prepared and secured the passage 
of the first effective law against dueling in the state, doing 
more than any other man to establish the law against, and 
the public sentiment against, this barbarous custom in Ten- 
nessee. Throughout his entire career he was guided by a 
large and accurate knowledge of the essential principles of 
the law, and by a strong natural sense of justice. His most 


distinguished career was terminated by death April 10, 1S40. 
He was United States senator from 1825 to 1839, was for a 
time president pro tern., and was candidate for presidency 
of the United States in 1836. 

ROBERT J. McKINNEY, one of the great judges who 
served upon the supreme bench of the state under the con- 
stitution of 1834, was born in County Coleraine, Ireland, 
February 1, 1803. His father, Samuel McKinney, settled 
not far from the present site of Rogersville, Tenn.. and there 
young Robert J. grew up on the farm, determined to rise in 
the world. After attending school in the winter months for 
some years he then went to Greeneville College, leaving, how- 
ever, without graduating, and began the study of law in the 
office of his uncle, John A. McKinney of Rogersville, being 
admitted to practice in 1824. Settling at Greeneville, he 
there began practice, by riding the circuit, as was the custom 
in those days. In 1829 the case of Rhea vs. Rhea was tried 
at Blountville, on an issue of devisavit vel non, McKinney 
being the junior counsel for the proponents, and when the 
case was called the senior counsel was ill, and McKinney tried 
and won it, thereby establishing his reputation and securing 
a lucrative practice. He was probably the most thorough 
lawyer in the constitutional convention of 1834. 

In 1847 William B. Reese resigned his place upon the 
supreme bench, and. largely through the instrumentality of 
Return J. Meigs, Mr. McKinney was elected to the vacancv, 
his principal competitor being William Henry Sneed. He 
served continuously until' 1861. when he became one of the 
peace commissioners sent to Washington by Governor Isham 
G. Harris. After the war, when the state brought suit to 
enforce its lien against the railroads to which it had given 
aid. Judge McKinney was one of the commissioners, the 
other two being Archibald Wright and Francis B. Fogg. 
He died at his home in Knoxville, October 9. 1875. 

While he was in no respect a brilliant or showy lawyer, 


vet he was diligent, thorough, accurate and sound, and he 
had great knowledge of and admiration for the common law. 
And while as a judge his opinions lack the embellishments 
and flavor of scholarship, yet they are always definite and 
clear, and are carefully written in strong, plain English, with 
the single purpose of expounding the law. So far as the 
necessities of lawyers are concerned, they are considered 
equal to the best among those of the judges of the supreme 

CONNALLY F. TRIGG, the fourth in succession of the 
United States district judges for Tennessee., was born in 
Abingdon, Va., March 8, 1810. He entered upon the prac- 
tice of the law at Abingdon in 1833, lived there until 1856, 
when he removed to Knoxville, Tenn., bringing with him 
an excellent reputation as a professional man. This repu- 
tation he not only maintained but increased, and when the 
Civil war came upon the country he was looked upon as one 
of the ablest lawyers in Tennessee. He was great by nature 
and possessed a most attractive personalty, was kindly and 
cordial and made friends wherever he was known. Though 
a Southerner by birth, relations and sentiment, yet he clung 
to the Union with unswerving devotion, was outspoken in 
his opinions, and displayed the highest courage and most 
positive decision in laboring to prevent Tennessee trom 
seceding, and it was this course, taken at the beginning of 
the war and maintained steadily all through, that won for 
him the confidence of Union men everywhere, and secured 
for him the appointment by President Lincoln in July, 1862, 
mentioned in the beginning of this sketch. And at the close 
of the war he was the sole Federal judge in Tennessee to 
administer the penal laws of the United States. While he 
had been one of the strongest and most pronounced of Union 
men, yet when it came to a decision on the constitutionality 
of the Test Oath act, he declared it unconstitutional, and 
was the first Federal judge to so decide. He was essentially 


generous and just in his character, and in the administration 
of his high office the qualities he displayed, devoid as they 
were of malice or resentment, cannot be too highly com- 
mended. All men of all. parties he treated fairly, and the 
Confederate soldier or sympathizer, while never unduly 
favored, was always sure of justice in the court presided 
over by Judge Trigg. More than this need not be said. The 
memory of Judge Trigg is held in honor and gratitude. He 
remained upon the bench until his death, which occurred 
April 25. 1880. 

THOMAS C. LYON, formerly of the Knoxville bar. was 
born in Roane county, Tennessee. December 10. 1810, and 
was educated at the East Tennessee University under Dr. 
Charles Coffin, graduating in 1829. his graduating address 
being an original poem, which "was esteemed by the large 
audience present and the best critics of the day, a most 
excellent and creditable production." 

He has the reputation of having been an able and suc- 
cessful lawyer, and a thorough and profound jurist. He was 
an ideal lawyer, and brought honor to the profession, and 
he was frequently called upon to sit upon the supreme bench 
as a special judge, his opinions being among the best to be 
found in the state reports. He was exceedingly careful of 
the rights and feelings of others, and it is said of him that 
during a professional career of thirty years there was no 
instance of his having used a term offensive to the bench or 
to any member of the bar. 

In 1864 he left Tennessee for Richmond, Virginia, with the 
view of offering his services to the Confederate government, 
but on the way was attacked by disease, and died at Rich- 
mond, October I, 1864. 

JAMES \Y. DEADERICK was born at Jonesboro, Tenn., 
November 12. 1812. and began life by farming and keeping 
a store in Jefferson county, Tenn. After failing in business 


about 1837, because of the general financial depression of 
the times and also because of having gone surety for his 
friends to a considerable extent, he moved to Iowa, where 
he resided as Indian agent, and afterward returned to Jones- 
boro, taking up the study of the law. In 1844 he was 
admitted to the bar, and by persevering industry gradually 
rose in his profession until he achieved an honorable position. 
In the Presidential election of i860 he was a Bell and Everett 
elector for the first district, but when the state seceded he 
united his fortunes with the Confederacy and was loyal to 
that government throughout the war. In 1870. when under 
the new constitution the judiciary was reorganized, he was 
elected one of the judges of the supreme court from East 
Tennessee, and in 1878 he was re-elected, for the state at 
large. In 1876, upon the death of Judge A. O. P. Nicholson, 
he was elected chief justice of the court, and continued to 
hold that position until his retirement from the bench in 

Judge Deaderick was a good man. a good lawyer and a 
good judge, without pretense of superior learning and yet 
possessed of great learning. Upon his retirement from the 
bench in 1886 he repaired to his home in Jonesboro, and 
there died October 8. 1890. His career is illustrative of the 
value of industry, perseverance and integrity, which will 
always win for their possessor the highest position possible 
for him to attain. 

WILLIAM-HENRY SNEED. a prominent member of 
the Knoxville bar in the period immediately preceding the 
war. was born in Davidson county in 1812. and soon after 
attaining his majority began the practice of the law at Mur- 
freesboro. The high standing which he early attained he 
maintained until the end of his life. In 1843 he was elected 
to the state senate, and at the end of his term located at 
Greeneville. He had in 1839 formed a partnership with 
Judge Charles Ready, his former preceptor, this partnership 


lasting until he was elected to the senate. After locating in 
Greeneville he formed a partnership with R. J. McKinney, 
which lasted about a year, and he then removed to Knoxville, 
where he was unusually successful in practice until the be- 
ginning of the war. In 1855 he was elected to congress as 
a whig from the Knoxville district, served in that body with 
distinction and made many friends. At the beginning of the 
war he was a strong Union man, but said that his conduct 
with regard to secession would be governed by the action of 
the state. When Tennessee seceded, he gave his adherence 
to the Confederate cause. When Burnside occupied Knox- 
ville, he moved his family to Virginia, remaining there until 
after the surrender of Lee. As soon as conditions would 
permit he returned to Knoxville. residing here until the 
time of his death in 1869. 

As a lawyer Mr. Sneed was unusually successful, excelling 
especially as a chancery pleader and practitioner. There is 
no question that he was one of the most painstaking, laborious 
and able lawyers of his time in Tennessee, and he was of 
great force of character, of high social standing and one of 
the most popular men in the state. His son, Joseph W. 
Sneed, is judge of the circuit court of Knox county. 

HORACE MAYNARD, one of the most brilliant of 
orators, one of the ablest of lawyers, and one of the best of 
men, was born at Westborough, Mass., August 30, 1814. 
and graduated at Amherst college in 1838. During that 
same year he came to Knoxville, Tenn., and began the study 
of law in the office of Judge Ebenezer Alexander, at the same 
time being made tutor in East Tennessee university, and 
afterward professor of mathematics. Having been connected 
with the university six years he then began the practice of 
the law. His means being quite limited he walked the circuit, 
while other lawyers rode. But he had industry, the first 
requisite in law as in everything, and was not long in making 
himself known and felt. While the bar of East Tennessee 


at that time contained many lawyers of learning and culture, 
yet Horace Maynard was easily the best read man of them 

A story is told that at one time the Knoxville lawyers in 
going to court at Clinton found the Clinch river so swollen 
that it could be crossed only by swimming. Maynard plunged 
boldly in and swam across, when the other lawyers told him 
to attend to their cases, and returned home. From that time 
on, the story continues, the cases being well attended to, the 
clients all went to Maynard. As an advocate he was a bril- 
liant and logical speaker, but at times very sarcastic and 
severe, yet he was at heart one of the kindest of men. He was 
always regarded, even by his most bitter political antagonists, 
as a sincere and honest man. A story is told of him that on 
one occasion a certain prominent Tennessee politician ap- 
proached him with the suggestion which involved improper 
rewards. Mr. Maynard took down a copy of the United 
States statutes, and read to his auditor again and again the 
law on the offering of bribes to congressmen, at each read- 
ing emphasizing a different word in order that the full effect 
of the. statute might be felt. The visitor was thus given every 
opportunity for becoming familiar with the law on bribery. 
and is said to have ultimately retired in confusion. 

While his speeches always seemed far above his audience 
yet they were always appreciated by even the common people, 
and with the possible exception of Judge T. A. R. Nelson he 
was the most popular public speaker in East Tennessee. As 
a man, however, he was rather admired and respected than 
popular, for in manner he was austere and cold except to 
personal and intimate friends, who alone were able to know 
and to appreciate his real worth. In 1875, after having 
served sixteen years in congress, he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Grant minister to Turkey, and there served until 1880. 
when he was recalled by President Hayes and made post- 
master-general. This was his last public office, and he died 
at Knoxville, May 3, 1882. 


THOMAS A. R. NELSON, one of the most distinguished 
men in the history of Tennessee, was born in Roane county, 
Tenn., in 1812, and graduated at East Tennessee College, 
now the Univer